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close this bookStrategies and Methods for Teaching Values in the Context of Science and Technology (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 61 p.)
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter One: Synthesis of Country Papers: 'Trends and Issues'
View the documentChapter Two: Concept Identification and Formation of Values Through Teaching of Science
View the documentChapter Three: Approaches for Facilitating Values Formation
View the documentChapter Four: Evaluation of Values
View the documentChapter Five: Recommendations
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Chapter One: Synthesis of Country Papers: 'Trends and Issues'

This chapter presents a synthesis of country papers presented by the participants. It includes the objectives and content, strategies for teaching-learning, methods of evaluation, and the development process in teaching values in the context of science and technology. From the country presentations and academic papers, the emerging trends and issues have been identified.

BHUTAN

Introduction

Notwithstanding the existing aspects of values and ethics education developed over a period of time and practiced at individual school levels in the Kingdom of Bhutan, there are no detailed analyses of what constitutes value education. Values education is implicit rather than explicit in the Bhutanese context.

The schools, through dedicated and loyal teachers, have an important role to play in helping children to understand the world they live in and preparing them for adult life and work. Lee Department of Education attaches considerable importance to science education and to the constant effort to inculcate in Bhutanese children traditional values and ethics so that he/she grows to be a dedicated, loyal, and industrious citizen in the highest of Bhutanese traditional virtues not forgetting to use science and technology as a tool or key to the development of the individual and the country.

Objectives and Content

While values/ethics education in the scientific and technological fields is yet to be tried out explicitly, the objectives of science education are as follows:

a) Science cannot offer an adequate explanation of one's world, so science education needs to be related to other areas of the curriculum;

b) Future citizens should know the practical application of science and technology and the ways they are changing society and economy;

c) Future citizens should explore some of the moral dilemmas that scientific and technological developments can cause; and

d) Science education should explore the social and historical context of scientific discoveries.

In the statements of attitude education the intentions are explicit. Adaptability, commitment, cooperation, reliability, self-confidence, self-discipline, perseverance, tolerance, empathy, providing consideration to others, curiosity, honesty, integrity etc. are expected to be encouraged in science lessons during the learning process.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

The science curriculum, along with other curricula, helps to develop a complex of attitudes and behaviours based on implicit values and ethics, such as valuing, caring, being responsible, making decisions and taking action, core values of responsible adulthood. These are integrated with traditional values since Bhutanese people have inherited a rich and unique value system from elders, whose basic tenets include some of the special importance to the education system, particularly love for and admiration of nature and people.

Methods of Evaluation

The science curriculum coupled with the inherent values can be evaluated by spot judgement of teachers of the ways a student behaves while performing a particular activity and how the behaviour expected is exhibited. The teacher summarizes the values attached to the lesson/topic and records the student's achievement through continuous assessment.

CHINA

Objectives and Content

Ethics/moral education is highly valued in China. Relevant policies and regulations were made by the government. The syllabus/teaching programmes and textbooks reflect those policies and regulations.

The Government Policies:

a) The education policy must enable everyone who receives an education to develop morally, intellectually and physically.

b) In primary schools students need to be educated on five «loves», love for motherland, love for people, love for work, love for science, love for socialist system and to foster the students' good values and cultivate their good behaviour.

c) In secondary schools the stress is on patriotism, humanitarianism, responsibility to society, meaning of life, etc.

d) Some detailed rules and regulations have been laid down by the State Education Commission and authorities at all levels.

In the Teaching Programmes

In the teaching programmes of all the science subjects, there are stipulations about ethics/moral education. They are concentrated mainly on dialectical materialism, practical and realistic points of view, scientific approach, environmental awareness, patriotism, etc.

In the Textbooks

The textbooks are developed according to the teaching programmes, and contain materials for ethics/moral education, in particular, loving science; scientific approach; patriotism; scientific point of view on the natural world; and international and global consciousness.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

The strategies for teaching-learning are such that they exert an imperceptible influence on students' thinking; use elicitation method, inspire the students; suit the students' age, physiology and psychology, and pay attention to teacher training.

