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close this bookProceedings of the Second International Symposium on Non-conventional Energy Technology (PACE)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentOil and gas exploration
View the documentInvestigation of a ''quantum ramjet'' for interstellar flight*
View the documentThe mandala: The machine: Ancient to modern east to west
View the documentTele-geo-dynamics or the art of producing terrestrial motions at a distance
View the documentObservations from Germany concerning advanced energy and propulsion technology
View the documentUnderstanding universal law for the development of alternative energy technology
View the documentThe all-electric motional electrical field generator and its potential
View the documentToward a new electromagnetics part 4: Vectors and mechanisms clarified
View the documentOn the fundamental properties of matter
View the documentEnergy and paranormal phenomena
View the documentThe possible detection of magnetic monopoles and monopole tachyons
View the documentAttempting a non-conventional interpretation of systems and laws of nature
View the documentSystems in nature: models for technical conversion of energy - statements by Viktor and Walter Schauberger
View the documentBreakthroughs in the technical application of gravity field energy
View the documentThe use of Tesla technology and ball lightning as an approach to controlled fusion
View the documentInsights into the proprietary syndrome
View the documentThe homopolar generator
View the documentElectroliner device
View the documentEarth power spectrum and its potential as a usable energy source
View the documentPhilosophical overview of free energy
View the documentOn magnetics
View the documentTopics relating to the design of alternate energy devices
View the documentFundamental AC energy and power measurement techniques in non-conventional energy
View the documentNew advances in Tesla technology
View the documentAdvanced variable reluctance alternators
View the documentIncreasing gas mileage
View the documentAmbient temperature superconducting filaments
View the documentGeometric models of nested field wave forms

(introduction...)

HELD IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA
SEPTEMBER 8 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 10, 1983

SPONSORED BY THE PLANETARY ASSOCIATION FOR CLEAN ENERGY AND THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF GRAVITY FIELD ENERGY

Reproduction of the contents in any manner without express permission of the publishes, is prohibited.

CADAKE INDUSTRIES
P.O. BOX 9478
WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA 33880

Copyright © 1984 by The Second International Symposium on Nonconventional Energy Technology

George D. Hathaway
Kenneth C. MacNeill
Ted J. Klich

All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.

Introduction

In 1980, the first Congress on Gravity Field Energy was held in Hannover, West Germany. Its purpose was to draw together a number of serious international researchers, all of whom were investigating anomalous phenomena at the frontiers of science. These phenomena manifested themselves in energy production, communication and propulsion systems. The congress was inspired by Dr. Hans Nieper, an internationally known cancer specialist who had the conviction that certain new energy production and propulsion systems concepts were not being given sufficient and proper scientific hearing. To him we all owe a debt of gratitude for having the courage to hold such an event.

In 1981, the First International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology was held at the University of Toronto, Canada, chaired by this writer. It expanded the scope of the Hannover Congress and offered those in North America a chance to learn about and discuss the latest research in fields such as advanced space flight systems, energy production from the local gravitational field and new insights into the nature of rotation and much more.

The current proceedings volume contains presentations made at the Second International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy in Atlanta, 1983. Its purpose was to bring together another group of researchers to a forum in which to present their work for comment and criticism. Although many new presentations were given, they each shared a theme common to all previous conferences. This theme is that there is now in the world an embryonic but emerging technology based on a primal energy source or flow whose exploitation has yet to be fully recognized by the larger scientific community. It is the goal of these symposia to provide the scientific community insights as to how to utilize this energy (or energies) to enhance our present technology and further understand the nature of the universe.

It is an honour to present the work of distinguished international teachers, physicists and researchers such as Professors Jennison, Callahan and Harthun. Amongst many other noteworthy presentations are those of Guy Obolensky and Ron Bourgoin, whose mentor, Professor Robert Carroll's work was presented at the First International Symposium in Toronto. To all the presenters, I offer my gratitude and admiration for their determination to present and discuss the results of their investigations, many of which are often ridiculed by the wider scientific community.

Several cases in point have occured since this symposium was held, most notably the novel electric generators made by Joseph Newman and most recently John Bedini. As the U.S. Patent Office has not even offered to test the Newman device, he is taking the Patent Office to court. The final results of this legal battle will surely play a large role in determining the extent of future research into these areas.

Speaking of Thomas Kuhn's analysis of the formation of "normal" science, Prigogine and Stengers in their recent book Order Out of Chaos state:

In this (Kuhn's) view the driving force behind scientific innovation is the intensely conservative behavior of scientific communities, which stubbornly apply to nature the same techniques, the same concepts, and always end up by encountering an equally stubborn resistance from nature. When nature is eventually seen as refusing to express itself in the accepted language, the crisis explodes with the kind of violence that results from a breach of confidence.

I believe the explosion is already happening and the researchers presented here are already busy blazing new trails into the mysteries of nature and the universe for the rest of us to follow.

I wish to thank my co-chairman Ken MacNeill for his contributions to the program and administration, and Richard J. Reynolds III and John Mattingly their invaluable contributions. I also wish to thank the American Association for Gravity Field energy, Huntsville, Alabama, and the Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Ottawa, Canada, for their co-sponsorship. In particular I wish to thank Ted Klich for his superb and untiring efforts as symposium organizer.

A portion of these presentations are transcribed from tapes made at the symposium, with the remainder being written submissions which may differ in small degree from the oral presentations given. Requests to use portions of these presentations must be made to the authors directly or through Cadake Industries, the publisher.

George Hathaway
Symposium Co-Chairman

Oil and gas exploration

By ALEXIS PEZARRO

I want to talk to you today about our method of oil and gas exploration - not so much the techniques involved, but the fact that we are able to find that there are certain energies emanating from the earth that are presently unknown to the present state of the art. If these energies are tapped, one is able to obtain a tremendous amount of information not available with present systems.

Now when we talk about the oil exploration field, one first has to have an understanding of the current state of the art. There is a tremendous public misconception regarding how this industry operates.

I got into this field after working in the Far East, which was my base for world-wide operations. I came to Canada where my brother was a consulting geophysicist. I inquired of him just how geophysicists find oil, and learned that it was the biggest guessing game in town. Nobody knows how to find oil. All the technology that exists today works such that if there are certain conditions in the ground, there may be or may not be oil. In fact, there appear to be no devices used by the oil companies which are of any great help to the geologists or the geophysicists. There is no way of telling if it is oil or gas or how deep. This can only be found by the very expensive method of drilling a hole.

In Scientific American, January 1981, there was a very interesting article written by William Menard, who was with a federal U.S. department of geology, I believe. It was titled "Toward a Rational Strategy for Oil and Gas Exploration". This article confirmed what I discovered in 1977, that if you compare the present exploration technology industry results in a given area with data randomly fed into a computer, you would far out-perform the industry. In other words, you really have to work hard to get as poor results as the industry gets. I was amazed with all the technology that has been developed that no better method existed.

I am a rather fortunate researcher in that when I start looking for something I usually find an answer. At that time, I was on a visit to Washington and met a friend of mine, Christopher Bird*, whom some of you may know. He indicated that there was some technology which he'd heard about in Florida relating to this issue. We looked at a device which seemed to be doing something highly unusual, which we later developed into the present oil and gas detection device.

- *Bird is author of The Divining Hand, a book on the history of dowsing.

I went back to Canada to find out why the industry's record was so poor. What makes it so difficult to find oil and gas? It would be the same as if I told one of you in the audience to go and talk to Jack and I didn't tell you who Jack was or where he was sitting. You would have a difficult job of finding him, not because you are stupid but because you simply don't have the information. For people in oil exploration, that's the condition that exists. There is geology which is based on the surface features or on the cores from other holes already drilled from which estimates have to be made. There are seismic techniques which tell them about certain conditions under the ground, which may or may not correspond to hydrocarbon presence. With this in mind, you have an industry which spends billions of dollars and has a success rate of 14%, or one in seven. On the ability to find large pools of oil, the success rate is one in 2800! This has nothing to do with the geologists; they are competent and capable people. It has to do with the fact that the technology does not give the information needed to make these decisions. So we thought, if there was a better way of doing this, if there was an instrument that could detect energies from the ground from which information could be extracted relating to hydrocarbons, we would have a wonderful tool.

The first test that we carried out with the present equipment was in Florida. In Florida there is only one oil field and that is in the north. So we went up with this very simple instrument to the field and set up the device. He started tuning it and noises came through the earphones which at the time meant nothing to me. He said that yes, there was oil here, not bad quality but a lot of water with it and that it was at about 9000 ft. The whole test took about 10 minutes.

I had no information about this particular field and it was a weekend, so no one was in the local office to give us the details. We were on our way back when we noticed a nearby service station had a car standing there and it turned out to be the weekend duty engineer's. He said that he had noticed that we had had a device standing beside the pumping well and was curious as to what we were doing. I asked him whether he'd mind giving us some information on this well. There is nothing secret about a pumping well, as all records are kept on file accessible by the public. He said that they were producing from 9000 ft. and that it came right up to 6000 ft. but that there was a lot of water with this oil and they were pumping at 300 barrels a day and getting 200 barrels of water, which had to be separated. I was very impressed!

I took this information back to Canada, to Alberta where I was living at the time. Alberta is the centre of the Canadian oil industry and I decided to develop this device further. Actually, I am not terribly interested in oil and gas as a subject but I thought that if I could develop something for the industry it would make them much more successful, be a service to everybody and very profitable for us. We have no objection to making money, so we decided to really develop this technology.

However, we were very naive about the oil industry. There ate no great conspiracies; we were treated with great courtesy by everyone we met. You must understand that to the major oil companies, not finding oil is not a problem at all! The whole thing is so structured that you can make a lot of money by drilling dry holes. This is especially true if you have a large tax write-off base because all sorts of incentives are open to you, and it also keeps smaller companies out of the business because of the expense. So we found no great incentive to change.

The industry is also structured in another peculiar way. It is like any large corporation, and it has its power cells. If I am in the geophysical department, it is a department that gets a lot of money, because exploration is one of the biggest expenses. I have a lot of power and I am really not interested in a technique that is relatively simple, which doesn't need a lot of money and doesn't give me a lot of power. Subconsciously, we are a threat to this person and he is on very safe grounds for rejecting me because he has the weight of his authority behind him to agree that this technique can't be possible.

As far as drilling is concerned, the technology employed there far, far exceeds that used in exploration. It is one part of the industry that truly has advanced.

We had to learn a lot about oil in the ground. It is different than water and is a much more complex thing to find. The fact that there is oil in the ground where you drill does not mean you will have a successful well. There are so many things that can go wrong when drilling that you just have to speak to an oil man to understand that. For example, if you use the wrong kind of mud when you're drilling, you can block off all the oil and never find it. If you cement the hole incorrectly you can lose your production or, if you have a lot of cavities nearby, water problems may prevent the oil from reaching the hole bottom.

While we were learning all about this, we were able to test the unit on the fields which are quite close to Calgary, Alberta. Basically, the instrument is able to be taken to a site where there is a known oil deposit and set up. Then we tune it in and pick up the hydrocarbons, tell how deep they are, whether gas, oil or water, how many zones you have without one interfering with the other and the general quality of the deposit. There is only one problem with this; we really don't know exactly how it works or what the energies are that it seems to pick up. We were hoping that with this device we could get the people in earth sciences to take an interest in it, work on it and develop it into much better and more sophisticated equipment.

As stated, we would go to known wells and calibrate the instrument for use on adjacent, unknown sites. For example, at 34 on our tuning dial we pick up oil which we know from known well logs is at say, 3000 ft. We know it is oil because we can hear the sound in the unit's earphones which represents oil. We then decided to go and present this to the oil industry. This was a great education to me.

We were sitting down with one of the majors (whose name I don't want to disgrace in public) and they asked me if I could guarantee 100% accuracy with the unit. This is an extraordinary question for a chief geophysicist to ask who is quite happy with a system which is only 14% accurate. I said no, we can't, but I think we are at least 75% accurate on the positive side (i.e. determining if a given site will have hydrocarbons at a given depth) because nature doesn't just lay everything out on a plate before you. But we are 100% right on the negative side - i.e. we have never condemned an area that turned out to be productive This we can say and this is far ahead of the industry. So we were sitting with about 15 people in their board room and one said that basically, you've got a black box which we don't know anything about. I replied by asking if any of them used calculators in their work and of course all did. But how many of you really understand how they work? Do you have to understand "chip" technology to use your calculators? There is no difference here - it is not important that you don't know exactly how it works. What is important is if the data you receive is valid. That is the bottom line.

They then said that they'd like to think about it, but decision making in large oil companies is not that simple. There are management groups, tremendous competitiveness and these people couldn't make any decisions. But we did find people who would use our service.

I would run this equipment from a small vehicle, and could do about 18 sites in a day's work. In remote areas I would use a helicopter. We would charge $5,000 per day for our services plus all expenses. We had no problem getting work and we spent most of this money trying to understand this equipment better. In working with these smaller companies, we would first ask about the area they wished to cover. They usually wanted to compare our evaluation with the information that they had. We always asked them to include a well that was completed or near completion. If we were wrong on that well, that they had hard hydrocarbon data on to act as a test well, then they wouldn't owe us a cent. It has never happened that we have not been paid.

We found that we have been able to do this very accurately and make money for smaller companies who wish to sell out to the "majors" depending on the presence or absence of hydrocarbons. SO far we have spent perhaps $450,00 of our own money trying to understand this unit and we still don't. The man who invented this unit was an Englishman who came to California in the 1940's and had been involved in RADAR during the war. I'm sure when he built this unit he knew exactly what he was doing. We have found that we have never been able to improve on it.

The unit that we have here today is a prototype built by George Hathaway and I am currently testing and adjusting it in Alberta.

I myself am presently involved in many more exciting developments but I firmly believe that this decade will see the death of the internal combustion engine, not only from work we are involved in but work being done by others also. We will then have hydrocarbons coming out of our ears. We do think that these energies that our device is able to pick up might be very significant in the sciences of geology and geophysics. I'm really sorry that nobody has decided to investigate this further. (Editor's Note: Pezarro went on to describe the sounds made by the unit upon detection of hydrocarbons: low rumble - oil, crackling - gas, hissing - water, and the use of a computer to identify the sounds.)

Investigation of a ''quantum ramjet'' for interstellar flight*

*This paper is not the result of any company- or government-sponsored activity. It represents the views of the author and not those of the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company or any other organization or agency.

By H. D. FRONING, Jr.**

**Senior Staff Engineer, Member, AIAA.
Copyright ® 1981 by H. D. Froning, Jr.

McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company
Huntington Beach, California
U.S.A.

ABSTRACT

Physicists such as Wheeler suggest that quantum fluctuations in the energy of the vacuum occur throughout all space over submicroscopic scales of distance. This paper explores the possibility of exploiting such energies for propelling ramjet-like starships to the further stars. Here, Wheeler's representation of the quantum fluctuations of the vacuum is combined with Bussard's representation of an interstellar ramjet to evolve a representation of a "quantum" interstellar ramjet. It is shown that such a ramjet need accomplish a propulsive interaction with only a miniscule fraction of the vacuum fluctuation energies which may exist along its interstellar routes, but that such interactions would have to be accomplished over scales of time and distance many orders of magnitude shorter than those of known combustion processes. Therefore, it is concluded that such a propulsion concept is not yet a viable candidate for journeys to the stars.

INTRODUCTION

Investigators such as Krause1 have derived relativistically correct equations for the duration of a starship journey to a stellar destination at a distance (S) from Earth. These equations, which define the duration (t) of a starship journey in the local Lorentz frame of an Earthbound observer and the duration (tS) of that same journey in the local Lorentz frame of the moving starship and its crew, reduce to simple expressions for the simple cases of rectilinear, one-dimensional motion. Here, for constant starship acceleration (aS) in its own moving frame during the initial half of the journey followed by a constant starship deceleration (-aS) during the final half:

(1)

(2)

Numerous investigators have used equations such as (1) and (2) to show the possibility of reaching even the more remote star systems within the normal lifetime of a starship's crew.

For example, Figure 1 shows that for starship acceleration and deceleration equal to 1.0 Earth gravity, journeys to the center of our Milky Way galaxy would take about 30,000 years in Earth time but only about 20 years in ship time. And it is seen that a much longer journey to the nearest spiral galaxy would take about 2.2 million years in Earth time but only about 30 years in ship time.

