Cover Image
close this bookEssays on Food, Hunger, Nutrition, Primary Health Care and Development (AVIVA, 480 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbout the Author
close this folder1. The Causes of Hunger and Malnutrition: Macro and Micro Determinants
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentMacro and micro causes of malnutrition
View the documentDiagnosing the causes of hunger and malnutrition
View the documentProposing solutions
View the documentThe role of ideology (4)(5)
View the documentA critical look at nutrition planning
View the documentWorking with the community
View the documentReferences
close this folder2. Technical, Ethical and Ideological Responsibilities in Nutrition
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentScience: Its political, ideological and ethical implications
View the documentThe scientist as a promoter of status quo or social change
View the documentEconomic power, political power and poverty
View the documentWhere do liberal food and nutrition workers stand?
View the documentA critical look at our profession and ourselves
View the documentThe future challenge
View the documentReferences
close this folder3. De-Westernizing Health Planning and Health Care Delivery: A Political Perspective1
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentUnderstanding the roots of the problem: Western medicine and its hierarchy:
View the documentThe participation issue:
View the documentDecentralization
View the documentSteps towards de-westernization:
View the documentNotes
View the documentReferences
View the document4. Book Review: Susan George. A Fate Worse Than Debt: A radical new analysis of the Third World debt crisis (Or, the world financial crisis and the poor)
close this folder5. Viewpoint - Ethics, Ideology and Nutrition
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEthos
View the documentIdeology
View the documentLiberals
View the documentRadicals
View the documentPolitical naivete?
View the documentSocial consciousness
View the documentWhat can I do?
View the documentTool
View the documentEstablish links
View the documentReferences:
close this folder6. Ethics And Ideology in the Battle Against Malnutrition
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHow is our ethos formed?
View the documentHow is ideology formed?
View the documentLiberals and radicals - a typology
View the documentHow relevant is our work?
View the documentAre we politically naif?
View the documentAre we afraid of speaking-up in political terms?
View the documentNutritionists in the third world
View the documentA new direction? - Some possible conclusions
View the documentAn attempt to know who we are
View the documentReferences
close this folder7. The Challenge of Feeding the People: Chile under Allende and Tanzania under Nyerere
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbstract
View the documentThe conceptualization of malnutrition as a problem and its effects on nutrition policy formulation: A review of the literature
View the documentThe challenge of feeding the people: How it has been addressed
View the documentNutrition intervention in Chile and Tanzania: Two perspectives of a shared commitment
View the documentTanzania and Chile: A review in perspective
View the documentReferences
close this folder8. The Role of Health and Nutrition in Development (Le Rôle de la Santé et de la Nutrition dans le Développement - El Papel de la Salud Y la Nutrición en El Desarrollo)
View the documentAbstract - Résumé - Resumen
View the documentThe role of health and nutrition in development
View the documentCapacity of the current system to alleviate hunger and malnutrition.
close this folder9. Multidisciplinarity, Paradigms and Ideology in Development Work
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSetting the focus:
View the documentAn attempt to define the concepts:
View the documentA development paradigm?
View the documentMultidisciplinarity:
View the documentThe role of conceptual frameworks:
View the documentIdeology:
View the documentEthos and norms:
View the documentConflicts in the terminology?:
View the documentSubjectivity of the sciences:
View the documentThe social and the classical sciences in development work:
View the documentScience and its environment - The real world around us:
View the documentDoes a universality and pluralism of theories exist that makes multidisciplinary work realistic?:
View the documentTranscending narrow paradigms:
View the documentCrisis - The battle of the paradigms:
View the documentThe dilemmas in choosing a new paradigm:
View the documentWho are the real innovators?:
View the documentTackling the basic causes of maldevelopment:
View the documentA critical look at what we do:
View the documentThe limits of traditional development project evaluation:
View the document“We should” - Our inherent obligations and the challenges ahead:
View the documentConclusions:
View the documentAcknowledgements:
View the documentReferences:
View the document10. Survey on Attitudes to Nutrition Planning
close this folder11. “Household Purchasing-Power Deficit” - A More Operational Indicator to Express Malnutrition
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe indicator
View the documentUses and potential abuses of the proposed indicator
View the documentIncome generation
View the documentIncome redistribution
View the documentFood consumption subsidies - Rationing system
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
close this folder12. Foreign Aid and its Role in Maintaining the Exploitation of the Agricultural Sector: Evidence from a Case Study in Africa
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEvidence of the exploitation: A preamble and five exhibits