Evaluation

Practical results are emphasized. The results of value teaching will be indicated by the behaviour of the students. Teachers always set some demands on the students' behaviour. The evaluation itself can cultivate good habits of action among the students.

INDIA

Values education is stressed in the educational system and concerns for it and its aims are reflected in the reports of different National Level Commissions, and committees.

Objectives and Content

Objectives

The objectives in teaching values are:

a) to provide a realistic and broad-based understanding of human values and to educate/train students to become responsible citizens in their personal and social lives;

b) to develop and promote among students, values such as truth, humility, honesty, perseverance, cooperation, love, compassion, peace, non-violence, courage, equality, duty, morality, kindness, piety and righteousness, dignity of labour, concern for others and a small family norm;

c) to enable students to understand, appreciate, uphold, protect and promote the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India and the national goals of egalitarianism, socialism secularism and democracy besides imbibing values enshrined in the Indian Constitution;

d) to protect, preserve and conserve the natural and cultural environment and to make judicious use of natural resources;

e) to develop scientific temper and spirit of scientific inquiry and capacity for independent and original thinking;

f) to understand, appreciate, promote and use knowledge of Science and Technology for enhancing productivity and human happiness;

g) to safeguard public property, remove social barriers and renounce the practice of violence, cheating, corruption and destructive tendencies;

h) to sharpen the intellect, build character and self-discipline essential for creative pursuits in science and technology;

i) to offer science education conducive to the development of physical, intellectual, moral, social, spiritual and economic aspects of life; and

j) to enable students to distinguish between good and bad, right and wrong and acquire intellectual wisdom and disposition to do what is ethically correct and good.

Content

Moral education is taught frequently as a separate subject.

There is, however a growing trend to regard all teachers as teachers of Value Oriented Education and all school subjects and activities as lending themselves to the formation of values. The correlation of values with science teaching has been attempted to an appreciable extent. However, Value Oriented Science Education (VOSE) requires much more intensive efforts.

Strategies for Learning-Teaching

Two basic approaches - direct and indirect (curricular and noncurricular) are discernible. The direct (curricular) approach includes the isolated subject approach and the integrated subject approach. The trend is towards integrating values with all school subjects. The indirect approaches supplement the efforts made through direct approaches. The importance of science clubs, exhibitions, museums, quiz programmes, field trips etc. are stressed. Institutional climate, training (both pre-service and in-service) and commitment, availability of instructional materials, community involvement and a host of other factors determine success. Multiple strategies have to be developed and used through multimedia approaches. The methodologies/strategies/activities need to be flexible.

Methods of Evaluation

Evaluation has to be continuous, comprehensive and improvement oriented. Evaluation of cognitive components is easier than non-cognitive ones. The affective qualities are general and not content, class/grade or age specific. The use of teachers' ratings, developmental values profiles of pupils, recording of observations of pupil participation in science activities and maintenance of cumulative records, peer ratings, pupils' self-appraisal, parent reports etc. for evaluating values have been emphasised.

INDONESIA

Introduction

In Indonesia, values education is derived from PANCASILA, the state philosophy of the Republic of Indonesia or the Five Integrated Principles of Indonesian way of life. Each principle is independent of, but supplements one another. They are: Belief in the Supreme God, Just and Civilized Humanity. Unity of Indonesia, Democracy led by the wisdom of deliberation amongst representatives, social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia. Pancasila is also used as the philosophy of education in Indonesia, therefore national educational goals are based on Pancasila. In the context of science education, the values of science education should be in tune with the values which are reflected in the thirty-five Rules of Pancasila.

Objectives and Content

Objectives

The objectives in teaching values are:

a) to inculcate positive attitudes and values toward science and technology;

b) to increase the awareness of the relationship among science, technology, human beings and environment concerning its influence and effect on each other;

c) to develop personal attributes and attitudes. Among these are curiosity, originality, perseverance, open-mindedness, self-criticism, responsibility, willingness to cooperate and independence; and

d) to develop social attitudes. Among these are: to be aware and critical of current issues with respect to changes in society and to be confident in contributing and paying attention to the needs of society.