Probably the most ideal rocket that has been proposed for interstellar flight is Sanger's "ideal photon rocket" - a rocket that would convert all its on-board fuel completely into radiation in a perfectly collimated beam.2 Sanger has derived the following expression for the ratio (r) of initial to final weight for such a rocket for constant starship acceleration and deceleration during its journey distance:

(3)


Fig. 1 Typical durations of interstellar journeys

Interstellar Journey

Duration in Earth Time

Duration in Trip Time

Earth to Nearest Star

6 Years

3 Years

Earth to Galaxy Center

30,000 Years

19 Years

Earth to Nearest Spiral Galaxy

2,2 Million Years

29 Years

But use of Equation (3) shows that a final rocket weight of only 50 tonnes (a weight no greater than the lunar arrival weight of the command, service, and excursion modules of the Apollo 17 Spacecraft) would require Earth departure weights of the order of 50 billion tonnes for a journey to the center of our galaxy in 20 years of ship time, and Earth departure weights of the order of 150 trillion tonnes for a journey to the nearest spiral galaxy in 30 years of ship time.

Such impractically large rocket weights have led investigators such as Bussard3 to consider a starship that would use the gaseous matter of interstellar space as its source of fuel. Typical of such matter are the gas clouds of neutral and ionized hydrogen.

Such a starship - called an interstellar ramjet - would capture and funnel the individual hydrogen atoms of interstellar space into a reactor where nuclear fusion would take place. But Bussard shows that even in localized regions such as those (where concentrations of interstellar hydrogen may be of the order of 103 atoms per cubic centimeter) interstellar ramjet intake diameters of the order of 100 kilometers or greater would be required for sufficient thrust for 1.0 Earth gravity acceleration. And the work of investigators such as Fishbeck4, Martin5,6 and Heppenheimer7 indicate that satisfactory capture, funneling, and nuclear combustion of such enormous volumes of interstellar material may not be a practical possibility.

In summary, it would appear that interstellar rockets require prohibitively large masses of terrestrial matter, while interstellar ramjets require excessively large volumes of interstellar matter in order to accomplish ambitious interstellar journeys to the further stars. Therefore, although such journeys may be a theoretical possibility, they may be forever denied to rocket or ramjet-like starships whose only source of fuel is the terrestrial or interstellar matter of cosmic space.

ENERGY, MASS AND DENSITY OF THE VACUUM

The discouraging prospects for long interstellar journeys derive in part from our classical conceptions of cosmic space conceptions that generally view it as an inert and empty void with no other source of substance than the socalled matter that seemingly is embedded in it.

But Einstein's General Relativity refutes the idea that space is merely an empty arena where physical events take place. Instead, it views the "geometry" of space as the actual source of all physical structure. "Geometry bent one way here describes gravitation. Rippled another way somewhere else it manifests all the qualities of an electromagnetic wave. Excited at still another place, the magic material that is space shows itself as a particle. There is nothing that is foreign and "physical" immersed in space. Everything that is, is constructed out of geometry."8

Physical experience, of course, indicates that the so-called "vacuum" of cosmic space is empty and inert when viewed over the scale of distances corresponding to the resolution capabilities of the material senses. However. physicists such as Wheeler contend that the vacuum would be perceived as teeming with activity if it could be viewed over a submicroscopic scale of distances. Here its geometry and topology would be perceived as fluctuating in accordance with the laws of quantum physics, "resonating at the scale of the Planck length* between configurations of varied curvature and topology."8

* The Planck length is the shortest length which has physical meaning in quantum physics. It is equal to hG/c3 and has a value (L*), which is approximately 1.67 x 10-33 cm in a local Lorentz frame that is at rest with respect to Earth.

In this respect, references such as9 indicate that a vacuum region of dimension L, where in a local Lorentz frame the normal values of the coefficients of the metric will be - 1,1,1,1, there will be quantum fluctuations (Dg) in these coefficients of the order L*/L.


Fig. 3 Quantum fluctuations In the geometry of a vacuum region of cosmic space


Fig. 4 Quantum fluctuations in the topology of a vacuum region of cosmic space

Furthermore, since fluctuations (DR) in the spatial curvature of the vacuum region will be of the order g/L2, there will occur quantum fluctuations in the curvature of this region of the order L*/L3.

References such as 8 indicate that quantum fluctuations in the geometry and topology of a vacuum region of dimension L will be manifested in quantum fluctuations in the electromagnetic and gravitational wave energy of that region.** And although the exact amplitudes of these energy changes are never exactly known, energy fluctuations occur with appreciable probability (Figure 5a). Furthermore, because that region's mace is equivalent to its energy/c2 earl distributed throughout a volume of the order L3, its "substance" and "density will be of the order h/cL4, respectively (Figures 5b and 5c).

** References such as 10 indicate that the fluctuations associated with the electromagnetic field and virtual particle pairs either exist separately from those associated with the quantum fluctuations in the geometry and topology of space or, in some sense, are manifestations of them.

Now, the fluctuation density associated with vacuum regions whose L is of the order 1.0 cm is negligible (Figure 6a). However, that which is associated with regions whose L is of the order 10-13 cm is enormous - comparable to the 10-14g/cm3 density of nuclear matter (Figure 6b). And the fluctuation density associated with the smallest region allowed by quantum physics (one Planck length) is so stupendous that the 10-14g/cm3 density of nuclear matter is insignificant by comparison (Figure 6c).


Fig. 5 Quantum fluctuations in the energy, mass, and density of a vacuum region of cosmic space


Fig. 6 Influence of vacuum region size on quantum fluctuations in the density of the vacuum

QUANTUM INTERSTELLAR RAMJET

References such as 11 and 12 indicate that the quantum fluctuation energies of the vacuum have already been verified at a scale of distance of magnitude 10-12 cm because their perturbing influence on electron motion has been shown to account for the major component of the observed Lambert Rutherford shift in the energy level of the hydrogen atom. But obviously there is not yet any scientific basis for claiming that a starship propulsion system could accomplish a propulsive interaction with these invisible, elusive, and ever-changing energies. Nevertheless, for the moment, let's assume that such an accomplishment is a conceivable possibility by "quantum" propulsion systems - by systems which could exploit the quantum fluctuation energies of the vacuum for propulsive purposes.

Furthermore, althought field-dependent propulsion concepts such as the "graviomagnetic" or "field resonance" schemes proposed by Holt13 may be the more likely and appropriate way of exploiting the fluctuation energies of the vacuum, let's restrict the scope of this introductory investigation to the more familiar propulsion processes, which are based upon known physical laws and are amenable to relativistic treatment. This, of course, constrains us to rocket or ramjet-like systems, since the propulsive processes of such systems are ones that are reasonably well understood and are readily transformable into the Lorentz covariant force laws required by relativistic mechanics.

Table 1 Interstellar Ramjet comparison


Bussard Interstellar Ramjet

Quantum Interstellar Ramjet

Energy Transformation

Transformation of a Fraction (a) of the Radiant Energies of Cosmic Matter Into Radiant Energy

Transformation of a Fraction (a) of the Fluctuation Energies of Cosmic Space Into Radiant Energy

Energy Conversion

Conversion of a Fraction (h) of the Radiant Energy Into Useful Kinetic Energy

Conversion of a Fraction (h) of the Radiant Energy Into Useful Kinetic Energy

Momentum Increase

Acceleration of the Untransformed (1-a) Fraction of "Nucleon" Substance to Higher Velocity

Acceleration of the Untransformed (1-a) Fraction of "Fluctuon" Substance to Higher Velocity

In this respect, since a "quantum" propulsion system would exploit the quantum fluctuation energies of interstellar space - it is more analogous to an interstellar ramjet than to an interstellar rocket. Therefore, let's begin by comparing the functional requirements of Bussard's interstellar ramjet with those of an analogous "quantum" interstellar ramjet. Such a comparison is shown in Table 1.

Table 1 shows that either ramjet must: transform a fraction (a) of the interstellar substance "swept-up" along its interstellar route into the radiant energy and convert a fraction (h) Of the radiant energy into the useful kinetic energy of its exhaust jet.

And just as the term "nucleon" is used in conjunction with Bussard's interstellar ramjet to denote the substance associated with the energies bound within an atomic nucleus, so we have used Wheeler's term "fluctuon" in conjunction with our ramjet to denote the substance associated with the energies bound within a vacuum fluctuation.

QUANTUM RAMJET REPRESENTATION

In Figure 1 of Reference 3, Bussard provides a schematic representation of his interstellar substance before and after their propulsive interaction at a given station along the ramjet's interstellar route. This representation, shown in Figure 7, symbolizes the ramjet by a cube whose mass is MS and the interstellar substance by a rectangular region of length (L) and mass (M0).

We can use the essential features of Bussard's ramjet representation of our ramjet and a region of the vacuum before and after their propulsive interaction at a given station along the ramjet's interstellar route. Such a representation is shown in figure 8.


Fig. 7 Conditions before and after a Ramjets propulsive interaction with an element of interstellar material


Fig. 8 Conditions before and after a quantum
Ramjet's propulsive interaction with an element of "Fluctuon" substance

However, for mathematical simplicity, it is seen that our representation considers only that portion of the interaction which involves a single lengthwise segment of the ramjet cube and a single vacuum region whose height, breadth, and length is (L) in its own rest frame.

Also shown in Figure 8 is the mass fluctuation (DM0) associated with a vacuum energy fluctuation within the sub-region of dimension L. And, although the amplitude of DM0 is ever-changing, we have - according to Wheeler - approximated its order of magnitude at a given instant by an expectation value (h/cL).

Now, one of the benefits of adhering to Bussard's interstellar ramjet representation is that it permits one to use the expression for ramjet acceleration that he derived from it3. This expression (which is quite accurate for situations where the wasted fraction of the released radiant energy is no more than about 0.5) defines the change in velocity ratio (d[V/c]) imparted to an interstellar ramjet during the duration (dtS) of its propulsive interaction with the interacting element of interstellar material. This expression is:

(4)

and were:

Here, the duration of the propulsive interaction (dtS) and the ramjet mass (MS) is defined in the rest frame of the moving ramjet, while the ramjet velocity (V), the ramjet intake area (A0), and the mass density of the interacting element of interstellar material (p0) are defined in the rest frame of the interstellar material (which in(3) is assumed to be at rest with respect to Earth before the propulsive interaction).

For our quantum ramjet, the mass density of an interacting clement of interstellar material will, of course, be the mass density fluctuation (Dp0) associated with a quantum energy fluctuation within a vacuum sub-region of dimension L. And although Dp0 fluctuates with respect to both space and time, we can - according to Wheeler - view it as usually being within an order of magnitude of an expectation value (h/cL4) at any instant prior to the propulsive interaction.

Furthermore, the A0 of our ramjet's lengthwise segment is the same as the cross-sectional area (L2) of the subelement of the interacting vacuum region, while its mass is the same as the product of its density (pS), length (lS), and cross-sectional area (L2) in its own rest frame. Hence, an approximation of Equation (4) can be written in terms of (pS), lS, and L for the lengthwise segment of our quantum ramjet. And this approximations of Equation (4) will be:

(5)

IDEAL QUANTUM RAMJET

Let's obtain some idea of the thrusting potential of quantum interstellar ramjets by imagining a rather ideal one which, over a scale of distance L, can transform vacuum fluctuation energy entirely into radiant energy and convert a fraction (h) of the radiant energy into the useful kinetic energy of its exhaust jet.

Then, if we approximate the fluctuation energy of any vacuum region of dimension L by its expectation value (hc/L), we can visualize this entire expectation value of energy as being transformed into radiant energy during the passage of a lengthwise segment of an ideal quantum ramjet (Figure 9).

Now, since the entire expectation value of fluctuation energy of each interacting vacuum region is transformed into radiant energy over a scale of distance (L), a will he unity and (1-a) will be zero at these scales of distance. Therefore. for this situation. Equation (5) reduces to

(6)


Fig. 9 Conditions before and after an ideal quantum

Ramjet's propulsive interaction with an element of "Fluctuon" substance

Finally, from relativistic mechanics, d(V/C)/dts, it is the same as (as/c2) (1-V2/c2). Therefore, the acceleration (aS) imparted to each lengthwise segment of our ideal quantum ramjet is:

(7)

Equation (7) indicates that our ramjet's acceleration will be inversely proportional LO its length (lX) and density (pS), Therefore, let's incorporate some degree of conservatism in our ramjet design by snaking its ls and (ps), an order-of-magnitude greater than those of contemporary space transportation systems. In this respect, let's make our ramjet's length equal to 1.0 kilometer - about 15 times greater than that of the Space Shuttle's liftoff configuration. And let's make our ramjet's density equal to 10 gm/cm3 - about 10 times greater than that of the Space Shuttle.

Next, at a given instant, let's indicate that portion of a region of interstellar space which will be swept out by the engine of our ideal quantum ramjet along its interstellar route.*** And let's partition this swept-out region into vacuum regions of dimension 1 - with the L of each region corresponding to the scale of distances over which our ramjet can transform vacuum fluctuation energy into radiant energy and convert 50 percent of the radiant energy into the useful kinetic energy of its exhaust jet (Figure 10).


Fig. 10 Schematic representation of an ideas quantum Ramjet and the interacting vacuum regions to be swept out along its interstellar route

*** Since our ideal quantum ramjet has no need to ingest and compress a material fluid stream, it is not likely lo have a hollow flow-through cofiguration. And, in this respect, its 10-g/cm3 density corresponds to that of a relatively massive solid structure made from heavy substances such as molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, and samarium cobalt.

Let us now determine the influence of our ramjet's speed ratio V/c and its interaction scale of distances (L) on its acceleration capability (aS) along its interstellar route. These influences are determined by inputting values of lS, pS, and h, which we have selected for our remjet, into Equation (7). The results are shown in Figure 11.


Fig. 11 Acceleration potential of an ideal quantum Ramjet

Figure 11 shows that ramjet accelerations comparable to Earth gravity (103cm/sec2) can be achieved at takeover velocities as low as Earth orbital velocity if vacuum fluctuation energy can be transformed into radiant energy at scales of distance of the order of 10-5 cm. It is also seen that much higher accelerations or much lower takeover velocities are possible if vacuum fluctuation energy can be transformed into radiant energy over somewhat smaller scales of distance.

PROPULSIVE INTERACTION REQUIREMENTS

An important dimension within any atmospheric ramjet is the distance required for satisfactory mixing and burning of its on-board fuel. For our ideal quantum ramjet, this "combustion length" can be viewed as the distance required for transformation of the fluctuation energy of each interacting vacuum region into radiant energy and for conversion of a fraction (a) of that radiant energy into the useful kinetic energy of our ramjet's exhaust.

Such a combustion length, of course, determines the shortest dimension (L) that we can associate with each swept-out vacuum region along our ramjet's interstellar route. Thus, it determines the smallest L and hence the largest expectation value of fluctuation substance ((h)/cL) that we can associate with each swept-out vacuum region.

In this respect, let's use Equations (1), (2), and (7) to determine the influence of combustion length (L) on our ramjet's journey time to an extremely distant star system such as the Andromeda nebula, M-31.

Figure 13 shows that although M-31 can never be reached in less than about two million years of Earth time, it can be reached in only about 30 years of ship time if vacuum fluctuation energy can be transformed and converted into useful kinetic energy over scales of distance of the order 10-5 cm.

Figure 13 also shows that M-31 can be reached in only about a month of ship time if vacuum fluctuation energy can be transformed and converted into useful kinetic energy over scales of distance of the order 10-6 cm - and if the higher thrusting accelerations associated with such shorter times of flight could be developed without imposing excessive stresses on the ramjet and its crew.****

**** Propulsive interaction distances of the order 10-5 cm or less are several orders of magnitude less than the wavelengths of visible light. Thus it is possible that the radiance of our quantum ramjet's exhaust would he in the ultraviolet or x-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and, hence, invisible to human sight

Now, if we view a vacuum energy fluctuation as an ondulatory cycle of an electromagnetic-like wave, we can visualize it as existing over a distance (l) of the order L and over a time (t) of the order L/c. Then, it follows that the available time for our ramjet to accomplish a propulsive interaction with that vacuum energy fluctuation will be no more than of the order L/c. And, in this respect, Figure 14 shows journey time to M-31 as a function of (L/c).

Figure 14 shows that M-3 I could be reached in about 30 years of ship time if vacuum fluctuation energy could be transformed and converted into useful kinetic exhaust energy within scales of time of the order 10-15 seconds, the approximate period of an atomic vibration. Figure 14 also shows that such journeys could be reduced to about a year if propulsive interaction times could be reduced to scales of time of the order 10-16 seconds, the approximate lifetime of a p° meson.