View the documentSources, uses, and sectoral distribution of foreign aid: A preamble and four exhibits
View the documentPutting it all together: A final balance sheet
View the documentPostscript
View the documentReferences
View the document13. Low School Performance: Malnutrition or Cultural Deprivation?
View the document14. Hunger and Malnutrition: Outlook for Changes in the Third World*
close this folder15. Viewpoint: Nutrition Planning - What Relevance to Hunger?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe general issues
View the documentNorth-South conflict
View the documentThe response of the rich
View the documentAid and funding agencies
View the documentThe international bureaucracy
View the documentThe basic questions
View the documentThe planners and the people
View the documentResearch
View the documentA third world perspective
View the document16. Rosalia
close this folder17. The Political Economy of Ill Health and Malnutrition
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe situation: The macro and micro levels.
View the documentThe actors : institutions, social groups and individuals
View the documentThe methods and solutions:
View the documentEpilog:
View the documentReferences
close this folder18. Commentary - The Markets of Hunger: Questioning Food Aid (Non-Emergency/Long-Term)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe politics of food aid: in the donor countries - in the recipient countries
View the documentNot just any kind of aid
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentReferences
close this folder19. Activism to Face World Hunger: Exploring New Needed Commitments
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe problem(s) of hunger and its (their) solutions
View the documentLooking at ourselves and the other actors in the battle against hunger and malnutrition. (individuals, institutions and social groups)
View the documentOrganizing ourselves and others
View the documentKeeping our eyes open and constantly learning more about the issues at stake
View the documentSpeaking up!
close this folder20. The Child Survival Revolution: A Critique - or Health Still Only for Some by the Year 2000?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbstract
View the documentBackground
View the documentThe key questions
View the documentDo people really have choices?
View the documentA critical look at GOBI and the Child Survival Revolution
View the documentThe efficacy of GOBI
View the documentThe implementation of GOBI
View the documentReferences
close this folder21. Development Nemesis
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderPart One: Development and today's reality
View the documentAbstract
View the documentIntroduction:
close this folderSection I. Western development: Past and present
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1. A critique of outdated development theories and praxis
View the document1.2. Third World development as seen by the North
View the document1.3. The oversold technological approach in Western development
close this folderSection II. Myth and reality in development ideology, paradigms and models
View the document2.1. Ideology and development models
View the document2.2. Paradigms and new theories
View the document2.3. The irrelevance of current development studies
View the document2.4. The myth of objectivity and of apoliticism
View the document2.5. The issue of social power
View the documentEpilogue:
close this folderPart Two: The actors and the future of development - The era of empowerment
View the documentAbstract
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderSection III : The actors in today's development drama (Or rather farce?)
View the document3.1. From liberals to progressives: a typology of modern-day secular missionaries in development work.
View the document3.2. What liberals need to - the normative dimension
close this folderSection IV: The non-actors in today's development
View the document4.1. Issues on participation:
View the document4.2. Participation: the future
close this folderSection V: Development: The future
View the document(introduction...)
View the document5.1. What is needed to overcome stale third world development policies: A fresh (or not so fresh...) set of prescriptions.
View the documentEpilogue:
View the documentBiographical note
View the document22. Looking Beyond the Doable: Resolutions for a New Development Decade
close this folder23. Egos/ Alter Egos of the Main Actors in Development Projects:
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhy projects don't work
View the documentThe ''expert'':
View the documentThe consultancy's management:
View the documentThe donor agency officer:
View the documentThe civil servant:
close this folder24. Positive Deviance in Child Nutrition: a Discussion
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPositive deviance in context. Positive Deviance: The difference between coping and adapting
View the documentPositive Deviance in situations of failure to thrive as opposed to situations of hunger and malnutrition
View the documentPositive Deviance and Poverty
View the documentGaining weight by behaving in a positively deviant manner
View the documentWhat is behind positive deviant attitudes?
View the documentConclusion
View the documentReferences
View the document25. The Project Approach in Development Assistance
View the document26. Triage Management in Third World Health Ministries
close this folder27. On Behalf of the African Child: Challenges and Windows of Opportunity for the Donor Community.*
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTHE NINE PANELS
View the documentPANEL No. 1: The empowerment factor