Content

A broad and balanced content encompassing the two aspects of the environment, namely the natural environment including the physical and biological environment, and man-made environments is designed. There are also several topics related to everyday problems and issues such as ecological problems, community based problems, health problems, and local materials.

Strategies for Teaching and Learning

A multi-pronged approach is used for teaching values in the context of science and technology. These methods include problem solving, debate, discussion and project work. There is also an attempt for promoting motivation in learning science. In this attempt, a guide for teachers is designed. Cognitive conflicts, self concepts, and modelling are used in this guide.

Methods of Evaluation

Evaluation of attitudes in science education is done by «Direct observation» and «Likert-type scaling», but, they do not seem to give satisfactory results. Recently, there was an attempt to develop a teacher's guide for developing attitudes, and values in science teaching. However, it did not include assessing attitudes and values which are derived from the national goals.

THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

Introduction

The human being has a moral existence and consequently his development in morality is essential for his perfection. So, there should be a balance between the expansion of man's technological and scientific power and the development of his moral capacity.

It is a fact that there are different moral and value systems in the world but still there are some basic universal moral principles among all of them. Basic values arise in human nature and as human nature is unique, differences in colour, race, time or space do not change it. The basic moral values are common among all people in all countries.

In the Iranian context, the segregation among the three basic principles, i.e., religion, morality and science does not benefit any one of them. The progress in science itself cannot create morality. Religion in its purified form can provide the foundation for the promotion of morality and block the uncontrolled progress of technology. One can take advantage of religion, as a supporter of virtues and values, in the education system.

It is believed that it is not possible to promote the standards of moral values merely via formal education. It is necessary to create an atmosphere in which moral values and humanity can flourish naturally.

Objectives

The objectives in teaching values are for the students to: appreciate nature and its creator; consider nature and its laws and phenomena as the manifestation of will of the Almighty God; be honest; cooperative; not be lavish and wasteful; open-minded; respect logic and be rational; not being selfish; be eager to acquire knowledge; and believe in equality and reject discrimination and exploitation.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

The main part of value formation is usually done by the teacher. Concerning curriculum, indirect methods work well.

Methods of Evaluation

a) Pen and paper method
b) Observation
c) Reports of students

MALAYSIA

In the new curriculum, due emphasis is given to the intellectual emotional, physical and spiritual domains at all school levels. Values are assimilated in all subjects including science. It is the responsibility of all teachers to mould children into becoming good citizens.

Objectives

Moral education is offered as a core subject at both primary and secondary levels, and it is made compulsory for all pupils, except Muslim students. The programme aims to assist pupils to identify, clarify and internalise certain values. The overall objective of Moral Education is the development of an individual who recognizes, accepts and internalises his role as a responsible decision maker pertaining to moral issues in a democratic society such that his actions are governed by moral principles in all situations.

The science programme under the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum (KBSM), emphasizes the acquisition of knowledge, scientific skills and inculcation of moral values. This is in line with the National Philosophy of Education, where individuals are developed holistically. Moral values in science comprise universal values and intrinsic values. Universal values are values accepted by all members of the society, such as honesty, respect, diligence and cooperation. Intrinsic values are values related to science such as being objective in organising and reporting results of scientific investigations, valuing and practising clean and healthy living.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

Various teaching-learning strategies are recommended in the new curriculum, but emphasis has been placed on strategies that involve students' active participation. Various approaches can be used in the teaching of moral values, such as indoctrination approach, value analysis approach and cognitive moral developmental approach. Each approach involves techniques such as discussion on moral dilemma episodes, singing songs, making posters and holding debates.

Methods of Evaluation

The purpose of evaluation is to evaluate the objectives of the curriculum, provide information that can help in teaching-learning processes and thus further improve it. Evaluation can be done through various methods such as completing short stories, paper and pencil tests, using Likert Scales or Semantic Differential, interviews and assessment on students' projects or laboratory reports.