Furthermore, since a vacuum energy fluctuation existing over a time of the order L/c will possess a frequency of the order c/L, Figure 14 also shows the order of magnitude of the vacuum fluctuation frequencies that would be associated with the various propulsive interaction times. Thus, if there is a need for modulation of electric currents or magnetic fields to achieve some degree of phase correspondence with these fluctuation frequencies, frequency modulations up to the order of 1015-1016 Hz are seen to be required for journeys to M-31 in short durations of ship time.


Fig. 13 Influence of "combustion length" on quantum Ramjet journey time to M-31


Fig. 14 Influence of "combustion time" on quantum Ramjet journey time to M-31

Now, typical atmospheric ramjet combustion distances are of the order of 1.0 em or greater, while those required for our ramjet's ambitious interstellar journeys are of the order of 10-5 cm or less. Furthermore, the shortest switching times achieved by the most advanced superconducting electronics are of the order 10-11 see, while our ramjet's propulsive interaction times must be of the order of 10-15 second or less. And the highest frequencies that have been detected by the most advanced microwave receivers and magnetometers are of the order 1011 Hz, while those required for sensing and responding to vacuum energy fluctuations would be of the order 1015 Hz or higher.

In summary, transformation and conversion of vacuum fluctuation energy into the useful kinetic energy of a ramjet's exhaust require combustion distances, reaction times and frequency modulations which are about 4 to 6 orders of magnitude beyond those achievable with today's technology. So, alas, it would appear that a quantum ramjet is far beyond even the boldest and the most optimistic extrapolation of our ramjet art.

However, we might note that energy transformations occurring within devices such as the optical resonators of combustion-driven chemical lasers take place within scales of time and distance which are within I to 2 orders of magnitude of those required by our quantum ramjet. For here within molecular scales of distance of the order 10-4 to 10-3 cm, incident photons of a laser beam cause stimulated emission of light quanta from excited HF or DF molecules. Thus, if vacuum fluctuation energies are ever exploited by some kind of a "quantum" propulsion system, perhaps the combustion processes that would take place within such a system might actually be more akin to those taking place within today's chemical lasers than to those taking place within today's atmospheric ramjets.

PROPULSIVE INTERACTION EFFICIENCY

It is well known that the most powerful rocket or ramjet combustion processes release only a miniscule fraction of those energies which are "bound" within the atomic structure of cosmic matter. As an example, the fraction of material mass transformed into radiant energy by chemical combustion processes is only of the order of 10-10. And even the much more violent combustion processes of nuclear fission and fusion transform less than I percent of the material mass of atomic matter into radiant energy.

In this respect, our quantum ramjet's combustion processes release only a fraction of the energies "bound" within the vacuum structure of cosmic space. For although we have visualized our rather ideal ramjet as transforming the entire expectation value of fluctuation energy within a vacuum region of dimension (L) into radiant energy, this is but a fraction of the larger fluctuation energies which exist within that region over the smallest scales of distance (L*) allowed by quantum geometrodynamics. And, as mentioned previously, such L* scales of distance are equal to the 1.67 x 10-33 cm value of the Planck length.

Then, since an interacting vacuum region of dimension L contains approximately (L/L*)3 subregions of dimension L* and the expectation energy within each sub-region will be of the order hc/L*, the total fluctuation energy "bound" within that vacuum region at scales of distance L* will be hcL3/L*4. And if we define the propulsive interaction efficiency (e) of our ideal quantum ramjet as the fraction of that energy which is transformed into quanta of radiant energy, e will be of the order hc/L divided by hcL3/L*4. As such, the propulsive interaction efficiency of our ideal quantum interstellar ramjet will be of the order (L*/L)4.

Figure 15 shows that our ideal quantum ramjet need transform into radiant energy, only an infinitesimal fraction of the vacuum fluctuation energy existing along its entire interstellar route at scales of distance of the order of the Planck length - even when generating those enormous thrusting accelerations which permit journeys to M-31 in vanishingly small intervals of starship time. And, here it is seen that the fraction of vacuum energy is many orders of magnitude less than the fraction of atomic energy which is transformed into radiant energy by the chemical combustion processes of today's atmospheric ramjets.


Fig. 15 Influence of "combustion efficiency'' on quantum Ramjet Journey time to 11-31

CONCLUSIONS

This investigation indicates that so-called "quantum interstellar ramjets" would have to accomplish propulsive interactions with the invisible, illusive and ever-changing quantum fluctuation energies of the vacuum over scales of time and distance that are many orders of magnitude less than those required for accomplishing any known ramjet combustion processes. As such, this investigation indicates that ramjet-like quantum propulsion systems are far beyond even the boldest and most optimistic extrapolations of our ramjet art.

But this investigation has also revealed that a quantum propulsion system need only extract an infinitesimal fraction of the enormous vacuum fluctuation energies which may exist over submicroscopic scales of distance along a starship's entire interstellar route. Therefore, perhaps some hope remains that some type of quantum propulsion system might eventually exploit the stupendous fluctuation energies of cosmic space for propulsive purposes. And although such a system would surely be bizzare and beyond our current scientific understanding, perhaps it would be but one exciting example of what may unfold during the next century of flight as mankind delves deeper into the mystery of matter, time and space.

REFERENCES

1. KRAUSE, H. G. L., "Relativistic Rocket Mechanics," NASA Report TFF-36, Washington, D.C., October 1960.
2. SANGER, E., "Die Erriechbarkeit der Fixterne," Seventh International Astronautical Congress, (1956).
3. BUSSARD, R. W., "Galactic Matter and Interstellar Flight," Astronautica Acta, Vol. 6, p. 197, (1960).
4. FISHBACK, J. F., "Relativistic Interstellar Space Flight," Astronautica Acta, Vol. 15, p. 25, (1965).
5. MARTIN, A. R., "Some Limitations of the Interstellar Ramjet," Spaceflight, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 21-25 (1972).
6. MARTIN, A. R., "Magnetic Intake Limitations on Interstellar Ramjets," Astronautica Acta, Vol. 15, p. 25 (1965).
7. HEPPENHEIMER, T. A., "On the Infeasibility of Interstellar Ramjets," JBIS, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 222-224, (1978).
8. WHEELER, J. A., "Superspace and the Nature of Quantum Geometrodynamics." Topics in Nonlinear Physics, pp. 615664: Proceedings of the Physics Section, International School of Nonlinear Mathematics and Physics, Springer Verlag (1968).
9. WHEELER, J. A., "Geometrodynamics," Academic Press, New York (1962).
10. MISNER, C. W., THORNE, K. S., WHEELER, J. A., "Gravitation," W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco (1970).
11. WELTON, T. A., Physics Review, Vol. 74, p. 1157 (1948).
12. DYSON, F. J., "Advanced Quantum Mechanics," (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. mimeographed), p. 54, (1954).
13. HOLT, A. C., "Prospects for a Breakthrough in Field Dependent Propulsion," American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Preprint AIAA-80-1230 (1980).

The mandala: The machine: Ancient to modern east to west

By CHARLES MOSS

INTRODUCTION

This is a follow-up to the Paul Brown report on the same machine (Moss Mandala Test Stand #1). The first report by Paul Brown was in standard and current state of the art terms. The machine, however, was not developed from these ideas, theories and terms. The machine was developed instead on an ancient design, which was, fortunately, able to be explained by present standard and current borderland state of the art ideas. I will now attempt to explain for the first time the machine using the ancient and eastern mandala approach.

To properly understand the ancient designs, we must acquaint ourselves with a few modern standard and modern borderland scientific tools and knowledge. First, the pushing theories of gravity and energy must be explored and understood. In short, these theories tell us that energy is radiated upon us from all directions. Large bodies absorb some of this energy. Two large bodies will, therefore, have an energy deficit between them resulting in a drifting together from the higher energy levels from outside. The bodies will not collide because of a lower level (local) energy re-radiated in turn by each body, this energy being the same, i.e., and similar fields repel. The intensity of the fields determines which body will rotate the other. With surface gravity, on the other hand, (small body on a large one) objects are held by an inductive process which is a by-product of energy use just as the planetary magnetism is a byproduct of the rotational velocity (see APGR Handbook*). The ancient ideas or clues to understanding have filtered down to us as a dance to side-step the hairs of Shiva and breathing techniques (for example, Tia-Chi, one of the martial arts). In the borderland science, we have the hard and soft electron theory in The Awesome Force by Cater, the Orgone work of Reich, and last but not least, the work of Shauberger** - all three tied into one another. These ideas in turn tie into the gravity theories. Another individual we must pay attention to is, of course, Nikola Tesla, who told us in 1899, "All energy is gathered from the environment". It has taken over 80 years for us to understand those words. Tesla's inspiration came to him one evening while watching the sun set. What he saw in that brief instant was not his motor, but an understanding of how our solar system works and subsequently designed his motor accordingly. Further understanding can be gleaned from Coler, Hendershot, Ecklin and others. I have mentioned the above for your benefit, in the hope that you will investigate these ideas so that you will save time and funds, as there are many out there trying to build machines without proper understanding.

*Association for Pushing Gravity Research, Austin, Texas.

**Ed. note - see paper by Harthun in this volume.

I wish at this time to quote the words of Lao Tsu. "When the Tao (complete balanced knowledge and understanding) is lost, there is goodness in land, when goodness is no more, we find kindness, when kindness is no more, then justice, when justice is no more, then ritual, and ritual is but the thin husk of reality (understanding) and a prelude to chaos." We live in a time of ritual freedom and justice and most are aware of the potential chaos the world faces, but there is hope as Lao also stated "in time of chaos, the Tao returns."

I will now attempt to take this thin husk of reality and give you an understanding equal to a low justice level, as I have already done for myself with my machine.

Examples of these thin husks of understanding are 1) the Lotus, 2) Cross, Swastika and Halo, 3) Mandala of Inner Heaven, and 4) Flag of Korea. The last two being short outline forms of the I Ching. Number 4 is also a mechanical cut of our number 7 test stand generator model. The dictionary explanation of the Mandala is a religious symbol. However, the original designers did not consider them as such. Newer dictionaries define the Mandala as a graphic symbol of the universe which is closer to the original intent. The designers thought in terms of the universe - all things being part of and representing the total universe, thus everything and nothing was sacred. The I Ching (Book of Changes) contains 64 squares representing all possibilities of all things. The use of the I Ching for fortune telling is considered profane by those who understand it in depth. Another parallel system in the west is the Tarot, also known mostly by its profane use. It's like letting a computer and other machinery do all your chores, thinking and work. You will eventually grow fat and lose your own natural abilities - what will you do when the power fails? The intended path was meant to be in the other direction and, therefore, to gain knowledge and ability. All ancient mandalas were designed with this intent. They are sign posts to understanding and the Tao. They were not meant to be worshipped or ritualized. The ritual is, therefore, only the first step to understanding and justice. It must be known only for the knowledge of the basic lower steps, but to stay there is again a profane use. Few reach the Tao as it requires great effort. Many who approach it cannot handle the brilliance of enlightenment and lapse into complete bliss and non-communication with the rest of the world, others succumb to greed or other human weaknesses and this stops progress of knowledge. Others realize the dangers involved should the truth fall into the wrong hands, thus we have a partial understanding of recorded book burnings and inquisitions. Enough of the dangers and back to the Mandala of the I Ching. It has 8 main characters; everything is a combination of these 8. It can be simplified into an outline form containing the 8-pole triagram and further to the 4-pole. The slowly ever-changing progression and balance that were obvious in the original have been replaced by the Ying Yang symbol. Our series of machines is based on the simplified 4-pole I Ching with the ever-changing opposites (equals) in the middle. Its wiring conforms to the dragon form of the 8-pole mandala of inner heaven. The rotor acts as a magnetic switch. The polarity is reversed as it rotates (fulfilling its ritual form). The iron cores have both the same and different properties, each pole being partially compatible with adjacent poles and opposite to the pole across from it. Each pole, therefore, cannot completely cancel a signal from any adjacent coil. Any energy produced by any one coil cannot be completely used by the neighboring coil and, therefore, must pass part of it on to the next coil or pole along with its own pulse of energy. A similar parallel is found in radio regenerative circuits and filter circuits. Knowledge of capacitive and inducting circuits, also eddy currents, is necessary for further insight in regard to the operation of the Mandala test stands - for the induced eddy current in the end plates can and does travel down the frame bolts and through the cores, depending on the degree of isolation and directional dioding. The eddy currents and Coler effect add to the energy output of the machines, in contrast to our present day generating machines where eddy currents and induced voltages tend to cause rotation in the opposite direction. The Mandala configuration seems to have turned this around and put it to use in the direction of rotation.

WEST - Balance of identical equals - necessary for parasitic use; builds up back pressure (voltage); uses energy for self use, self regulation (like solar system). Balanced Mandala examples - cathedral windows, mosaics, cross, swastika, and the flower (the latter known in the East as the Lotus).

EAST - Balance of similar un-equals - family of 8 non-parasitic use i.e., generation; similar un-equals cannot cancel one another - ancient drawing - this general design (mechanical cut) as mentioned earlier, the Flag of the Republic of Korea, which is the simplest form that is still able to represent the ever-changing form and power of the universe. The Mandala of Inner Heaven is the next step toward the completeness of the I Ching having the eight main characters of triagrams, the progression and change being represented by the Ying and Yang - the dragon symbolizing the direction of rotation and point of power take off.

Two dragons or snakes represent a counter rotating machine (like the influence machine). Opposing dragons are also found on the Aztec stone wheel which has been long known as a calendar, which is fitting for it also is a machine design based on the action of our solar system. As I mentioned earlier, Tesla gleaned his motor one evening when walking with a friend during the sunset. What Tesla understood at that instant was not his motor, but how the solar system worked, and designed his motor to copy the operation of the solar system. Tesla also told us long before that all energy is gathered from the environment (1899). Eighty-four years later, we have (finely) the pushing and perisolar theories which explain these ideas. Mr. Tesla obviously had great insight, but was regretably unable to relay his knowledge to others. The fault was not Tesla's.

Nothing new under the sun - so we have East and Ancient - West and Modern - reflected in a machine. Let's not make the same mistake. Lao Tsu - Tao, good, kind, justice, ritual, we have only just done justice to the ritual mandala - don't stop there this time.

ANCIENT - Almost every temple has at least 4 gates (Korean flag) a symbol, a dance or martial art, and a religion and/or philosophy. Each gate being similar and slightly different from each other gate; the knowledge of each path overlapping the next - all leading to the interior or total knowledge and understanding of the temple and the universe (the temple being a physical model of the universe and its symbol a model of the temple). The dance or kada form mimics the action of the universe. For example, the form Chun Je, meaning heaven and earth (ritual), is the first form learned in some martial arts. Religious teaching/rites mimic the thoughts of the gods, earth being a reflection of heaven (observe, meditate and copy) again ritual, and just as the knowledge is a ritual to gain understanding of oneself in relation to heaven and earth, the opposite gate leads to understanding the mechanics of non-human or mechanical understanding of any substance from the earth with the knowledge of the gods applied to it.

CONCLUSION

The original temples were obviously then machines, centers of great power and learning. The thin thread of evidence also tells us this great power and knowledge was misused leading to great chaos, as reflected by the storks we have of Babylon, Atlantis and others, as well as the huge structures that have until now been thought of only as ancient religious and astronomical sites. Also obvious is that present forms of government, religion, education, philosophy, logic and life itself, are deteriorated forms or thin husks of reality.

Here we have reflected in our machine, ancient ideas and understanding constructed with materials and hardware store available materials and understandable technical language of the modern west. A small model of the larger ancient machines. Its purpose is, like its predecessor, to lead us to understanding the universe itself. The machine is able to take many forms depending on the intended use. The thin husk of the Mandala has once again been given form and substance, and we have gained understanding. Hopefully, it will not fall prey to human weakness as it did in ancient times. Remember, this is just the first step - also this is only theory, not law. If better words or methods come along - use them.


THE PATTERN
The first step of one of four gates to knowledge and understanding preserved since before recorded time.


THE TEMPLE


THE SYMBOL


Mondels of the Later Heaven, or Inner World Arrangement.


A TEMPLE AND ITS SYMBOL


A MACHINE AND ITS SYMBOL


HEAVEN, LIVING, EARTH, NON-LIVING

KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND RESPECT OF ONE GATE LEADS TO AUTOMATIC UNDERSTANDING, KNOWLEDGE AND RESPECT OF THE OTHER GATES FOR EACH IS A REFLECTION OF AND PART OF THE OTHER.