View the documentPANEL No. 2: A national commitment to health and nutrition: Does everything start with a sound causal analysis?
View the documentPANEL No. 3 : Breaking out of the poverty cycle
View the documentPANEL No. 4 : An enhanced role for the caring of children
View the documentPANEL No. 5 : The right to know
View the documentPANEL No. 6 : The population/PHC/nutrition link
View the documentPANEL No. 7 : Never be sorry to be too late
View the documentPANEL No. 8 : Pressures imposed to address the economy: Do the people matter?
View the documentPANEL No. 9 : Other factors to reckon with in the 90s
View the document28. The Household Entitlements Revolution or a Women-Centered Approach to Family Security
View the document29. Brave New World: A Political Pendulum in Search of its Balance
close this folder30. Malnutrition and Income: Are We Being Misled? (A Dissenting View with a Confusing Literature)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe issue of malnutrition and income as presented in the literature:
View the documentThe thesis: (A counter-argument)
View the documentWhat to do then?:
View the documentReferences
View the document31. A Path for the 1990s?: Government-Donor Partnership to Finance PHC in the Third World
close this folder32. Downsizing the Civil Service in Developing Countries: The Golden Handshake Option Revisited.
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction: Setting the empirical and conceptual scene:
View the documentWhy downsize?:
View the documentWhy a golden handshake?:
View the documentPossible new approaches and their limitations: How much to downsize?: Determining the magnitude of the downsizing
View the documentHow to downsize?: To set preconditions or not to set
View the documentWhat to do with the wages saved from downsizing?
View the documentThe Kenya example
View the documentThe golden handshake: A grant or a loan to departing civil servants?
View the documentTo give incentives or to dismiss
View the documentOther implementation issues: Alternatives on how to set up the payment system for the golden handshake:
View the documentHow to redeploy public servants to the private sector?
View the documentConclusions:
View the documentReferences:
close this folder33. The World Declaration on Nutrition and the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition (ICN) Plan of Action: The Cutting Edge of Conventional Thinking.*
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentDo international conferences solve world problems?
View the documentDo international declarations change the course of history?
View the documentDo international conferences overlap in their purposes?
View the documentDo international conferences bring out the best in the process of their preparation?
View the documentWhere are we left after ICN?
View the document34. Income Generation Activities for Women, the Ninth Essential Element of Primary Health Care? An Idea Whose Time has Come!
View the document35. Some Reflections on ACC/SCN's 'How Nutrition Improves'
View the document36. Nutritional Goals for the Mid-Nineties: A Call for Advocacy and Action
close this folder37. A. The Emerging Sustainable Development Paradigm: A Global Forum on the Cutting Edge of Progressive Thinking
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentA development paradigm in need of replacement:
View the documentWindows of opportunity to take advantage of: (Normative aspects)
View the documentThe three pillars of an emerging sustainable development paradigm:
View the documentGetting from the old to the new paradigm: The time for consolidating a transition is now!
View the documentReevaluating the major development objectives in the late-nineties: Should social gains justify economic sacrifice?
View the documentReferences:
close this folder37. B. Sustainable Development beyond Ethical Pronouncements: the Role of Civil Society and Networking
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe context:
View the documentThe background:
View the documentWhat commitments are needed beyond ethics?: From the normative to the operational in sustainable development
View the documentThe primarily ethics-led process to sustainable development
View the documentThe primarily politically-led process to sustainable development
View the documentNetworking
View the documentLeadership
View the documentReferences
View the document38. Foreign Aid: Giving Conditionalities a Good Name or Conditionalities: the Launching of a South-South Counter-Offensive
close this folder39. The Community Development Dilemma: when are Service Delivery, Capacity Building, Advocacy and Social Mobilisation really Empowering?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentService delivery:
View the documentCapacity building:
View the documentAdvocacy:
View the documentSocial mobilisation:
View the document40. Development in the Mid 1990s: Reflections of an Old Socialist
View the document41. Book Review: Questioning the solution -The politics of primary health care and child survival with an in-depth critique of oral rehydration therapy
View the document42. Equity In Health and Nutrition and the Globalization of the World's Economy
View the document43. A. Different Challenges in Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies and Combating Protein Energy Malnutrition, or the Gap Between Nutrition Engineers and Nutrition Activists
View the document43. B. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Protein-Energy Malnutrition
close this folder44. Northern-Led Development: is it Selling Technical Fixes to Solve the Problems of Ill-Health and Malnutrition?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe foreign aid scenario under a technical fix approach