Training the Teachers

Before implementation of the new curriculum, i.e. since 1982, inservice training/courses were conducted for teachers in science. The Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) was given the responsibilities to conduct these courses. Key personnel were trained by CDC and then, later, trained science teachers at state level. The 'Package System' was introduced in 1990, where all schools were provided with video programmes accompanied with supporting documents. With these packages, schools are to run courses at school level with the help of key personnel.

REPUBLIC OF MALDIVES

The Context

Values/ethics education has been a feature of the Maldivian education system ever since education, as an organized activity, began. Maldives being a 100 per cent Islamic country and having been so for the last eight centuries; religion and culture play an important part in values/ethics education. In recent years, moral and ethical issues have assumed a great importance in the Maldives because young people of today face special problems and obstacles, such as the increasing size of school-going population; and the ease of exposure to pluralistic values, for example, through video films, media television and tourism even while the children are at formative years.

Objectives and Content

Faced with the ethical challenges of the 1990s, Maldives has intensified its efforts at instilling a comprehensive set of values/ethics in children. Maldives is lucky in that it has a singular religion. Most of the content of the values/ethics education is derived from Islam, which as Maldivians see it, is more than a religion - it is a way of life. The values/ethics to be taught are not specified in the form of a syllabus. But most documents have references to these values. For example the Recommendations of the National Conference on Primary Education held in 1985 noted that: the curriculum should incorporate content and learning activities which would help to instill in the students respect for their religion and to attain good conduct.

According to the revised syllabus (1990), some of the objectives of teaching science at middle school are to develop attitudes such as being objective; truthfulness and integrity; avoiding conclusions based on insufficient data; and respect for logic and opinion of others.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

The traditional methods of teaching values/ethics have been through exhortation and expectations. The former involves the teachers telling the children what is right and what is wrong. It involves urging the students to behave. In the hidden curriculum, ethical values are taught by expecting certain standards of behaviour from the students. Some of these expectations are made known to the students as school rules. Teachers have been responsible for much of the values/ethics education. They are a powerful force in shaping students' values. The prevalent strategies of values/ethics education employ teachers as the medium. Teachers can be a powerful example. Informal values/ethics education now takes place generally through discussion by the teacher in various subjects. While many teachers are examples of moral excellence, a few make less than admirable examples. This has been a serious shortcoming of teaching values/ethics through examples. Values/ethics education is too important to be left only to the Islam teacher. These values are being instilled in the students through science classes for example, by encouraging students to report experimental results truthfully, and by organizing group activities in which students learn the value of cooperation, respect for others and appreciation.

In Maldives, schools normally start with an assembly. The assemblies and meetings are used to inculcate values/ethics principles in students.

Methods of Evaluation

At the primary level, some evaluation of values/ethics education takes place through written work, assessment of social behaviour, attitudes towards co-operation, sharing, prejudice and environment. Children's development of values/ethics are graded only in the preschool level. Presently, it is not easy to introduce values/ethics education components in science and technology education, since the students are being prepared for external examinations.

At present, Grades 6 and 7 Science textbooks are being written in the Maldives to replace the exogenous materials. It offers a wonderful opportunity to incorporate values/ethics components in the science syllabus.

NEPAL

Objectives and Contents

Objectives

Some of the major objectives of Science Teaching at school level are as follows:

a) to attain basic knowledge about scientific words, facts and concepts, strengthen knowledge of life processes, behaviour of and inter-relationships between, plants and animals, and to make use of them.

b) to develop pupil's skills in solving everyday problems by means of scientific knowledge;

c) to develop the ability to find cause and effect;

d) to acquire knowledge and practical skills to conduct simple experiments;

e) to acquire the capacity to apply scientific knowledge in solving day to day problems;

f) to develop the habit of observing and reporting results of experiments and measurements honestly and truthfully;

g) to develop habit of deciding on the basis of real facts;

h) to develop the habit of working hard and appreciate the contributions of science and scientists for human happiness;

i) to acquaint pupils with natural phenomena and processes taking place in the physical environment; and

j) to develop the pupils' ability to pursue creative, scientific activities.

Content

Values are integrated with subjects like language, social studies, science etc. at the primary level. Values related to science and technology are given greater importance at the secondary level.