FOR TOTAL UNDERSTANDING, ONE MUST OBSERVE THE TENETS OF THE TEMPLE, RESPECT INSTRUCTORS AND SENIOR MEMBERS OF THE TEMPLE, NEVER MISUSE ANY OF THE KNOWLEDGE, ALWAYS BE A CHAMPION OF FREEDOM AND JUSTICE, WORK TOWARD A MORE PEACEFUL WORLD AND SELF.

TENETS

COURTESY COVERS DEEPER THOUGHT OF SINCERITY INTEGRITY HONESTY, LOYALTY PERSEVERANCE PUSH ON IN SPITE OF HANDICAP OR OBSTACLE SELF CONTROL AGAINST, GREED, LUST, ANGER, ETC. INDOMITABLE SPIRIT COURAGE VICTORY OVER THE ABOVE TENETS AND ONESELF

Tele-geo-dynamics or the art of producing terrestrial motions at a distance

By WALTER BAUMGARTNER

I would like to speak to you about a non-conventional technology which Nikola Tesla developed and perfected over a number of years and called: TELE-GEO-DYNAMICS or the art of producing terrestrial motions at a distance. Today we would call this the transmission of sonic vibrations, which can be produced with comparatively simple apparatus.

On July 11, 1935, Tesla announced that one of the subjects which he hoped would come to be recognized as his greatest achievement in the field of engineering, was his perfection of an apparatus by which mechanical energy could be transmitted to any part of the terrestrial globe. This apparatus would have at least four practical possibilities. 1) It would give to the world a new means of unfailing communication, 2) It would provide a new and by far the safest means for guiding ships at sea and into port, 3) It would furnish a certain divining rod for locating ore deposits of any kind under the surface of the earth, and finally, it would furnish scientists with a means for laying bare the physical conditions of the earth, and would enable them to determine all of the earth's physical constants. The apparatus, he added, is ideally simple, consisting of a stationary part and a piston of fine steel "floating" in air. He had found means, he said, of impressing upon the floating part powerful impulses which react on the stationary part, and through the latter transmit energy through the earth. To do this he had found a new amplifier for a known type of energy, and the purpose was to produce impulses through the earth and then pick them up whenever needed.

There is, of course, much sonic equipment available now on the market for different applications, but this has little or nothing to do with the system Nikola Tesla originally proposed. What Tesla proposed represents a new technology in sonic transmission, and just like his electromagnetic magnifying transmitter, SONIC TRANSMITTERS led to the discovery of a new wave mechanics and principles of how sound vibrations can be propagated in the earth without attenuation. This discovery is still new today.

In the transmitters or oscillators we were concerned with in this talk, a Resonance effect can be observed. Since resonance appears to be an ever-expanding, magnifying effect with these mechanical oscillators, even to the extent that they would self-destruct, it can be deduced that there must be a great source of energy available through them.

I would like to explain to you briefly why one can create a resonance condition in these oscillators and why this is impossible with an ordinary reciprocating engine. In oscillators, like the one shown in diagram #1, the engine is stripped of all its governing mechanism. On the other hand, consider for a moment our automobile engine. Every engineer knows how really imperfect this engine is in respect to work wasted in the friction of many parts that are purely auxiliary, yet apparently necessary to its operation. Starting with the cylinder in which is produced a reciprocating motion of the piston rod; this motion, which represents the active power of the engine, is converted into rotary motion through a system of auxiliary parts, namely, the connecting rod, the crank and possibly some flywheel at times. These parts all consume work by friction, but by far the greatest loss lies in the change from the reciprocating piston motion of the crank, the actual power of the piston working, as it does, at every point of the circle at a disadvantage, owing to the varying inclination of the crank and piston rod in all positions. Once rotary motion has been obtained, however, we have to convert a portion of it back again through further auxiliary apparatus - the eccentric with its rods and valves - to the reciprocating motion of these valves, which again wastes no small amount of power.

In the oscillator under consideration, the piston is entirely free to move as the medium impels it without having to encounter and overcome the inertia of a moving system, and in this respect the two types of engines differ essentially and radically. This type of engine, under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of compressed air, steam or other gases under pressure, yields an oscillation at a CONSTANT RATE.

The objective of the Tesla oscillator, like that of an ordinary piston engine, is to provide a mechanism capable of converting the energy of compressed gases or steam into mechanical power. Since the oscillator is denuded of all governing auxiliary mechanism, friction is almost non-existent. In other words, the piston floats freely in air and is capable of converting all pressure into mechanical energy. In the design of this engine, the object has been primarily to provide an oscillator which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of a gas under pressure will yield an oscillatory movement which within very wide limits, will be of constant rate, irrespective of variation of load, frictional losses and other factors which in all ordinary engines change in the rate of reciprocation.

It is a well known mechanical principle that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia is brought under tension, i.e. being stretched, then freed, it will perform vibrations which are isochronous. As far as the rate in general is concerned, it will depend upon the rigidity of the spring, and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. This is known as SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION.

This simple harmonic motion in the form of isochronous sound vibrations can be impressed upon the earth, causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which pass through its remotest boundaries without attenuation so that the transmission is affected with an efficiency of one hundred percent.

The transference of energy takes place as follows: the movable member reacts on the stationary and this one on a region of the earth comprised within a distance from the origin of disturbance equal to one-quarter of the wave length. The displacement of these three parts varies inversely as their waves spread out and since that of the region named (the earth) is comparatively enormous, the motion in it - chiefly alternate compressions and expansions - is very minute. Under these conditions the stresses engendered in the terrestrial materials are so small that these parts behave like perfectly elastic bodies transmitting the energy imparted to them without loss. Experience has show that this is also substantially true of fine sand, gravel and broken ground.

The speaker has found out for himself that it is impossible to attain this effect without taking advantage of the unlimited amplifications of the impressed vibrations by resonance. With this purpose in view one can associate with the movable member of the machine, a powerful spring which causes an exceeding increase of the amplitude and at the same time insures perfect isochronism of the oscillations at all loads.

As the energy imparted to the earth is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the movable member (the piston), extraordinary results are obtained. Even with a small oscillator a thirty-two fold magnification can be realized and thus over one thousand times more power can be transmitted than there would be without resonance. The spring is preferably formed by air or other gas in a hermetic chamber, or it may consist of a conductor in an intense magnetic field, or it may be made of any suitable hard material adapted for expansion and contraction flexure or torsion, provided that it behaves like a perfectly elastic body within the limits of the maximum stress imposed and resist deformation with required force.

A few words are thought sufficient to give a clear idea of its construction and operation. The movable part of the engine is a piston with ports and channels fitted closely into the base of an external casing having corresponding parts; channels, inlet and outlet openings for the admission and exhaust of the working medium. Integral with the piston is a plunger, generally of much larger diameter, similarly fitted into an accurately machined and hermetically sealed chamber in the casing. The shaft of the piston enters the chamber through a sleeve and when the plunger is in the central position, it divides the chamber into two equal airtight compartments. When power is supplied to the piston, the rapid vibrations of the plunger alternately heat and cool the inner walls of the compartment and, due to the shortness of the time intervals consumed in these operations, the temperatures of the working medium remain constant to a high degree and the law of Marlotte regarding the inverse ratio of the volume and pressures of the medium in the compartments holds rigorously true. In other words, the device is an almost frictionless and indestructable spring maintaining perfect isochronism no matter what the load. The power of the piston, be it ever so great and variable, can only cause changes in the amplitude. It has no effect whatever on the rate of the vibration, which is determined, solely, by the elastic forces of the spring and the mass of the parts set in motion. A small rise of temperature is observed, the energy so expended being utterly insignificant compared with that which would be required if the plunger were oscillated by external forces. Using a diagram showing the cross-section of such a mechanical oscillator I shall further explain its main operation.

The ports in this engine are so arranged that the movement of the piston inside the cylinder in either direction stops when the force which impels it and the momentum which it has acquired are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam or compressed air in that end of the cylinder towards which it is moving, and, as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point, the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it is then impelled in the opposite direction, and this action is continued as long as the necessary pressure is applied. The length of the stroke will vary with the pressure, but the rate or period of reciprocation is no more dependent upon the pressure applied to the piston than would be the rate of oscillation of a pendulum permanently maintained in vibration upon the force which periodically impels it, the effect of variations in such force being merely to produce corresponding variations in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively.

In constructing the apparatus, proper allowance is made for a variation in the length of stroke by giving to the confining cylinder I in Diagram I of the air spring properly determined dimensions. The greater the pressure upon the piston, the higher will be the degree of compression of the air-spring, and the consequent counteracting force upon the plunger.

The rate of reciprocation of the piston however, is mainly determined as described above by the rigidity of the air-spring and the inertia of the moving system, and any rate of oscillation within very wide limits may be secured by properly proportioning these factors, as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber, which is equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring, or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts.

In applying such a machine, isochronous sound vibrations arc impressed upon the earth, causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which pass to its remotest boundaries without attenuation so that the transmission is affected with an efficiency of one hundred per cent.


Fig.1 Mechanical Oscillator

The energy conveyed by such waves per square centimeter per second is:

W=2R0 2V3 A2 / La2

gram centimeters, Rh0 being the density of the medium, V the velocity, A the amplitude, and La the wave length. It can be deduced from this equation that, for the same wave length and amplitude, air carries fifty thousand times more energy than ether, ant the earth twenty million times more than air . It is a well known fact that sonic vibrations propagate at their highest efficiency in dense -and hot materials, showing that the earth is the most suitable medium for them.

TELE-GEO-DYNAMIC TRANSMITTERS are virtually frictionless engines, operating with very high economy, which can be designed and constructed in many forms. Normally, such a machine consists of two metal castings, one free-moving and the other stationary. The latter - as a rule much heavier - is bolted firmly to a rock or similar solid foundation.

It will be readily inferred from the expression for W (see formula above) that any change of the amplitude of the velocity must be accompanied by a great variation of energy. To illustrate: If the amplitude increased 16.7 per cent, the energy would be increased to 33.4 per cent and, owing to the rise of velocity, a further 66.6 per cent, making the whole increase 100.2 per cent, which means that the power supply would have doubled. To give another example: If the amplitude were doubled, the power necessary for maintaining the oscillations would have to be increased twelve fold. It should be remarked though that this relation may not be true in some cases, as when constructional limitations in the increase of the amplitude exist.

A number of different types of oscillators have been constructed in the past and they can all be classified into three different types: a purely mechanical, an electrical and a composite one. The electrical has certain advantages. However, it is more complicated and necessitates accessories requiring precise adjustment. The composite form embodies in combination features of the mechanical and electrical and surpasses the latter in economy and simplicity. While excellent results can be obtained by these, the mechanical is overwhelmingly superior to both of them in every respect. It is about as perfect an engine as can be made, almost frictionless, requiring no lubrication and subject to no wear, composed of only two elementary parts and tremendously effective in impressing mechanical vibrations upon the earth.

A machine of very moderate dimensions, weighing hardly more than two hundred pounds, can create pressures of many tons, which are essential for the production of extremely powerful reactions. In view of these advantages, one could rely on its employment in world-wide communication, energy transmission for all purposes, prospecting and other applications.

In normal application, the Transmitter is placed in a vertical position and rigidly fastened to a rock foundation by bolts or other means. With this object, the lower end of the casing may be provided with a flange to match a similar one on the top of a large metal pipe which is sunk into the stone and secured with suitable cement. This arrangement is very convenient, as it permits quick mounting and removal of the engine. If deemed preferable, long and heavily-barbed bolts may be inserted and cemented to the stone and to their protruding ends, the machine solidly fastened by massive chokenuts.

Mechanical oscillators led to several important discoveries and inventions. One of them is the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPRING, consisting of a conductor moving in a magnetic field.

When a conductor is moving in a magnetic field and a current caused to circulate therein, the electro-magnetic reaction between it and the field might disturb the mechanical oscillation to such an extent as to throw it out of isochronism. This, for instance, might occur when the electromagnetic reaction is very great in comparison to the power of the engine, and there is a retardation of the current so that the electromagnetic reaction might have an effect similar to that which would result from a variation of the tension of the spring but, if the circuit of the generator is so adjusted that the phases of the electromotive force and current coincide in time, that is to say, when the current is not retarded, then the generator driven by the engine acts merely as a frictional resistance and will not, as a rule, alter the mechanical vibration, although it may vary its amplitude. This condition may be readily secured by properly proportioning the self induction and capacity of the circuit including the generator.

A further fact can be observed with the use of such engines as a means for running a generator, or for other purposes, that it is advantageous that the rate of the engine and the natural period of electrical vibration of the generator should be the same, as in such case the best conditions for electrical resonance are established and the possibility of disturbing the rate of mechanical vibrations is reduced to a minimum. If the theoretical conditions necessary for maintaining a constant rate in the engine itself are not exactly maintained, still the engine and generator combined will vibrate at a constant rate. For example, if instead of using in the engine an independent cylinder and plunger, to form an air spring of practically constant rigidity (Fig. 1) one can cause the piston to impinge upon air cushions on the ends of its own cylinder, although the rigidity of such cushions or springs might be considerably affected and varied by the variations of pressure within the cylinder, still by combining with such an engine a generator which has a rate of its own approximately that of the engine, constant vibration may be maintained even through a considerable range of varying pressure, owing to the controlling action of the electromagnetic system.

Experimentation has shown that under certain conditions the influence e of the electromagnetic system may be made so great as to entirely control the rate of the mechanical vibration within wide limits of varying pressure.

This is likely to occur in those instances where the power of the engine, while fully capable of maintaining a vibration once started, is not sufficient to change its rate.

So, for the sake of illustration, if a pendulum is started in vibration, and a small force applied periodically in the proper direction to maintain it in motion, this force would have no substantial control over the rate of the oscillation, unless the inertia of the pendulum is small in comparison to the impaling force, and this would be true no matter through what fraction of the rate the force may be applied.

In the case under consideration, the engine is mercy an agent for maintaining the vibration once started, although it will be understood that this does not preclude the performance of useful work, which would simply result in a shortening of the stroke.

The generator in this case is composed of a magnetic casing in which a laminated core secured to the piston rod is caused to vibrate. Surrounding the plunger are two exciting coils and one or more inducing coils. The exciting coils are connected to a D.C. source and are wound to produce consequent poles in the core. Any movement of the latter will therefore shift the lines of force through the coils and produce currents therein.

By the use of a proper capacitor the self-induction of this circuit may be neutralized. Such a circuit will have a certain natural rate of vibration, that is to say, when the electricity therein is disturbed in any way an electrical or electromagnetic vibration at a certain rate takes place, and as this depends on the capacity and self-induction, such a rate may be varied to match approximately the rate of the engine.

In all oscillators the impulses of the driving piston or cylinder are in exact resonance with the natural vibration of the loading spring, the driven member receiving an additional push in the direction of its motion each time it passes the central position. Due to this the machine starts readily with a very slight impressed force.

The problem of transmitting THROUGH THE EARTH considerable amounts of energy through the agency of sound waves presents many difficulties, largely due to the fact that the vibrating body has to be considered to its full velocity in an extremely short interval of time, this necessitating the employment of very great forces not reproducable in the usual way.

To illustrate, although in the machine shown in Fig. 2 a wave seismoid pull of one thousand pounds is obtained with water cooled coils and the mass of the core is but one pound, the latter can be propelled in one two-hundredths of a second only through a distance of

of one foot

This means a stroke of 1/40 of one foot and a mechanical performance of not more than 1/40 ´ 100 ´ 1000/650 = 4.965 h.p. and an insignificant portion of this would be imparted to the ground. Various means have been employed by the writer, with varying success in endeavoring to overcome this limitation until, finally, an ideal one was found. It is a unipolar magnetic field so determined that the electrical, mechanical and magnetic systems are always in perfect resonance, thus resulting in an amplification of the oscillations, which, if no safety provisions were made, would go on increasing until the machine is destroyed. The stroke can then be lengthened as much as desired and the power supplied by the primary source raised to the maximum possible. At the same time, the energy passing off into the earth being equal to half the product of the force and the displacment, increases in proportion to the square of the amplitude of the pure vibrations and soon prevents further intensification by resonance.

There is no question whatever in regard to the effects obtainable with such apparatus as they can be calculated with great precision. When comparing this method of transmission of energy with our present wireless communication systems, its immense economic superiority will be readily apparent. Imagine a sphere of a radius equal to the diameter of the earth and concentric with the transmitter, then this whole sphere would be energized with wireless waves, while only an eighth of the wave has to be amplified with terrestrial sound waves.