View the documentEndnote:
View the document45. Actions and Activism in Fostering Genuine Grassroots Participation in Health and Nutrition
close this folder46. Health, Nutrition and Sustainable Development.
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe need for a more critical and visionary attitude
View the documentEndnote:
View the documentPostscript:
View the documentReferences:
View the document47. New Perspectives, Old Risks: our Need to Change and to Reconceptualize or Reemphasizing the Need to Tackle the Causes of Poverty in the Battle against Ill-Health and Malnutrition
View the document48. Health Sector Reform Measures: Are they Working?... And where do we go from here?
View the document49. On Development, the Real World, Power Games and the Ugly Faces of Greed (Food for thought about a state of mind).
View the document50. So What... in Search of the 'Big Picture' in Development (Food for a depressive thought)
close this folder51. Can Significantly Greater Equity be Achieved through Targeting?: An Essay on Poverty, Equity and Targeting in Health and Nutrition. (*) (Food for a targetter's thought)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPoverty, equity and social justice:
View the documentEquity and health for all:
View the documentEquity, structural adjustment and safety nets for the poor:
View the documentWho are the poor and how do we find them?:
View the documentEquity and the public/private allocation of resources:
View the documentAvenues and dead-end streets to equity:
View the documentEquity and targetry: (**)
View the documentEquity and participation:
View the documentEquity and prepayment schemes:
View the documentEquity and social security:
View the documentWhere to go from here?
close this folder52. Globalization, or the Fable of the Mongoose and the Snake (Fableous food for thought)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentGlobalization and its negative consequences:
View the documentA dearth of workable solutions?
View the documentThe Equity/Equality approach:
View the documentThe Human Rights approach:
View the documentBolder steps are needed:
View the documentThree caveats:
View the documentIn closing:
View the documentReferences:
View the document53. Elements for a Nutrition Activism Course and Curriculum*
View the document54. The Role of Human Rights in Politicizing Development Ethics, Development Assistance and Development Praxis
View the document55. A Letter to the Student Erica who is Planning to Specialize in International Nutrition
View the document56. Food for a Capitalist thought - Book Review - The Lugano Report: On Preserving Capitalism in the Twenty-First Century
View the document57. Food for Finding where Your Thoughts Are - Variations on a Theme by the Chilean Writer Isabel Allende
View the document58. Remembering
View the document59. Letter to The Lancet - Draft 2 IMCI: An Initiative in Need of a New Name, a Greater Community-Centered Focus, and a Grassroots Mandate
View the document60. Food for Planning the Right Human Thoughts - Human Rights Based Planning: The New Approach
View the document61. Food for an Ombudsman's Thought - On Health Sector Reform, Health and Poverty and Other Herbs
close this folder62. What does the New UN Human Rights Approach Bring to the Struggle of the Poor?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWe live in a new age of rights
View the documentThe Challenge: what changes?
View the documentThe Human Rights approach: Some Iron Laws
View the documentThe participation factor in Human Rights
View the documentThe use of indicators in Human Rights work
View the documentThe World Bank, or a position full of contradictions on how to look at the Human Rights approach
View the documentHuman Rights from the United Nations’ and the NGOs’ perspective
View the documentWriting Human Rights into law
View the documentTraining in Human Rights
View the documentSome conclusions
View the document63. Food for a Poor Thought on Health and Poverty - Health a Precious Asset, But Not ‘A New and Potentially Powerful Exit Route from Poverty’
View the document64. Food for a Poor Thought on Attacking Poverty - The WB’s World Development Report 2000/2001 or the Trivialization of the Concept of “Empowerment”
View the document65. Human Rights or the Importance of Being Earnest: A Personal Account
View the document66. AID and Reform in Africa: Lessons from Ten Case Studies, Final Report
View the document67. Food for Thought About a State of Mind (2) - On Morality, Freedom, Choices, Justice and the Need for People’s Power
View the document68. Thinking Loud - On Statistics*
close this folder69. A Reader in Human Rights (1) - The Short Papers Here Collected are Part of an Ongoing Series the Author Irregularly Submits to About a Half Dozen E-Mail List Servers
View the documentHRR24 - Food for NGOs Thoughts
View the documentHRR25 - Food for Donors Thoughts
View the documentHRR26 - Caveat Emptor
View the documentHRR27 - Development and Rights: The Undeniable Nexus
View the documentHRR28 - On the Role of the State, the UN and Civil Society
View the documentHRR29 - On Vulnerability, Access and Discrimination*
View the documentHRR30 - Potpurri
close this folder70. Aiming at the Target: What’s Left for the Devil to Advocate?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe big hype:
View the documentThe outcome-process riddle:
View the documentBeing realistic:
View the documentOn convergence:
View the documentThe Human Rights twist:
View the documentThe equity factor:
View the documentOn accusations of dependency and top-down implementation:
View the documentDonors (and we ourselves) touch some projects more than others:
View the documentThe poverty alleviation connection:

