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close this bookInvestigating Bilingual Literacy: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia - Education research paper No. 24 (DFID, 1998, 99 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentDepartment for International Development - Education Papers
View the documentList of other DFID education papers available in this series
View the documentOther DFID education studies also available
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folder1 Introduction
View the document1.1 Reading and English in education
View the document1.2 Reading and second language learning
View the document1.3 Outline of research
close this folder2 Background: Malawi and Zambia
View the document2.1 General
View the document2.2 Linguistic background
close this folder2.3 Educational background
View the document2.3.1 Zambia
View the document2.3.2 Malawi
View the document2.3.3 Teacher training
close this folder3 Teaching reading in Malawi and Zambia
View the document3.1 Initial reading in Zambia
View the document3.2 Initial reading in Malawi
View the document3.3 Beyond initial reading
close this folder3.4 Reports on reading lessons observed
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.4.1 Malawi
View the document3.4.2 Zambia
View the document3.5 Observations on lessons
close this folder4 Reading research: 1992
close this folder4.1 Description
View the document4.1.1 Aims
View the document4.1.2 Test methods
View the document4.1.3 Schools and year levels
View the document4.1.4 The testees
close this folder4.2 Results of English test
View the document4.2.1 General
View the document4.2.2 Comments on general English test results
View the document4.2.3 School year
View the document4.2.4 Gender effects
View the document4.2.5 Location effects
View the document4.2.6 Gender and location effects
close this folder4.3 Results of local language tests
View the document4.3.1 Mean scores by year
View the document4.3.2 Pupils from different language backgrounds
View the document4.3.3 Correlations of English and local language results
close this folder5 The 1994 research
close this folder5.1 Description
View the document5.1.1 Aims
View the document5.1.2 Methods
View the document5.1.3 Schools and testees
View the document5.1.4 Administration
close this folder5.2 Results of the English reading test
View the document5.2.1 General
View the document5.2.2 Overall means
View the document5.2.3 Location (urban/rural)
View the document5.2.4 Gender
View the document5.2.5 Location and gender
close this folder5.3 Results of the local language reading tests
View the document5.3.1 Overall results
View the document5.3.2 Malawian pupils results on Zambian test
View the document5.3.3 Location and sex in local language 1994 results
View the document5.3.4 Testees from non-Chichewa or non-Nyanja speaking homes
View the document5.3.5 Comparison of English and Chichewa 1994 results
View the document5.3.6 Gender and location discrimination of English tests
close this folder6 Individual reading sessions
View the document6.1 Structured interviews and individual reading sessions
View the document6.2 The subjects
View the document6.3 Selection of issues for interviews
close this folder6.4 Findings from interviews
View the document6.4.1 Age of starting
View the document6.4.2 Pupil absences
View the document6.4.3 Preferred language for reading
View the document6.4.4 Family socio-economic status
View the document6.4.5 Family composition
View the document6.4.6 Literacy in the home
View the document6.4.7 Books per household
View the document6.4.8 Preferences in text types
close this folder7 Individual reading sessions
View the document7.1 General description
View the document7.2 The English reading passage
close this folder7.3 Findings of individual English reading investigation
View the document7.3.1 Understanding the gist of the text
View the document7.3.2 Direct reference questions
View the document7.3.3 Inference questions
View the document7.3.4 Difficulties in the text reported by pupils
View the document7.3.5 Guessing based on the appearance of words
View the document7.3.6 Use of context
View the document7.3.7 Inferencing word meaning from world knowledge
View the document7.4 The local languages reading passage
View the document7.5 Findings of individual Malawian reading sessions
View the document7.6 Findings of individual Zambian reading sessions
close this folder8 Discussion
View the document8.1 Main findings
View the document8.2 Standard and non-standard Nyanja in Zambia
View the document8.3 Accounting for local language differences
View the document8.4 Implications of findings for learning in English across the curriculum
close this folder8.5 Possibilities for improvement in education and reading
View the document8.5.1 Improving English reading
View the document8.5.2 Rethinking the role of English?
View the document8.6 Conclusion
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix A - Approaches to teaching initial reading
View the documentAppendix B - Transcript of two lessons
View the documentAppendix C - Texts for two lessons
View the documentAppendix D - Extracts from English ''word find'' reading test, 1992
View the documentAppendix E - Extracts from Chichewa and Nyanja reading tests 1992
View the documentAppendix F - Extracts from English reading test, 1994
View the documentAppendix G - Extracts from Chichewa and Nyanja tests, 1994
View the documentAppendix H - Histograms of 1994 test results
View the documentAppendix I - Text for Chichewa/Nyanja individual reading

Appendix I - Text for Chichewa/Nyanja individual reading

Mfumu Mitulo atacoka pamudzi paja nyakwawa Kameta ndi anthu ake pamodzi ndi ena ocokera m'midzi yozungulira, anagundika nayo nchito youmba ncherwa zomangira sukulu.

Azimai ndiwo amabweretsa madzi ndi udzu wophimba pancherwa, pamene anyamata anali kuthamanga ndi zikombole. Azibambo ndiwo anali m'nkhando kumaponda dothi. Panthawiyi amuna ena anali kudula nkhuni zodzatenthera ncherwa.

Ncherwa zittakonzedwa, nyakwawa Kameta anauza Bambo Jamu omwe amadziwa kamangidwe ke nyumba za ncherwa kuti akayambeko kukumba maziko a sukulu.