Furthermore, the wireless waves are free to escape in every direction while the terrestrial sound waves are completely isolated. Owing to this, a Tele-Geo-Dynamic plant sufficient to serve the needs of the entire world will be ever so much smaller and less expensive than the wireless. A very small machine as shown in the drawing in Fig. 2 will produce a reaction of ten thousand pounds, which means an aggregate rate of two million pounds per second equivalent to that which might be obtained with ten thousand pounds of dynamite. This in itself would be a tremendous advantage but is insignificant as compared with the almost unlimited magnification of the effects in a receiver which can be designed for that purpose. When such a plant is installed, it will be only necessary to supply receivers and initiate a search for the hidden subterranean treasures all over the earth.

Having discussed to some extent the actual machinery necessary to produce said effects, the speaker would like to indicate now some of the potential applications and utilizations of Tele-Geo-Dynamics.

1. NEW COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

It appears that by impressing powerful sonic vibrations onto the earth with this new type of apparatus, one can carry out, irrespective of distance, an innumerable variety of novel and useful operations on land and sea. One of the first applications by proper modulation could be telephone communication. What is still more important, methods to insure complete privacy of all communications could be accomplished in a simple manner and applied so that they cannot be tapped, interrupted or deciphered by someone intent upon doing harm.

It is almost needless to say that with this system ship and submarine communication would be an ideal one. Consider for a moment the cost of a low frequency transmitter installation for submarine communication. The cost for a Tele-Geo-Dynamic transmitter would be minimal in comparison.

2. A NEW TYPE OF RADAR OR DETECTION SYSTEM

Tele-Geo-Dynamics will enable accurate steering of vessels under all weather conditions in orthodromic paths and computation of distance from any place of reference. By the impulses of the transmitter, submarines, sunken ships, submerged icebergs and dangerous rock formations can be readily located. On land also, in a forest or wilderness, they will act as a reliable guide for the traveler. They will indicate at any point on the globe, the speed and direction of a moving object and the slightest change in the same. By their means the depth of the sea and character of its bottom can be reliably determined. To men of science, perhaps the most welcome application of Tele-Geo-Dynamics will be for the precise determination of the constitution and physical properties of the planet and the propagation of terrestrial waves. Their speed at moderate distance from the source is from 4 to 5 kilometers per second and increases gradually until in the central portion of the globe, a velocity of 13 kilometers per second is attained. Approximately 980 seconds are consumed in transit of the waves to the antipodal region where the greater part of their energy could be recovered in a receiving mechanism (something like a geophone) designed and exactly adjusted for maximum amplification. For the purpose of defense, they can be applied with great effects in many ways.

3. TRANSMISSION OF POWER

The next development in Tele-Geo-Dynamics would be for a world-wide system of power transmission where millions of receivers accurately tuned and adjusted to the sonic transmitter would receive enough energy to drive a rather unique type of generator utilizing a very small amount of energy due to its unusual construction on a principle of resonance. This would in turn open up new avenues for methods of propelling vehicles either directly or by remote control without fuel on board.

4. ELECTRIC GENERATOR

The concept of "electromagnetic Springs" culminated in a design of generators of direct currents without commutators. Obviously there will be many uses, especially as the currents can be induced in stationary coils which may be wound for any tension which the insulation can safely withstand. The coils should have high self-induction and relatively small ohmic loss. If they are of very high resistance the currents generated will be alternating. But as they are rigorously isochronous, they will prove useful in many ways. With such generators, sine square current displaced 90 degrees can be produced and by their combinations, a steady unvarying current in a conductor more or less approximated.

5. IMPROVED SYSTEM FOR GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYING

This is a proposed system for improving the present methods used in seismic survey work. The need for such a development especially by the oil industry is very great.

The present method of firing dynamite charges within the earth, and recording reflected sonic vibrations bouncing back to the surface from the substrata has been very useful during the last 80 years or so. However, the only improvements in this system during this long period of time have been minor refinements in the amplifiers, geophones and recording equipment. The basic system has remained the same. The accuracy of these surveys may have improved slightly, possibly by the feeding of recorded data into computers, but the mere fact that thousands of dry holes are still being drilled each year is strong proof that the present system leaves much to be desired.

It is believed that a greatly improved method for mapping the internal structures of the earth could be perfected at this time. The system would involve a sort of radar system in reverse. Instead of recording reflected electro-magnetic pulses as used in radar, this system would record, or make visible, reflected sonic vibrations produced by a mechanical oscillator (as discussed previously in this report) capable of producing continuous wave patterns. The technical facilities for carrying out such an undertaking are already perfected except for one portion of the required equipment, which is an electro-mechanical vibrator, or oscillator, which is capable of producing powerful vibrations through an entire spectrum of frequencies.

With such a device, it will be possible to produce a very powerful continuous flow of sonic vibrations in the earth. The unit will be coupled to the earth and will be housed, along with recording equipment, generators, amplifiers, geophones, etc., in a portable trailer. In the beginning the equipment will be taken to a known area, where accurate geophysical data is available. The oscillator will be operated through a range of frequencies, say from 10 to 1000 cycles, and a continuous flow of reflected vibrations will be picked up by the geophones on the surface. This information can also be viewed on an oscilloscope. When a resonant point is indicated, the time interval required for this reflected sonic vibration to travel from the surface to a layer of strata and back to the surface will be computed. The oscillator can be pulsed and the interval of time required for the reflected vibration to reach the geophones, after the oscillator reaches a pulse point, will determine the distance of travel of the vibration. The speed at which sonic vibrations travel through various kinds of strata and formations is already known . . . to a certain degree. Thus it will be possible to precisely determine which layer of strata has become resonant at a certain frequency. The depth, as well as the thickness of this subterranean strata can then accurately be determined.

The resonant frequency of various types of strata, different types of ores etc., will undoubtedly vary according to their molecular structure. Once these frequencies have been calibrated in a known area (where accurate geophyical information is available), it will then be possible to move into an unknown area and map the internal structures of the earth in great depth.

6. EXPLORATION AND PROSPECTING SYSTEM FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

Tele-Geo-Dynamic transmitters are an ideal commercial result of inestimable value. Among other things, they are an ideal means for prospecting, incomparably more efficient and effective than those heretofore employed, making possible the accurate location of oil, coal, sulphur, iron or any other mineral deposits, in the cheapest and least objectionable manner. With a large machine of this kind, it will be possible, in the differentiation of densities and aggregate states of subterranean strata, by tracing of their outlines on the "earth surface", to reach a precision comparable to that obtainable in the practical investigation of the internal structures of bodies by penetrative rays. For just as the vacuum tube projects Roentgen shadows on a fluorescent screen, so does a transmitter produce on the ground, shadows of sound which can be made visible by suitable means.

7. SUBMARINE DETECTION AND DEFENCE

Experts agree that acoustic technology holds the key to submarine detection. The biggest problem in going after a submarine is finding it.

Sophisticated systems, many of them classified, seek any faint signs of submarines and analyze the raw data to pinpoint locations and identities. Fixed arrays of hydrophones known as the SOSUS (Sound Surveillance System) have been planted by NATO on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean and by the U.S. Navy in the Pacific. The straits between Greenland, Iceland, and Britain have been densely sown with these listening devices to monitor Soviet submarines. Individual hydrophones are connected by cable to shore stations in Iceland and on the Atlantic coast of the United States where the sonar signals are processed and analyzed.

In the Tele-Geo-Dynamic system, the earth (as said before) is made part of the apparatus, whereas in present acoustic technology transmitting and receiving are like our electromagnetic wireless Hertz system where all energy supposed to radiate away from the antenna. The Hertz system as used today, electromagnetically, sonically, acoustically or any other way, is an isolated system which wastes its energy in the moment it operates. All Tesla systems, electromagnetic, sonic or other, make use of the inherent ability of nature, in this case the earth, in transmitting any amount of energy required with an efficiency of 100%.

For this reason it can be easily seen that Tele-Geo-Dynamics makes available very powerful Sonic oscillators that would be tremendously effective in underwater defense. Since sonic transmitters can vibrate cavities (which a submarine represents), submarines can be kept out of pre-determined areas entirely. The application of Tele-Geo-Dynamics would make submarine warfare impossible, which could be considered a very decisive step towards the non-use of a weapon and disarmament in general.

Observations from Germany concerning advanced energy and propulsion technology

By GOTTFRIED HlLSCHER

My request to have the original title of my paper - "Overview of Advanced Energy and Propulsion Technology in Europe" - changed into "Observations from Germany Concerning Advanced Energy and Propulsion Technology" was based on the fact that I only wish to speak here about things 1 really can justify and which I have understood. I am neither an unorthodox scientist nor the inventor of a free-energy apparatus, but a free-lance science and technology writer who edits two very different trade journals: one for construction and operation of airports and the other on the use of solar energy. My freedom of action, therefore, is not that great. However, my freedom of thought has increased and has made me sceptical on the one hand of many statements made by the technical and scientific establishment while, on the other hand, eliminating most of my prejudice towards unconventional findings which are proposed outside the scientific community. On no account would I turn down opinions with the remark that these are contrary to the "established teachings". This receptive attitude has brought me in contact with a great number of inspired people which have turned their minds not least towards non-conventional energy technologies. I would like to summarize here some of the findings and conclusions which I have derived from these lasting contacts.

Even if I look at the developments which have brought us together here, from a great distance, I must admit that it can be no mere coincidence that many individuals in many industrialized countries have been working on completely novel energy converters for many years. I am not surprised either that very different constructive paths are taken and that these are based on very different theoretical ideas. And it is not surprising at all that there is no coherent theory under which all those different developments could fall. The only common denominator for all those efforts seems to be in my opinion that none of these theories can be understood with textbook knowledge alone.

I have the impression that conversion of energy into useful energy has generated a situation which is similar to that often found in the history of science and technology: at many places, individuals with comparable objectives work on machines and apparatus which have the potential for radical changes. In the past, we suddenly had the telephone, the aircraft, or radio communications. The personal and economical fights that had to be fought to bring a new idea to fruition are known. The span of a life has often been insufficient to bring forth something new, which mostly was also something better.

One could be inclined to think that new ideas should be implemented much faster today, since the better has always been the enemy of the good. "Research", "development" and "innovation" have never been so much in evidence as today; we never had no many students; we have invented brainstorming and are forced by various economical conditions to use all ways and means of safeguarding our future. More can almost not be done, more funds can really not be spent on research and development is what we are told. Or else that at the given high standard of technical development only small development steps are possible which can only be implemented at high cost and in teamwork. We know so much that it will not occur to those in political, economical and scientific power that, for example, an entirely different energy technology can be possible and that we should sidetrack our old-fashioned luxury train as soon as possible perhaps, in order to survive. And if some within the Establishment do have the power of imagining it, they will do nothing, for they live on best when existing conditions continue as long as possible. This attitude would be acceptable among industry managers, but unfortunately it is also true for our research environment. There is the obligation, for example, to continue using the large particle accelerators, to build even larger ones, and to fill more libraries with papers on high-energy physics. The electricity utilities would, of course, have tremendous difficulties in taking the step from continuous centralization of its facilities to decentralized energy supply. Hence they are fighting decentralization.

I will not follow this further. I just wanted to show that our modern structures of science and economy are much more hostile to innovation than we think. It is much more difficult today than in the past for an inspired genius to be heard, let alone be taken seriously and sponsored, and even more so, when he moves outside the established circles. Let me illustrate this by a picture which the Norwegian physicist and peace researcher, Prof. Johan Galtung, has drawn for the energy sector: there is something like an uncanny triangle, with the Government at one end, big business at the other end, and the intelligensia at the third end. All three depend on each other and stick together. The Government wants to remain in power and uses the energy reserves at its disposal to stay there. The big business wants to accumulate further capital, and this is done best by having a monopoly. This monopoly is best guaranteed by the Government, which has a certain interest in doing so. What remains is the intelligensia, which has understood to make itself indispensable to both, thereby safeguarding its existence. You can figure out yourselves the consequences which such a superstructure has on the development of non-conventional energy technologies.

I am not surprised at all that a symposium such as ours is being seen as a "collection of crackpots" by many. There is certainly much tactical ill will behind this differentiation, but not only that: the brains of many scientists and engineers seem to be obstructed by knowledge frozen into dogmas which are defended like a precious property at all costs. This seems to be particularly true for the energy engineering field. The laws of thermodynamics, derived from practical experience with the steam engine and fixed theoretically and mathematically roughly one hundred years later, are considered the unshakable basis for every kind of energy conversion. In the form of Lenz's law, they even apply to the theory of electric machines, although no experiment is known so far to have proven beyond doubt that the conversion of heat into force has resulted in the same equivalence relation as the conversion of force into heat. Nevertheless, the first and second law of thermodynamics have become incontestable Laws of Nature which apply, of course, to all energy conversions in Nature.

They don't follow suit, fortunately, although Mr. Rifkin and others claim to have spotted a universal law in entropy, salt to determine our own behaviour as well. To "read" Nature was, and is, for many particularly instructive. On the other hand, our role as master of Nature, our materialistic, mathematical and brain-oriented view of the world have contributed considerably to these deplorable developments. It is good that creative people are not overly impressed by so much wisdom and do never stop asking questions. In doing so, the many contradictions in our physical world view could not and cannot remain concealed. When the theoretical physicist Prof. Herbert Pietschmann, of Vienna, considers the history of the sciences, and in particular of physics, as one of suppression, unfair elimination of contradicting opinions, he certainly is right. I would only recall the fact that the contradictory interpretation of the nature of light - corpuscular theory or wave theory - does not cause concern any more. We wish to know what holds the world together. To this effect, we build ever more powerful atom smashers and particle accelerators, I will never understand why the atom has to be smashed completely in order to find out from the reaction traces which particle conveys one of the four known interactions. Apparently, research cannot be stopped from going into this direction.

As a journalist, I receive success reports on expensive technical and scientific progress with the mail every day. However, much literature has accumulated in the course of years which I like to call "samisdat [underground] literature". There is no publisher for it, at least in Germany, who would spare the high-gloss paper for it. Yet I feel that it is of no less value than the mountains of printed high-gloss paper. This samisdat literature proves that there are apparently many people who are not content with our contradictory physical view of the world and who have ideas, knowledge and technical designs, many of which would be worthwhile to consider. These people do not completely refuse the knowledge accumulated so far; they only have liberated themselves from it in certain areas in order to go their own way. This is not uncommon at all. The history of Science and Technology does reveal that this was always the case when progress was born. Even if many repeatable test results are in the way of new ideas, this will not prove at all that a new idea is rubbish. It is not at all logical that something new has to be wrong, because the old-established ways and means have been confirmed again and again. Einstein put it this way: "Theory determines the experiment."

Ladies ant Gentlemen, I felt that I should tell you this much to explain my background somewhat. I would like to repeat again that I am neither an inspired researcher or inventor totally imbued with my own ideas. I therefore have to face the question radically, why a non-conventional energy technology, for example, should develop alongside a fully exploited and well-functioning technology. It can be developed, because our physical view of the world is highly contradictory and incomplete, and because the unknown is also unlimited in principle, and because the creative human spirit can show new ways even today. We can, and must, put our hope in it unless we want to founder on the consequences of our previous actions. In particular the vital energy sector warrants our hopes, for l feel that it is only a matter of time until non-conventional energy technologies achieve a breakthrough. What makes me so confident?

In studying of the samisdat literature mentioned and the personal contact with many inventors, I have realized that we have to differentiate in principle between closed and open systems and that the rules to which we have built our machines in the past only apply to closed systems, strictly speaking, Therefore, I am not deterred by the verdict of the impossibility of the perpetuum mobile, since if something operates like a perpetuum mobile, then it is most likely to be an open system to which this verdict does not apply. For me, gravitation and magnetism are open systems, as is Nature in its totality and in detail - Nature, which has taught us so much and from which we still can learn. It is hard for me not to believe that the space around us is filled by an endless energy field which we can tap and of which we have taken notice so far only through the as yet ill understood gravity. You may imagine my excitement when one inventor gave me this demonstration: he held in his hand a Plexiglass cube of approximately four inch edge length, in which something like a turbine could be seen, the shaft of which protruded from the cube. He spun the shaft with his fingers, fumed the cube into a certain position in space and - you wouldn't believe it - the turbine accelerated audibly and kept running for hours without reducing its speed, sitting on a table. The inventor keeps his secret to himself for the time being and pretends to know how to develop an engine from it.