The context:

Analyses of success factors in development projects worldwide are repeatedly showing that the proactive participation of civil society in such projects plays a make-or-brake role in their ultimate sustainable impact. Currently, the main obstacle to such a proactive participation of civil society in development is political. It is thus not far-fetched to say that the ruling development paradigm has gotten to a dead-end, primarily because it has ignored turning-on civil society's potentials. And this is clearly one of the main political flaws in the ruling paradigm. Giving a protagonist role to civil society in sustainable development is thus one of the main challenges we all face.

Which then are the groups one can rightly call members of such civil society?

Others have attempted to taxonomically clarify this for us:

Civil society is to be understood as organizations without direct access to the established political power, and who are working towards a shared vision of a more just and equitable society and development process. Civil society is, therefore, a much broader, more complex and richer concept than NGO; civil society is not controlled by government, but accepts the role of the state; it aims at preparing communities for participation in the political process exerting their right to co-governance. Tolerance towards others and a sense of belonging -of having a common identity- are further characteristics of this civil society. It is said that their main role is to mobilize people and to open political and civic space in which they can operate at an advantage; their accountability is to their constituency only. (Roper Renshaw, 1994).

At least two key questions are raised by such a definition: First, where do organized community groups draw their mandates from (and how do they claim to get these mandates)?, and second, what kind of, capacity building, advocacy, social mobilization and empowerment of beneficiaries do they more precisely get engaged in? Unfortunately, much of the responses to these questions is in the eye of the beholder. (Schuftan, 1996). There certainly are many kinds of these groups with different purposes and serving different constituencies (or claiming to do so); many of them are 'single issue' (AIDS, pro-abortion, pro-environment, etc.) others have wider development scopes of action.

To start with a minimum-consensus-package to build upon, we can most probably agree that our universal common denominators in development work are only three. We all (presumably) depart:

- from a given science (which tells us what can be done),

- from a given ethics (that tells us what ought to be done), and

- from a given political stance (that tells us what must -or must not- be done, how, with whom and against whom it could best be done, followed by actually getting involved in doing it). (Jonsson, 1994)

Most of us will agree that science can be more absolute than ethics or politics.

Science, ethics and politics actually come together in conceptual frameworks that depict the different levels of causes of underdevelopment (or of ill-health or malnutrition for that matter). Such conceptual frameworks need to be shared in order for development practitioners to be able to agree on what can, ought to and must be done in a given historical context. ('No common understanding, no agreement on action'). (Schuftan, 1982; UNICEF, 1990)

Agreeing on the science in development work is less frequently a problem. Agreeing on the ethics has come a long way in the short history of sustainable development. But agreeing on the politics -beyond ethical pronouncements- is the real challenge if what ought to be done is to get done the way the actual beneficiaries of development see it most fit.

Finding such a unifying core for these civil society organizations in the political realm is what this paper is mostly about. (Creating a new historical reality is a political act, especially if it is about involving development beneficiaries as protagonists). The paper, therefore, suggests some strategies deemed necessary to follow to achieve a strong social and political mobilization for sustainable development.