Science has been integrated with health education from grade IV to grade VIII, and is treated as a separate subject in grades IX and X.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

In line with the science curriculum, practical science activities and simple laboratory experiments by students are conducted. It is done dither individually or in groups, under the guidance and supervision of the teacher. Students are trained in observation, collection of data, and interpretation skills. Demonstration by the teacher in a small group as a method is also being used. The observations and data obtained through these activities are extensively discussed by students with their teacher. Besides these, field trips are also a part of the teaching-learning process. They provide first hand experiences to the pupils which are not possible in the classroom situation. All of these activities in fact involve pupils learning, and developing skills and values.

At the primary level, maximum time is devoted to practical activities. But at the secondary stage, in addition to practical activities emphasis is given to quantitative and mathematical aspects i.e., accuracy in measurement, problem solving and decision-making.

Methods of Evaluation

Evaluation is a continuous process in the teaching-learning situation. It is done after the completion of a lesson in the classroom, through observation, home work, as well as by unit tests. These types of evaluation are useful for the teacher to find out the strengths and weaknesses of his pupils. In addition, examinations are also held at the end of the year. Both formative and summative evaluations are used.

PHILIPPINES

Objectives and Content

The Science and Health Programme at the elementary level «aims to develop an understanding of how science relates to everyday life, the comprehension of the environment and the acquisition of scientific skills, attitudes and values necessary to solve everyday problems. The goal as a health programme is the development and promotion of knowledge, attitudes, values and behaviour essential to the individual, family and community health».

The 1989 secondary science and technology programme «aims to develop the student's competence, skills and values relating to science». On top of the science concepts and process skills, the students are expected to demonstrate scientific values and desirable attitudes such as: intellectual honesty; open-mindedness; curiosity about natural phenomena and technological advances; persistence and love for work; recognition of the tentativeness of scientific findings; awareness of the limitations of science; respect for life; co-operation in working with others; ecological concern and appreciation of the unity, order and beauty of nature; objectivity; critical judgement; and resourcefulness.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

For a purposive and systematic integration of values in different subjects including Science and Technology, the ACES (Affective Cognitive Experiences for Self-Integration) Approach is used by trained teachers both at the elementary and secondary levels. This strategy is used in addition to the natural infusion of values in the subject and other off-class activities. The ACES teaching approach is based on the confluent theory of education which provides for the flowing together and interaction of the affective and cognitive elements in individual and group learning. Using the ACES makes the integration of values more purposive (rather than incidental) and systematic (rather than sporadic). Values integration is carefully planned and woven in the subject without sacrificing the content of the subject prepared for the day's lesson.

The following illustrates the phases of learning in the ACES methodology.

Phase I

Phase II

Phase III

Phase IV

Learning

Value

Directive

Action

Trigger

Clarification

(Abstraction)

(Application)

(Structured Learning Activity)

(Analysis)



Methods of Evaluation

Values as a part of human behavior are manifested in three dimensions: (a) awareness or value concepts; (b) feelings and attitudes; and (c) characterisation and action. Therefore, values may be measured in these dimensions depending on the objective of the lesson.

Some of the more common evaluation strategies used for assessment of value learning are:

a) self-report strategy as the most common strategy for assessing affective states through data gathering tools such as rating scales, checklists, inventories, completion tests, multiple choice, semantic differential, likert scales;

b) situational test essentially places the student, by simulation through situational items closely resembling a real-life situation; and

c) projective technique in a relatively unstructured task. The way in which the individual perceives and interprets the material will reflect fundamental aspects of his values. Examples commonly used in Values Education are the thematic or pictorial technique, comic strips and sentence completion.

THAILAND

Objectives

The structure of the school system in Thailand is a 6-3-3 plan, whereby six years of primary education is compulsory, followed by three years of lower secondary and three years of upper secondary education. Science is a required subject at all levels. The secondary school curriculum offers elective courses for those who are specially interested in science.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

The teaching Ad learning of science at different levels in Thailand aims at providing knowledge and skills as well as ethical values. The objectives related to values and ethics at each level as prescribed by the Ministry of Education must be evaluated also e.g. interest in pursuing further knowledge, recognition of the importance of science, a good attitude towards science, Seductiveness, broadmindedness, self-discipline, frugality, responsibility, perseverance and ability to work with others within the principles of co-operation.