When I feel that, of the multitude of highly different unconventional energy converters, those operating electromagnetically have the highest chance to come on the market first, then my assurance is based mainly on my observation of development progress made by several inventors. Their constructions differ greatly, but in nearly all designs they use new magnetic materials such as cobalt samarium, and all expect an energy output which exceeds the energy input. If you ask me how, whether I have seen a single convincingly operating prototype, then I cannot answer "yes" wholeheartedly. However, not an developments are accessible to me, nor can I keep myself informed on the development progress made. Therefore, I have to restrict myself to my personal evaluation of the overall situation, which can be summarized as follows: everybody working on novel electric machines is still in the tough period of implementing a convincing prototype. Since they only have very restricted financial means and no outside help, one can hardly predict when each will have its great day. One can hardly imagine what could have been achieved if these people had received only a fraction of the assistance and goodwill which are readily conveyed to nuclear or even military research. But to quote Brecht: the conditions, they are not so.

In order not to spare you a bit of science altogether, I wish to present a few basic ideas recently formulated anew by Prof. Kromrey, of Geneva - that's not in Germany, but in Switzerland, for those who are not so familiar with small Europe. His ideas form the theory for the generator developed by Prof. Kromrey, who has expressly authorized me to expose these here. I have seen myself that he has built generators to his principle to confirm the soundness of his considerations. But here again, there is no prototype which gives off more power than is put into it and consequently would keep going. As Prof. Kromrey told me several weeks ago, he decided finally to build a large unit himself. The "himself" refers to the fact that Prof. Kromrey is an old man. Now let me quote Kromrey:

OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF THE FERROMAGNETIC GRAVITY GENERATOR

The energy relationships valid for the Earth's system of reference are as follows:

1 kgm/sec = 9.81 Watt = 2.3 cal/sec

In a very wide sense, these figures are considered valid throughout the entire universe although gravity and, at the same time, acceleration can differ considerably from system to system.

It is well known that the notion of gravity is of primordial importance because it is from gravity alone that the entire science of dynamics is derived.

Having said that, the principal difference between a conventional generator and the ferromagnetic (gravity) generator is that the former converts the Earth's acceleration into electrical energy (using Lorentz's force as an intermediary) whereas the ferromagnetic generator transforms or converts ferromagnetic attraction directly into electrical energy.

It is not entirely fortuitous that the universal formula for gravity and the Coulomb-Poisson formula have a similar structure:

the only essential difference being the presence of the coefficient "K". Apart from this, it is useful to note that the fundamental principle of the conservation of energy lies within the quantitative conservation of motion; anything beyond this remains purely speculative.

What then are the principal characteristics of the ferromagnetical generator?

We are speaking here of a type of monophase transformer with the particularity that the cores, respectively paralleled, two-by-two, make up the stators and rotors. Preferably, the stators should be powerful permanent (or electric) magnets and the rotor cores should be of soft iron.

When the armature turns, it successively enters and leaves the Earth's gravitational field and the ferromagnetic gravitational field, and this vice-versa, in such a way that the soft iron cores are subjected successively to magnetic attraction and to the Earth's gravitational attraction.

Since, on the other hand, each action has an equal and opposite reaction and as W = m ´ g
(weight = force = mass ´ acceleration),
the production of electricity can be explained quite easily through classical dynamics.

In effect, we know that the electron possesses a mass. For an electric motor, the magnetic field (or inductor) only has a secondary role, that of deflection, in such a way that the electronic kinetic energy:

(for example the output from a battery), remains conserved if the motor runs without a load.

It is exactly the same if the machine works as a generator: the magnetic field has merely an intermediary role of transforming kinetic energy - in this case resulting from the Earth's gravitational system - into electrical energy.

For the ferromagnetic gravity generator, things are different. Here, the rotor is subjected alternatively to a non-terrestrial acceleration, enormously superior to that of the Earth's gravity, which produces an electronic current.

Since Newton's third law is fundamental, because it also includes the principle of energy conservation, the working of the ferromagnetic gravity generator is easily explained.

In effect, the two twin cores constituting the rotor fall from the Earth's gravitational field into the more intense magnetic gravity field and grow heavier because of this. If, simultaneously, an electric current is produced by short circuiting, for example, the winding of the armature, it can be seen that the magnetic acceleration first observed, purely with regard to the armature, is subsequently partially consumed in order to accelerate the electrons. Since the initial acceleration of the rotor diminishes to the advantage of an electronic acceleration, the rotors become lighter. In other words: the attraction between rotor and stator disappears so that the rotor continues to turn freely while producing electric current.

This is quite normal, since a soft-iron induction coil (or rotor), which has become heavier in a magnetic field, is essentially subjected to the expression:

mass ´ acceleration = weight

and which, on expending its acceleration in favour of a movement of electrons, must obviously lose its attraction for the stator.

Naturally, the foregoing is only understandable if one remembers that, before anything else, electricity obeys the laws of classical dynamics. Electricity is, after all, a branch of mechanics and not the reverse as the theory of general relativity postulates. People have always tried to complement Newton's concepts, whereas, in fact, everything was already contained in his work, even the unified-field theory.

It is quite remarkable that, in itself a pendulum is the differential of a fly-wheel.


THE PENDULUM

What is the significance of this fact? It is quite understandable, as one can see from the following. If, for example, a flywheel of certain mass is placed on the moon at a speed of 1500 rpm, very little energy is expended because the lunar force of attraction is 163 cm/sec2, or minimal, compared with the Earth's force of attraction of 981 cm/sec2.

If the same fly-wheel could be transported immediately within the Earth's gravitational field, its rate of rotation would be in no way diminished. On the contrary, the speed of rotation would have a tendency to increase even more and also result in a considerable gain in kinetic energy - and this without coming into conflict with the principle of energy conservation. In other words, if the mass of a body drops in free fall towards the Earth's surface, it will travel 4.91 m during the first second. The same mass falling towards the Moon's surface will have travelled only 0.81 m after the first second. Masses possessing weight and masses that are inert are, therefore, quite different in the two systems of reference, and it is the same for the respective kinetic energies.

Schools, however, teach the following: the fact that a body has a mass means, in the first place, that a force is necessary in order to accelerate it; but this would also be the case, if the body was not attracted towards the Earth's surface - in other words, if it was weightless - and from this can be deduced the fact that motions of weight and of mass have absolutely nothing in common.

At the same time when defining the concept of ''mass" and the concept of "weight': gravity has been excluded, which is obviously an error.

Mach's law no longer holds true. According to Ernst Mach and also to Albert Einstein, inertia is a property of a mass, determined by the presence of all the other masses in the universe. In fact, inertia is in direct correlation with the finite and, therefore, the contrary of infinity. The system of reference can be determined. For this reason, unity should be defined as acceleration itself. The unity of mass will in future be the force exerted on a mass identical to a distance 1, acceleration 1.

It is impossible to agree with schools of thought that maintain the following: to put a ball of iron in motion on the Moon will require the same effort as that required to take the same ball of iron in motion on Earth.

The example cited corresponds exactly with the experiment of a fly-wheel set in motion on Earth at one time, then at another time on the Moon. In the end, it is not the kilogram-masses that have to be moved but the kilogram-weights. The amount of movement released by an action is essentially linked to the binary system of reference.

The invariability or stability of the oscillation path of the pendulum in Foucault's famous experiment at the Pantheon in Paris, designed to demonstrate the Earth's rotation, is not a result of the presence of all other stellar masses but a direct result of the mutual attraction of the terrestrial mass and the mass of the pendulum.

Newtonian gravitation is based on instantaneous action at a distance, an opinion which is not questioned. On raising the mass of a litre of water (1000 grams) to the top of the Eiffel Tower in Paris (300 metres), the water will lose one ten-thousandth of its weight At 10 kilometres, its weight will be 965 kg, and at 10,000 kilometres only 151 kg. It is the minute loss in weight by a body raised to considerable distance above the Earth's surface that is the real equivalent to the work performed. The expression "potential energy" is an unfortunate term used to imply that a certain tension exists between two masses that are trying to unite.

In the terrestrial system of reference, it is clear that if a body is raised to a certain height (even of several kilometres), it will only lose a minute part of its weight. This is because it is the enormous mass of the Earth - to all intents and purposes alone - which is responsible for the effect of gravity. It is, therefore, logical that a body raised to height "h" corresponds to an amount of work that is practically recuperated, if the body is released to make the return journey.

Ferromagnetic gravity uses a gravitational effect (ferro-magnetism) to accelerate the electrons. A soft-iron armature is caught by a magnetic field and becomes very heavy over a distance of several centimetres, as it leaves the superimposed acceleration of the locally very intense magnetic field.

The molecular generator can produce energy on two inverse paths; that is to say as the rotor approaches the stator and also as the rotor moves away from the stator. If the rotor enters the magnetic field, the current produced destroys the attraction. If the rotor leave the primary magnetic field, then the second field gratuitously formed by influence, disappears, causes cut-off, and then once more produces electricity. It is true that for each isolated system of reference the theoretical yield cannot be greater than 1. But the forces of various systems can, at the same time, be very different.

Also when two gravitational fields become partners, it is possible (and without contradicting the energy conservation principle) that the following expression is valid:


Formula

In other words, each time when two gravitational fields come into action, it is possible to produce energy cheaply.

Again, for example, machinery driven by tidal motion uses the flux and reflux of the sea. The action of the Moon's gravitational field associated with the terrestrial field (working at a distance of 384,000 kilometres) raises enormous masses of water to a height of metres, twice every 24 hours, equivalent to approximately 1016 kfm of kinetic energy. This is similar to what happens in the case of the ferro-magnetic gravity generator. On the one hand, the rotor is subjected to the Earth's gravity, and on the other hand, to magnetic gravity which gives another possibility of producing energy cheaply.

To conclude, Newton's Laws of Motion are confirmed, but with the suggestion that a fourth law should be added as follows:

"The energy in a given system can only be modified in a finite time particular to this system. This results in a variety of forces for different isolated systems".

In my book "Energie im Uberfluss" which could be translated by "Energy Galore" or "Energy in Abundance", I have given details of Kromrey's life and of the fate of his invention. Because his machine apparently contradicts the first law of thermodynamics, the French patent was only granted after two years and after approval by the "Higher Commission for Inventions"; he had to wait ten years for the German patent award. Kromrey, a past professor for electrical engineering of Paris University, did not even get permission by a high technical school in Paris to donate a machine to this school. This is only one example on what has come of the Old World; but it is probably not much different in the New World.

In my book, of which a second edition has already been published and for which we still try to find an English-language publishing house to print the text which is already translated, I not only describe a selection of unconventional electric machines. Unorthodox energy conversions, which will result in efficiencies considerably higher than I can also be imagined in other fields and are being developed. They could be subdivided into thermal, mechanical and hydraulic apparatus, but such a division does not mean much really when one considers the possibilities which could be derived from the findings of Viktor and Walter Schauberger, on which my fellow countryman Norbert Harthun will lecture.

Thermodynamics play a role here, too. A Tornado, for example, increases in energy and cools its environment in doing so, although under the second law of thermodynamics, no machine can derive work from ambient heat. If the obstacles are discussed which are in the way of developing non-conventional energy devices because of the theory of thermodynamics, then the laws of thermodynamics are of the greatest importance in my opinion. However, they should not be considered as generally valid and dogmatic as is done by the established sciences. I have to restrict myself here to a few remarks:

My friend Joachim Kirchhoff, on whom you can read in my book, can prove to you clearly that the conditions covered by the laws of thermodynamics have originally been derived from the study of the steam engine and the knowledge gained thereof. They only apply to machines in which an expansion process takes place; they are also by no means independent of the characteristics of materials. And as I said earlier, the equivalence between work and heat and heat and work has never been proved beyond doubt in experiments. In addition, the theoretician Clausius made grave mistakes. He has continuously mixed up, for example, the geometric volume with the specific volume. Another friend of mine, Alois Urach in Vienna, has proved that Clausius and Thomson have based their findings on reports by Clapeyron who had taken over Carnot's reasoning on the impossibility of the perpetuum mobile without any criticism.

In this way, many scientists have copied others over the last two centuries without checking the truth of their findings, as is often done. If somebody, like my friend Bernhard Schaeffer in Berlin, applies for research funds to study carbonic acid as a fluid medium and to check simultaneously the tenability of the second law of thermodynamics his proposal is of course put before a professor for evaluation first. That professor's opinion expressed publicly can be considered symptomatic: Schaeffer's approach seems to be really important and deserved being studied, but he would not favor these studies because they would imperil the work of himself and his assistants.

I have talked about people like Kirchhoff, Urach and Schaeffer to show you that, in addition to much practical work in Europe, many researchers are analysing the theoretical bases of our energy engineering afresh. They all have tried to find at least a few competent partners for discussion among scientists. In vain.

In nearly all cases they hit upon narrow-minded smugness nourished by the fact that the government and the industry spend their research funds on other fields, in particular on nuclear research. Experts from among the intelligensia circles mentioned provide "escort" readily in order to prevent any we-conventional energy technology from becoming a new conventional energy technology soon.

But inventors are stubborn people, as is widely known, and he who pursues something of his own accord will be more successful in the long run than he who only deals with subjects for which he is employed and paid. Therefore, I feel that Wilhelm Haberle, for example, who experiments with materials which expand much in the low temperature range when the temperature is only slightly increased, will soon come up with a novel concept for engines. I expect a similar development from Josef Bertrams, who has proven long ago by experiment the soundness of his findings on a perpetually moving hydraulic machine. People like Prof. Pollermann, an elderly gentleman who evaluates proposals for non-conventional energy transformations on behalf of the Federal German Ministry of Research at the Julich Nuclear Research Centre, will not change much in the end. In the course of about four years, Pollermann has turned down some 500 proposals which surely not all were nonsense; not a single proposal was handed back to the Minister for further evaluation or even for sponsorship.

All those who are concerned with the development of non-conventional energy devices in my own country have to do this as private individuals, at great cost and without outside assistance worth mentioning. Those in Germany who have the say in energy matters should all have heard of the subjects covered here in Atlanta by now. They either keep their silence or only show ridicule and contempt. Privately however, they take some of it quite seriously. Now and then, one can read astonishing things, for example that Krupp has built a larger Bank's engine.

Let me conclude. With so much painful and uncoordinated initiative as can be found in Germany, at the official refusal of each type of non-conventional energy technology, and at the tacit watch of augurs, it is not surprising that some people fish in troubled waters. I know already of two groups who have no development record of their own but make believe to the outside world that they are in possession of the most revolutionary know-how. Their methods are comparable: they would like to be intermediaries and thereby earn a lot of money. They contact one inventor after the other and try to find out who will reach his target soonest. They promise the big money which one group says will come from government sources, while the other group claims to have the backing of oil sheikhs. One of these groups already offered a 12-kW "heating current generator operating to the tachyon principle" - as they called it - several months ago, at a price of DM 18,700. I am sceptical and wait.

As I have not only talked about observations I made in Germany, as you surely have noticed, I will not deny you a report from the People's Republic of China. The Chinese radio announced on 8 April 1983: "The Harbin electric motor plant produced a 46-kVA rare-earth permanent magnetic power generator, judged as meeting advanced standards." A friend of mine followed this report distributed in the English language and received a pile of brochures on ordinary electric generators and motors which he passed on to me. More was not on offer, they said. But that is not the whole truth either.

Understanding universal law for the development of alternative energy technology

By MICHAEL BRADFORD

I'd like to start by reading something. The following editorial appeared in a Boston newspaper toward the end of the nineteenth century.

A man about 46 years of age, giving the name of Joshua Coppersmith, has been arrested in New York for attempting to extort funds from ignorant and superstitious people by exhibiting a device which he says will convey the human voice over any distance over metallic wires so that it can be heard by the listener at the other end. He calls the instrument a telephone, which is obviously intended to imitate the word telegraph and tries to win the confidence of those who know of the success of the latter instrument, without understanding the principles on which it is based. Well informed people know that it is impossible to transmit a human voice over wires.

There have been many editorials like this in the newspapers over the years, and there will be many more. Probably quite a few editorials about some of the inventions that you've heard about at this Symposium.

My present focus is on biomedical engineering. I don't develop kidney machines and heart monitors; I work with the Chakra systems, the energy that's in humans that most people don't know about. At least, the medical doctors don't discuss it. I also work at developing test equipment for measuring this mystical energy that we're talking about so that we can have some proof for the conventional scientist.

