|GATE - 3/87 - Promotion of Woman (GTZ GATE, 1987, 48 p.)|
The Promotion of Women in Technical Cooperation
In 1980 the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) appointed an "Officer for Women's Affairs" who was entrusted with the task of coordinating activities designed to improve conditions for women. This encompasses all measures which are directly designed to improve conditions for women in their roles as housewives and mothers and as producers, thus striving for a greater degree of social self-determination and greater participation in politics.
The GTZ regards the promotion of women as a sector-overlapping task which has to be included in all German Technical Cooperation projects and programmes, by means of an integrated approach.
Owing to the fact that there has so far been hardly any promotion of women in practice, little knowledge or experience has been gathered concerning successful approaches and particular procedures. Specific pilot projects for women are therefore being implemented to promote and develop concepts where the focus is on women.
Therefore, the promotion of women does not form a strictly limited autonomous sector, but aims at integrating women into all sectors of Technical Cooperation by appropriate measures. It is only within the strict confines of pilot projects that the promotion of women may be considered a separate sector.
In view of the fact that, hitherto, the key role of women within the development process has not been adequately taken into account, the GTZ published a statement of principles in July 1986, entitled "Technical Cooperation and Promotion of Women - Present Situation, Objectives, Concepts and Instruments".
In this paper three basic tenets of development policy are given special emphasis, namely:
· that women should be explicitly designated as a target group;
· that the promotion of women should be an explicit aim;
· that their decisions concerning measures affecting them should be respected and their participation in all measures should be guaranteed.
In order to intensify the incorporation of women in all Technical Cooperation projects, the Officer for Women's Affairs of the GTZ is concentrating on a number of fields:
1) Efforts are being concentrated on cooperation in critical areas, selecting and developing projects, and developing concepts.
2) Within the procedures for planning and monitoring projects, there are at least two "critical areas" within which it must be ensured that women's interests are adequately taken into consideration.
· the forms of project evaluation, implementation and progress control;
· the guidelines for consultants and appraisers.
3) While it is necessary to set new goals and make recommendations through the administrative process, this is not sufficient to ensure that they are actually rather than merely formally adopted. For this, the knowledge, the motivation and the personal attitudes of people and their personal involvement in active implementation have to be relied upon. This is especially true for measures to improve conditions for women, where both project planners and implementers should increasingly be made aware of the problems involved.
4) Five GTZ pilot projects exploring new approaches to the promotion of women are under way: in Burkina Faso, the Sudan, Burundi and Malawi, plus a supranational one. The emphasis in these projects is on training courses for women in agricultural and craft production, consulting and assistance work, developing and disseminating techniques designed to alleviate and minimize the workload of women, providing credits and promoting self-help activities.
It is to be hoped that all these approaches will help to bring about a breakthrough in the promotion of women on a broad front.