There is an Implementation Guide in the curriculum. In this regard, ethical values ought to be developed in parallel with science and technological knowledge in learning/teaching and other activities at all levels. The Implementation Guide is a strategy to indicate to supervisors, school administrators and teachers the awareness of the importance of values and ethics which will bring about happiness and well-being to the learners.

Methods of Evaluation

The methods of evaluation are the responsibilities of school administrators and classroom teachers at all levels and are carried out through formative and summative evaluations. For summative evaluation, the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains and process skills are taken into consideration. However, most teachers would observe the learner's behaviour in evaluating values and ethics.

VIET NAM

Objectives and Content

Ethical education of students is a very important duty for every civilized society. Chemistry is not among the Humanities. However, ethical education can be carried out through the specific characteristics of the discipline.

On the “concepts”, “objectives” and “tasks” of ethical education, there are four categories of ethics, i.e. Individual ethics; Man-to-man ethics; Man-to-occupation ethics; Man-to-Nature ethics.

The objective of ethical education in the teaching of chemistry is to help train the young generation to become creative working people for national development.

The contents and methods of ethical education through the teaching of chemistry emphasises: education for the love of the homeland; education of scientific confidence; aesthetic education; protection of environment and mankind's natural resources; and population education.

Strategies for Teaching-Learning

The objectives of ethical education through the teaching of chemistry are directed to the following tasks:

a) education of students on good qualities like discipline, confidence, creation, accuracy, diligence, seriousness and humaneness;

b) providing students with knowledge of the general techniques and technology of chemistry;

c) giving vocational guidance, encouraging them to get into branches suited to their capacity and aptitude and to the country's demands; and

d) education of students in the love of the country, the homeland and respect for nature.

Suitable strategies are adapted in order to:

a) provide students with basic knowledge and skills as a basis for the understanding of the world and its improvement in the interest of man;

b) educate students in the accuracy of chemical science, and the fine qualities of the working people (caution, patience, labour discipline...);

c) educate students towards vocational orientation, the sense of purpose, the sense of responsibility and the voluntary choice of a career suited to their capacities and the country's economic development; and

d) educate students in such fine qualities as: protection of local environment and natural resources, love for the fruits of labour, social property, humaneness, aesthetic capacity, thrift and population education.

Methods of Evaluation

The values related to the objectives of chemical science and ethics which are evaluated are as follows:

a) testing knowledge, understanding, skill and application of chemistry in school, society and family;

b) testing knowledge of the country's natural resources, the chemical industries that are developing and will develop in the country;

c) assessing scientific confidence;

d) cognizance of the beauty of chemistry (chemical practical work and experiments);

e) protection of the national resources, the purity of living environment; and

f) assessing knowledge of the relations between chemical products and mankind's food and clothing.

RECSAM PAPERS

The two papers presented by the RECSAM staff provided some theoretical input to the workshop. The summaries are presented here.

Paper 1

In the last decade all countries over the world have seen the decline in moral values. As a result of that, there is a revival of the teaching of values in schools.

There are differences in opinions as to the way the values should be taught. One group of educators such as Dunlop and Richard Bring (1986) hold the opinion that values should be determined first. Educators like Piburn, Rath, Harmin and Simon (1976) argued that the students should do the valuing. However many educators particularly in the East are in favor of the first group and they list up the values that need to be imparted to the students. These values are considered as «universal values».

With regard to science education, Layton (1981) has suggested some values that need to be developed in the students. He also suggested some general approaches to the teaching of values. The approaches are:

a) Inculcation
b) Moral development, and
c) Value clarification.