There's a mistake that I think we all make from the very beginning. Those of us who get involved in this kind of work have a kind of negative attitude about it. For instance, the title of this symposium, "Nonconventional Energy Technology". Maybe it should read something like this: "The Symposium for the Development of New Conventional Energy Technology". That's a little positive attitude at the beginning. I'm very well aware of how the negative and the paranoia get started. I got quite an education a few years ago when I tried to market a gas saving device. If any of you have ever worked on them, you know that there is an education there.

When I was growing up, my teachers and other adults thought that I used dirty words, and I would continue to say them no matter what, and today I'm going to say at least one of them, and you'll hear it quite a bit. One of them is called "why". I'm sure you've heard that one. We're not allowed to say "why". I'm going to ask some questions out bud, and then I'm going to answer them.

WHY ARE THERE SO MANY NAMES FOR THIS NONCONVENTIONAL ENERGY?

In the work that I've done over the years, studying pyramid energy, orgone energy, biological energy, and all the other names you've heard here in the last couple of days, I see that there are three spectra that we have to deal with. The one we've mainly talked about is the electromagnetic spectrum, because we have equipment to measure that. It's very easy; the laws have basically been established, and when you want to know something you can go get a book, look it up and find a law that applies.

The second spectrum of energy is the particle spectrum. Many, many years ago the scientist was the guy that could see the smallest particle, some guy who had better eyes and could see a smaller speck of dust. Then somebody found a speck of dust in a drop of water. He had a microscope; he could see something that the other scientists couldn't see. This process still goes on. There are always people who are able to see what the common man or the conventional scientist is not able to see. We had the atomic theory. That lasted for quite awhile and still lasts in many minds. We found that there were atoms. Now, over the years, we've found that there's something smaller, that an atom has three other basic components, the proton, neutron, and electron, and we were satisfied with that for quite awhile that that was the smallest thing known. Then somebody came along and asked, what is an electron? So we can break an electron down and say, well it's subatomic particles. That lasted for awhile, then they needed to break the subatomic particles down, and then finally got down to where it's in the quarks. Well, somebody will come along and ask what a quark is, I'm sure, when they find all they can about it. It keeps going farther and farther into the microworld.

The third spectrum is what I call the etheric spectrum. The reason it seems that there are so many names for these energies is the same reason there are so many names for the electromagnetic spectrum. You have visible light, you have gamma rays, cosmic rays, X-rays, ultraviolet . . . and in this etheric spectrum you also have all these different names, so we are all talking about the same type of energy. We're talking about the same spectrum of energy, but we're not talking about the same frequencies, and I think that's what sometimes confuses us. Pyramid energy is one that you find that is amplified in a pyramid shape. It's not necessarily the same energy you would find in a cone or in a square box. It's close; it has some of the same properties, but there is enough difference that it would confuse two people if they were going to sit down and try to discuss the properties of those two energies.

Something else that I found when I was doing pyramid research, when I first heard about it, it would improve the taste of wine, it would improve your sex life, and all the wonderful things that make it attractive. The sharpening of razor blades was probably the first thing that was talked about. In my research I found that it will do whatever you think it will do. What a pyramid does is that it amplifies this energy, and then your personal opinion, your mind, your psyche will give that energy a message, tell it what to do. So if you think it will sharpen razor blades it will. If you take it into a laboratory and you run tests on it and you think it will sharpen razor blades it will. If I don't think it will it won't. We're both going to be right. That's one of the things that makes the work rigidly so hard to prove.

WHY DO THINGS WORK BETTER WHEN THE INVENTOR TESTS THEM THAN WHEN THE CONVENTIONAL SCIENTISTS TEST THEM?

That has happened over and over and over. Somebody's got a great idea and in the laboratory it will prove out every time. You give it to somebody to test and they don't get the same results. Because I've studied the concept of how the mind energy works, to me there's a very simple answer.

Let me give you an example: this gas saving device that I worked on a few years ago. A man called me that had this device. I knew him. I knew he wasn't too far out. He said he had a device that he could get a 133 percent increase. That made me a little sceptical, but I went out to see it, and we ran volumetric tests. That's where you get a gallon jug of gasoline, put a hose in it, run the carburetor dry, then you drive until that gallon is empty and you measure your mileage. Sure enough, he was getting a 133 percent increase. It was just amazing.

It was on a Karman Ghia. If you've ever driven a Karman Ghia, you know they don't have a lot of power. With this increase, he could start out in third gear from a dead stop. It would ping just once and then it would pull right away, with three of us in the car. In fourth gear, it would nudge a little bit, but you could also start it out, and that's not normal for a Karman Ghia. So I knew that we had something here.

The parts that he used to build the device cost $.69. They were copper fittings. We bought them at a hardware store and machined them down a little bit, and I said, this is it . . . I know now how I'm going to finance my research laboratory. I've found the device.

But all my life, I'd heard about the carburetors that had not ever made it to the market, that the government had stopped. I kind of believed that, but not a whole lot. I figured that it was just that somewhere along in the process of getting to the market - if you've ever tried to market any of your inventions, you know that there are other things besides the government to stop you. And I figure that most of that was what would happen.

A friend of mine was president of Associated Press for the State of Ohio, and I went to him and I said, "We've got this device, I'd like to try to put it on the market, I've heard all the stories. If we can make a big deal at the very beginning and I can get some backing from the press, I will feel safe and if something does happen you'll have the story. If the government tries to stop us." He agreed to that. I went on a radio call-in show and we told about the device. At the end of the show, a guy called up and he wanted to know how we were financing it, and we were looking for funds. I gave my phone number out over the air. That sounded very innocent to me. By the time I got home I had 14 phone calls from people wanting to invest. It was a small town, a local boy; everybody was excited about it. So we didn't have any trouble getting money. The first problem was solved instantly, and I thought that was great. We actually had to make up a form letter to send out to tell people we didn't want any more money. I wish I could do that with every project, but it doesn't work that way. So I've had that experience, if nothing else.

We took the car to the Ohio research facility down by Belle Fountaine, where Honda runs their tests, and we gave the car to what's called Automotive Testing, Inc. They are EPA approved. They put it on a dynamometer and drained all the gas out and put in what's called test gas, which has nothing to do with the stuff you're going to buy every day. They ran it and we showed a 42 percent increase. That's a big change from 133 percent. The inventor, who was from Holland, instantly said they had messed with the computers. We were happy to get this kind of result, to be able to show the 42 percent increase. When we took it back and he ran the test again, he got 133 percent again. There were no changes except who was running the test. That was real confusing, but after many tests we realized that his personal opinion had a lot to do with it. Odd as that might sound, what other explanation can there be? Running exact tests, one with the inventor, one under EPA. On the way home from running the test, we also ran a volumetric test, and we got the 42 percent. There wasn't anything funny going on.

I'm going to tell you just a little bit more about this project called AVC (Air Volume Control), to show you how the inventor can actually change the results because of his opinion. When I went on the air, I told the people I would either put this on the market, or I will tell you why. The big question was, "who's going to stop you?". We did not get it on the market. I did get a test report out to anybody that was interested, so they could build it for themselves, but we never marketed it in any big way. I wasn't even able to write the book that I was going to write to tell about why. I had all the paperwork, I had tape recorded every conversation that I'd had with the Pentagon and with the Department of Energy and everybody involved. Luckily I did have all the paperwork, but I was not able to put it on the market. So I feel like I've been to "AVC College".

I learned that there really is something out there that stops you. I can't say it was the government that stopped me. It's much more complicated than that. There were government agencies involved. There were people's greed and ignorance involved. Lots of things were involved. But there is an organization that will interfere when you try to bring something new into the marketplace. Some of you have already had enough experience to know that's so true.

WHY CAN'T SOMETHING AS SIMPLE AS THE UNlFlED FIELD THEORY BE EXPLAINED?

How's that for a question? Well, when I was studying a little bit about the unified field theory and trying to use some of the information in my own work, I realized that when people talked about the unified field theory they were looking for balance, they were looking for an equal amount of things so that they could justify one thing with the other. They wanted five of this and five of that or two of this and two of that. In my work, I'd found there were some numbers that kept popping up. I didn't know exactly how it all fit together, and I don't totally know now, but I want to share this with you because some of this information will help you in your design in any work you're going to be doing. Whether it's the unified theory or even has anything to do with it is not necessarily important, but the information is important.

The number seven came up. You find it in the Bible and in ancient writings. The mind can only see seven things at one time. Put seven pencils (or cigarettes, anything that looks exactly alike) on a table in your home, and every time you walk by look at them and count them. Sometimes you'll see four and three, sometimes you'll see six and one. After a few times you'll be able to see seven pencils. After you can consistently walk by and see the seven, put the eighth down and see how long it takes you to see the eighth. You won't be able to do it. The mind can only pick up seven things at a time. That's why the telephone company uses seven numbers. Seven is a magical number.

I also found that five is a very significant number. It's called the number of man. Five had many significances. Also the number 12. When I started to look at these numbers, I was looking for how I could put everything into a nice little category. My first obvious thing was to use the number 10. One through zero. That way with those numbers everything else could be generated. That sounds logical, but there were certain things that would come up that did not fit in ten categories. There would be an eleventh factor. So I finally decided to use the number 12. Here's the information that I work with. I do use the number twelve, made up of seven and five.

One of the places you can find the seven and five relationship is in the musical scale. On a piano in one octave you have twelve notes, seven white keys and five black keys. The basic way it works it the black keys can either be played as sharps or flats. In other words, they're permissive. The white keys are always going to be the same, so we call those absolute. So I developed the absolute and permissive principle.

I find that this absolute and permissive principle also fits in everything else. In psychology, when I was working with psychology, when I worked with regressions and looking and how Karma works, the laws of Karma anti free will seem to apply here too. There seem to be seven absolute laws and five permissive laws in everything that I was dealing with.

As an analogy, let's say that you have a musical instrument with twelve strings on it. a twelve-string guitar. When you bought the musical instrument, seven of those strings didn't have the little knob on it that you could change. You're stuck with however it was tuned. You can change it by putting your finger on it when you strum it, but when you remove your finger it goes back to vibrating the same way it was. Five of those strings have a little knob and you can change those.

In the case of Karma, let's say, when you're born you have twelve factors that say how you are going to function within this life system. Seven things that you're born with you're stuck with. Your parents can put their finger on it as you're growing up, and your own anxieties can tense up and hold these and make those seven absolutes appear as if they're permissive, but they're only temporarily permissive. In other words, absolute is as long as there is no stimulus to that, it will always be constant. You can depend upon it. If you modify that absolute principle the minute that the stimulus is removed it will go back to that absolute constant again.

The permissives are this way: once you've made a change in that permissive law then it stays changed until something comes along and directly changes it again. Somebody has to come along and turn the knob again. This applies in your development of alternative energy sources. It applies to everything we're doing. It you're going to start out and build a magnetic turbine, and you're going to spend four years in the laboratory fighting absolute law, then you're wasting a lot of time. If you understood the basic absolute principles that you're working with at the beginning, and understood the permissive principles, then you would save yourself a lot of time, because you don't want to pound your head against the wall. Work with the permissives, around the absolutes. It's much easier; you can act things developed a lot faster.

One other place that I found this seven and five was in sun spot activity. It you look at the scale on the keyboard you see that it's not a regular progression. It's not an absolute and a permissive and an absolute and a permissive, or a white and a black. They are staggered in an odd form. You can also find this in sun spot activity. You find it many places. With an understanding of what I'm saying here, after a while you'll be able to find these laws 100. Once you get a handle on it, it will save you time. There's a 22 year sun spot cycle. From 1749 to 19X2, the 22 year cycles would go through both positive and negative. There would be a period of 22 years in which scientists would say these are in the positive mode. Then there would be a period when they would be in the negative mode. The thing that confused them was that every once in a while there would be two negatives in a row, two negative principles in a row. If you take this musical scale absolute and permissive principle and line it up with that sun spot activity. you'll see that it also follows this same absolute and permissive principle.

Now I want to talk a little bit about biological energy and the universal equation. Some years ago the Russians were sending microwaves into our embassy. I'm sure you all read about it. When our scientists started to study it, they found that the frequency that they were sending in was really 8 Hz waves, eight cycles per second. From our basic understanding, 8 Hz is not a harmful wave length. In fact, it can stimulate part of the brain wave activity in a positive manner. The hidden negative factor was that there is a polarity factor, a right and a left hand twist. If you send in a right hand 8 Hz wave, if you spiral that 8 Hz wave in, it will drain the energy out of the people you're sending it at. If you send in a left handed, it will charge them and drain the person behind the machine, so to speak. When you're working with equipment, remember that there is a right and a left handed principle, and that they both have value in your work, but biologically speaking one is going to be negative to you. Right handed twist. By the way, white sugar has a right handed polarity to it. They recently have developed some left handed twist sugar, but the sugar industry didn't like that too well, I guess.

I've found another thing using these principles that I'm talking about with the absolute and permissive. Three years ago I presented a paper to the Second World Congress on Science and Religion, and the basic idea of the paper was what I called the Universal Equation. It was a mathematical equation with which you calculate out what is good and what is bad. We've all been told this is good and that is bad. Sometimes you think something's good and somebody else tells you it's bad. Who's to know who's right? How do we know if something's good or bad for us? Somebody's personal opinion is not enough. So with this formula you could calculate out and say this is good or this is bad. I'll give you the numbers and you can make up your own chart and calculate these things out. It's a very simple formula.

The way I worked it was to take universal constants, things that no matter where you are or what your opinion is, they're going to be there. There are many, many universal constants and numbers that hold true independently of our awareness. One of them is called phi. It is 1.61803398874. It is an unending number. You can take it out as far as you want, but that's far enough for any work you'd be able to do. Here's another number, the linear ratio. It's 1.05946309435. If you want to generate a chart with that, just take that linear ratio times phi and you'll get another number. Take that answer times 1.059 again, and just keep developing a sequence of numbers. When you get to twelve, start a new line. You've developed one octave of numbers.

The numbers that you have generated will tell you what is in harmony with biological energies. Basically, we have brain wave activity that conventional science deals with. It's broken up into four sections. You have beta activity, which is your highest frequency, and alpha and theta and delta. Beta activity is basically stimulated by the color red, alpha by yellow, beta by green, and delta by blue. The frequencies involved with those colors will stimulate those brain waves.

If you generate a chart from the numbers I just gave you, you will find that a lot of things around you are not really too good for you. One of them is the 60 cycle electricity. As you generate, you'll find that the numbers come out that for it to be in harmony with your brain waves it should 59.25 or 61.45, or something like that. But if you call the power company and tell them you want them to change everything because their 60 cycles is out of harmony with your brain waves, I don't think they'll make too many changes for you. We all know that technology has not been necessarily good to us, it has caused us a lot of new problems. This is one method that you can use in your development to say, OK, what I'm developing might be good for the moment, and 50 or 100 years from now they're not going to come back and say that it causes cancer. You might as well figure it out at the beginning, start out with good, harmonious technology. I think these are important facts; I think that in the laboratory you should develop whatever you can and then try to find out how you can harmonize it. There are major problems with the psychology involved in how man is handling this high technology now. Are microwave ovens good for you? Well, you have to figure out what the vibration rate is and see if it fits on your chart. If it's not in the chart, stay away from it.

What happens with the 60 cycle electricity is that there is an electromagnetic energy force field in here that's just vibrating at 60 times a second, and if you had lived out in the woods for the last ten years and you walked into a place that had 60 cycle electricity it would make you feel "spacey" and you would lose your equilibrium. But we armor ourselves. We establish our muscle armoring so that we are not affected by it. We also do not perceive the blinking; it's beyond our visual abilities to see.

The musical scale can also be modified. There is always someone who's going to come along and change everything. I want to change the musical scale, just a little bit. This chart that you can generate from using those two numbers will generate a new musical scale. From the time you get from about 16 Hz up to about 4,000 Hz, that's considered the musical scale. The audio scale is a lot wider than that, but that's the musical scale. With synthesizers, the new musical instruments, you can now retune. You don't have to tune directly to the old musical scale as adopted back in the 1930s. And there will be changes. If you start listening to music that has a musical scale that has been modified to be in harmony with your biological rhythms and your brain wave patterns, you will start to be healthier, just from that. When you first hear it is might sound a little bit out of tune. But if the whole musical scale is changed, you quickly adapt to it, because it's really more natural for you to listen to.