Various strategies and techniques could be used for teaching values in the context of science and technology. Among the strategies are:

a) Scientific investigation
b) Moral biography
c) Role play
d) Dilemma story
e) Field trips and outdoor camps
f) Discussion

Paper 2

At present there is a growing dissent to the neutrality of science as a free commitment to a standard of truth. The clamour is for the teaching of science and technology to be governed by a vision of how it is to be utilized for the good of the society which sustains it and which it is designed to serve. Thus, science education within this framework is geared towards producing: (1) individuals who not only will adapt to a technological society but also contribute to its growth; (2) scientists with moral responsibility; and (3) enlightened citizens capable of uplifting the status of their people and country. To achieve these objectives, explicit teaching of science and technology for value outcomes is needed. Teaching the process of learning primary values is vital. This process enables individuals to internalize the values we learn. If this process could be used in the teaching of values in class, then the chances of these values being accommodated by the children would be high. Therefore, the teaching of values that are integrated in the science lessons should go beyond transmission. It should aim for true accommodation that leads to internalisation.

Mediated instruction is one approach that could be used to teach 'process'. Mediated instruction through modeling, guided learning and collaborative learning within an individual's zone of proximal development has proven effective in developing explicit cognitive and affective processes. The valuing process should be developed within this zone through expert guidance by capable others and collaboration with peers.

When considering value-related activities, one has to examine systematically the aims or intended outcomes of the value-related lessons. If one wishes to quantify results then these aims have to be stated in behavioural terms. Teaching-learning processes to achieve these aims have to be carefully planned for the effects. Actual outcomes are very much dependent on the means employed.

Evaluation of results for value outcomes using the aforementioned approach is rather difficult to make, especially if one prefers to do quantitative assessment. For purposes of classroom evaluation only those outcomes that are attainable under particular conditions as specified in the aims can be ascertained. The long term effects will surface much later when the values inculcated, not transmitted, have become part of the individual's repertoire of behaviours.

Trends and Issues

From the country presentations and discussions, the major trends and issues on teaching values in the context of science and technology have been identified and are listed here.

Trends

a) All countries represented recognize the significance of values development among students.

b) Each country reported core values and a basic framework, which gives directions for values development.

c) Although the countries have varying core and related values, there are indications of commonalities among them.

d) There is evidence of the recognition of the values intrinsic to Science and Technology and those related values which may be developed through values integration.

e) While there are countries which have explicit programmes for formal values integration, there are also countries which have approached values formation through inculcation (e.g. cleanliness, order, accuracy, obedience to school rules and regulations, etc.), and through religious instruction.

f) Recognizing the significance of the values development programme, there is a strong desire expressed by the countries to learn more strategies for values development, specifically for values integration in Science and Technology, and to seek possibilities of reinforcing their programmes.

g) The learning-teaching strategies presented range from inculcation strategies, to value clarification, moral, dilemma, integrated and silent approach, structured learning activities, action learning, community projects, and others. It was evident that no one strategy is best for all types of lessons.

Issues

a) Consistency between what is laid down and actual behavioural manifestation by the various actors in the scenario is essential in facilitating value formation in students.

b) As a model to the students, the values of the teacher play a vital role in values education, hence the need to train teachers for value formation and for the required competencies.

c) Stimulating teachers' favourable attitude towards values education and also to other value aspects of the macro system (value issues concerning local, national and international scope) to be considered in teacher training.

d) Value assessment is difficult because of its qualitative nature. There is a need to train teachers with the most practicable strategies that may serve as basis for assessing the degree of values formation as a result of values integration.

e) In preparing exemplar lessons for training, priority to be given to values integration in science lessons that are not naturally value - laden, for the teacher to see clearly the possibility of integrating values even in highly technical science lessons.

f) In the preparation of lessons, direct experiences to be considered over simulated ones/pictures (e.g. soil erosion, deserted forests, etc.) whenever possible.

g) Direct teaching or the purely incubative approach in values integration needs to be reconsidered in view of its reduced effectiveness on particularly adolescents who may resist this moralizing strategy.

h) A demand emerged for a suggested list of core values which cuts across programmes of the region, that may be possibly infused or integrated in science lessons.

i) Conscious efforts be made to link education programmes with the home/parents, community, agencies and media.

j) Values development to be able to incorporate religious, moral and scientific values harmoniously, without creating confusion among the students.