When I was a young man about eight years old, I had quite an extensive laboratory in the basement. I had a cousin who worked for Dow Chemical and he supplied me with chemicals and all kinds of elaborate glassware. My father worked for Westinghouse in aerospace, and he would supply me with all the latest junk that they were throwing away; they used to throw away some good stuff. So I had quite an outfit. I was standing there and gazing into walls and my Dad asked me what I was working on. I said, "nothing". He said, "why don't you go tinker with something?" and I told him I was bored. He was never a man to get angry or upset, and all of a sudden he was just instantly upset with me. This startled me. He said, "you have a better laboratory than Standard Oil and you're only eight years old. Everybody else has got a Gilbert chemistry set. How can you say you're bored? I don't want to ever hear you say you're bored again. When you find the cure for the common cold and cancer, then you can come and tell me you're bored." I thought about all that. A couple of weeks later I went into the lab and there was a little joke cut out of a magazine hanging on my bulletin board. It was two cave men sitting in a cave around a fire. There was a stone wined lying the wall. One cave man said to the other, "Well, now that we've invented fire and the wheel, what else could there possibly be?" So I've kind of remembered that. Every time I run out of things to invent, I remember that little fire and wheel story. There's always a new fire and a new wheel to make.

TIME AND SPACE TRAVEL

The next subject is time and space travel. When I was studying all these numbers and vibrations and trying to grasp the concept that everything is vibrations, even my dining room table, I was trying to figure out that if these things are all vibrations then we have to approach every bit of our thinking from the vibration standpoint.

I have a concept, believable from my perspective, anyway, that would work. We try to develop technology based on the speed of light. We want to go to Alpha Centauri; we're not going to live long enough to go there at the rate we travel now. Those things really aren't worth thinking about if they're not able to be done. So we have to find a better way, a faster way. The energies that we work with, this mystical energy, doesn't seem to apply to the speed of light. I know that conventional science says there's nothing faster than the speed of light, and I know many of you here know that that's not true, that there are things faster than the speed of light. It's just that we have no way of measuring it; all our equipment is based upon the speed of light.

I think that the following is a workable hypothesis. Let's say I want to go to Alpha Centauri. I know that everything is vibrations, that 1 can find out exactly where I am right now by taking where the earth is in relationship to the sun, the sun's relationship to the galaxy and to the supergalaxy. So we can find out vibratory-wise where I am right at this particular point. Narrow it right down and say, OK at this particular point you have a mass of vibrations that will tell you where you are. Just to simplify it, we'll just say that at this point I'm vibrating at 2800 cycles per second. It's much more complicated than that, but we'll use that. There's no place else in the universe that's vibrating at exactly 2800 cycles per second.

I want to go to Alpha Centauri. With a proper formula, you can calculate out what the vibration rate would be at that place. Let's say that it's 6200 cycles per second. So 1 put myself in an environment in which I can vibrate at 6200 cycles per second, and when everything becomes relative and I open the doors of my little capsule, I'm going to exist wherever 6200 cycles per second is compatible. Therefore, I would be at Alpha Centauri. We're not talking about traveling from Point A to Point B in a linear fashion. To get there, you might have to travel 400 light years this way and 600 light years that way, in linear terms, because you really wanted to go straight forward, but to get there I had to travel on harmonious vibration rates.

I don't think time and space travel is too far off; I think it's just our ability to understand where we are right now. I don't think we really know where we are vibratory wise. I think that once we can find out how we relate to those vibrations that we can then do anything.

Q. from Tom Valone: How can we get more information on the gas-saving device?

A. I will reprint the information and you can leave your name with one of the people at the back of the hall and I'll try to get it to you.

Q. from R. Jennison: I don't quite appreciate your "wonderful" numbers. The main reason for this is that one of the numbers you quote, 1.059 etc., as far as I recall, is the twelfth root of two. This was a number which was used some 200 years ago to follow the "natural" scale. Now surely if things have to be "natural", regarding vibrations, you get "natural" harmonics and they occur in beautiful, simple number ratios. The Pythagorean scale is slightly different in that it uses two ratios but is almost a natural scale. The real natural scale is simple numerical ratios.

The snag was that 200 years ago this did not fit the keyboard instruments because it meant that every time you wanted to change the key you had to change the keyboard. Therefore, you had Bach, for example, with the equi-tempered scale where the ratio of the tones is not quite natural. The number you quoted (the twelfth root of two) is the human "fudge" factor. Now is this natural?

A. The number 1.059 is the twelfth root of two and that number is workable for biological harmony. Now when you get out into space, you are right, there have to be modifications to these numbers. They work great for figuring out if 60 Hz is beneficial. They are not the ideal numbers. But even with the equal tempered scale, people can say they chose this because it fits on a piano. But why, if it fits on a piano, does it fit sunspot activity? These principles that show up by accident - sometimes it is for a different reason than people think.

Q. from Steve Mills: What was that first number to which you referred?

A. PHI, or the golden ratio. E.g. IT YOU take a pine cone and count the number of kernels going clockwise and the number counterclockwise and then divide the larger by the smaller number, it always comes out to Phi. It is really a botany number found in nature.

The all-electric motional electrical field generator and its potential

By FRANCES G. GIBSON

This talk is based entirely on the theory and experimental work of Dr. William J. Hooper, BA, MA, PhD. in Physics from the University of California, Berkley, and formerly Professor Emeritus at Principia College, Elsah, IL.

PREFACE

From 1968 to 1971, my husband, Warren W. Gibson, financed the research of Dr. William J. Hooper. I worked with Dr. Hooper as secretary and laboratory assistant. He explained his theory and the intent of each experiment to me as the work progressed. I was personally present when every experiment was performed during this time.

After Dr. Hooper passed on in 1971, I tried to perform an experiment with a vacuum tube generator which he had designed. On my first attempt I burned out the tube, and with that I lost confidence in my ability to do the research on my own.

I satisfied my desire to continue the work with the publication and sale of his manuscript, and with the hope that it would spark an interest in someone who would want to carry on the research. There has been much interest expressed in his theory and research, but to my knowledge there is no one presently continuing the work.

Many people who have read Dr. Hooper's manuscript have asked for more experimental data. This paper includes that information.

THE ALL-ELECTRIC MOTIONAL FIELD GENERATOR AND ITS POTENTIAL

The history of scientific progress shows that new discoveries often are not made until some old assumptions are challenged and found to be wrong. Dr. William J. Hooper challenged the assumption of electromagnetic theory that there was only one electric field in nature, the electrostatic, and that led to more challenges of current theory.

In his manuscript, New Horizons in Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational Field Theory, Dr. Hooper defines three electric fields with distinct characteristics: the electrostatic, which is very familiar; the transformer electric field, which is produced by a changing magnetic field intensity; and the motionally induced electric field, which is the product of relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic field. A table on page IS of his book shows the major differences in the properties of these fields.

When all his experiments indicated that the motionally induced electric field was incapable of being shielded by ordinary electrostatic or magnetic shielding materials, he pondered the possibility that this field was akin to gravity, which has characteristics similar to an electric field except for its inability to be shielded. This paper will not deal with his extensive shielding experiments which are thoroughly described in his manuscript and were done before my time.

Let's review again the nature of this motionally induced electric field. When magnetic flux is moved perpendicularly across a conductor, we say that an e.m.f. is electromagnetically induced within the conductor. This phenomenon has been little thought of as involving the production of a spatially distributed electric field. It arises from the operation called flux-cutting, wherein the electric field is motionally induced within the space occupied by the moving magnetic flux, and is present therein, whether a conductor is present in this space or not.

Correctly defined, we can say that when magnetic flux of vector intensity B is moved across a region of space with vector velocity V, an electromagnetically induced electric field of vector intensity B ´ V makes its appearance in this space at right angles to both B and V. Therefore,

E = B ´ V Equation 1

It is this field that Dr. Hooper felt might be related to gravity. I will hereafter refer to this field as the motional E field.

After contemplating the structure of the atom, Dr. Hooper concluded that if the charged particles in the atom, especially the electrons and protons, acted like miniature magnets, their motion would create in the space surrounding the atom this motional E field. The field created by the motion of both the positive and negative charges would cancel to some degree, but because the velocity of the negative electron in orbit is greater than the velocity of the positive proton in the nucleus, the induced field of the electron would predominate. He determined that the field due to the orbital motion of these charges would vary inversely as the square of the distance, the same as gravity. He also determined that the field produced by the translational motion of these charges would vary inversely as the cube of the distance. These observations may totally unite electromagnetic and gravitational field theory and account for the strong and weak forces in the atom.

If his theory was correct, Dr. Hooper envisioned the ability to tap the gravitational field of any planetary body for electrical energy, free from pollutants, with a properly designed ultra high frequency receiving circuit, incorporating an antenna, a transistor valve, and oscillating tank circuits. When he learned of the work of T. Henry Moray, he was convinced that Moray had tapped the earth's gravitational field, and he expected Moray to complete this work for mankind, so he decided to concentrate hsi research on proving his theory.

When he passed on in 1971, Dr. Hooper was sure he had done this, as he had been issued patents on two generators, a mechanical one, Patent no. 3,656,013, and an all-electric one, Patent no. 3,610,971. Dr. Hooper spent many years building devices to rotate magnets at high speeds to test his theory, but always found that the magnetic field of the magnets, and the vibration and noise of the motors interfered with his attempts to measure the field with either a capacitor connected to an electrometer or a gravity meter.

In 1968, soon after I began working with Dr. Hooper, he conceived and built a device which would eliminate all previous problems because there would be no measurable magnetic flux and no motors. He called it the All-Electric Motional Electric Field Generator. Its design was based completely on his theory of gravity, and how he believed gravity was produced in the atoms of matter. If his theory was correct, he expected his device to produce a motional E field outside the generator by the movement of the magnetic field associated with the conduction electrons making up the current flowing in the copper wire of the generator.

Figure 1. shows the design of the generator. It consists of one length of #11, formvar insulated copper wire, 924 meters long, bent 180" at nine inch intervals and packed side-by-side with the two ends emerging together from the top. These nine inch linear conductors, 4020 in all, were then sealed together with epoxy in the shape of a right circular cylinder. When energized by direct current, half of the conductors, 2010, would be carrying current and magnetic flux vertically downward, and the same number would be carrying them vertically upward. Thus, the generator is non-inductive, having no measurable magnetic field around it. But Dr. Hooper hoped to find something else around it, the motional E field, similar to gravity, in that, it could not be shielded.

Electromagnetic induction with no measurable magnetic field is not new. It is well-known that in the space outside a properly wound toroidal coil, there is no magnetic field due to the superposition of fields, and yet, when alternating current is surging back and forth in it, a transformer electric field is present in the space surrounding it.

Let's see what happens when we apply the principle of superposition of fields to this device. This principle says that in order to find the resultant intensity of superimposed fields, each field should be treated as though the other were absent; the resultant is obtained by the vector addition of each field considered singly. When the current in half the wires in this generator is moving up, both the current and the magnetic field follow the right hand rule, and the motional E field would be vertical to both and inwardly directed. At the same time, the current in the other half of the wires is moving down, and both the current and the magnetic field follow the right hand rule and the motional E field is again vertical to both and inwardly directed. Therefore, the resultant field intensity is double the intensity attributable to one set of conductors.

Here is how it is expressed mathematically:

E = (B ´ V) + (-B ´ -V) = 2(B ´ V) Equation 2

where E is the electric field intensity, B is the magnetic field that is moving with the electron drift velocity, V. The first B ´ V in the equation represents the flow of the magnetic field when the electrons are moving in one direction in the wire, and the second term (-B ´ -V) represents the flow of the magnetic field when the electrons are moving in the other direction. E is the sum of both B ´ V's.

Figure 2 pictures how we measured the presence of this motional E field. A highly insulated, stainless steel capacitor plate was connected to the heavy coat of conductive silver, shielding the rest of the generator and then grounded. The outer capacitor plate was connected to the input head of a Keithley 640 Vibrating Capacitor Electrometer. This particular electrometer with its high shunt resistances and its vibrating capacitor seemed ideal for this purpose. The generator with its capacitor and the head of the electrometer were then placed inside a stainless steel cabinet. All the connecting wires between the electrometer head inside the box and the galvanometer outside the box were electrostatically shielded, as well as the leads to the generator from the power supply. Everything was grounded through a terminal on the electrometer. Now, we are ready to energize the generator with up to thirty amps of current from our power supply and measure the motional E field on the outside.

The predicted value of the measurement was in the low microvolt region. Dr. Hooper, through working in college physics laboratories for over forty years, was well aware of the many problems associated with taking measurements in the microvolt region, and we had to test for and guard against them all. Our greatest problems came because we were unaware of the tendency for an electrostatic field to be generated equally and oppositely to this motional E field, and how frequently this phenomenon occurs. One time when we used one thick capacitor plate and one thin one, we discovered that the motional E field set up an electrostatic distribution within the thick capacitor plate, and reversed the charge on the outer plate. When capacitor plates of equal thickness were used the motional E field measurement was always positive.

Another problem we had involved the unbalance of our power supplies. We used two power sources: our own specially built one, designed to rectify 220 AC voltage to low ripple DC voltage, providing a maximum of 275 DC volts and 30 amps, and occasionally, 12 volt car batteries connected in series to compare results. At one point we discovered that when the current from the power source entered from one direction, the measurement of the motional E field was less than when it entered from the other direction. Here, in Dr. Hooper's own words, is how he accounted for this problem. "The question arose as to why there would be a difference in readings because of an unbalance in the power source, as the inner capacitor plate is grounded, and the law is that there would be no electrostatic charge on the outside of a grounded enclosure. The interesting thing is that the only answer seems to lie in the fact that there is a motional E field present. If there is an unbalance on the inside of the container due to an unbalance in input voltage, the normal thing would be for charge to flow through the ground wire to balance the charge on the inside of the container. However, if the motional E field was acting in the ground wire in one way, it would oppose the flow of electrons toward the shield and, therefore, would allow an electrostatic charge to remain on the inner capacitor plate and affect the readings." We had to realize the significance of the fact that this field permeates everything.

Dr. Hooper's explanation seemed to be confirmed by close observation of the needle on the electrometer in an experiment done immediately following this discovery. In that experiment, 100V was applied to the generator; 26 amps was the resulting current. When the direction of the current was one way, it is recorded that the electrometer needle, first, went negative to 11 microvolts and, then, positive to 17 microvolts. When the current was reversed, the electrometer needle only went positive to 28 microvolts. The difference between the two final readings was 11 microvolts, the same as the negative deflection. When the input voltage was balanced between positive and ground and between negative and ground, the measurements of the motional E field were the same when the current was flowing in either direction.

The above figures are not comparable to the measurements that will be referred to later because different size capacitor plates were on the generator. The measurements I will be using were taken before this discovery, but we did not redo them because we saw that the unbalance was always a negative factor, causing our readings to be less, never more. Dr. Hooper did not feel that it changed the conclusions reached, even though the exactness of the measurements might be questioned.

Between February 4 and July 19, 1969, when the generator was in the condition shown in Figure 2, we varied temperature, resistance, types of current, and types of power supplies. Measurements were taken by hand at 5 amp intervals, up to 30 amps. We- did not have the sophisticated equipment that is available in many laboratories today. Voltage was often not taken because it was felt that if we took our measurements only when the generator was cool, the voltage would remain the same, and we wanted to move up the scale quickly before the generator could heat up. Also, Dr. Hooper felt that the amperage was the most important factor because theory predicted that the field intensity would be directly proportional to the square of the amperage, because it is proportional to the virtual value of the magnetic field, which is proportional to the current, and to the electron drift velocity, which theory says is proportional to the current.

Figure 3 provides some typical measurements of the potential difference urea across the capacitor plates by the electrometer at room temperature. The PD reading in the third column will be the significant figure to watch from here on. That is what we considered to be the measurement of the intensity of the motional E field produced by this generator. This measurement was never just a swing of the electrometer needle and then back. These measurements were steady on the electrometer as long as the amperage reading was held the same, showing that the field was being produced continuously. Now, I don't mean to say that on such a sensitive electrometer the needle was completely stable, but when the amperage was turned up, the needle went up also and the instability was always in the area of the measurement; when we turned the amperage up more, the needle continued up the scale. If we had jerks of the needle in one direction or the other, we knew we had something spurious affecting our readings, and we worked until we found out what it was, or until it was no longer there.

The PD readings on the electrometer were always very close to a parabola, as Dr. Hooper predicted. However, the magnitude varied from day to day. We determined that there were at least two possible causes of this. One, there was some evidence that 8 to 10 degrees' variation in room temperature caused variations in the readings - the higher the temperature, the higher the readings. The reason for this may become clearer later. Two, the unbalance of the power supply, already discussed. You will note that the fourth column of figures on this chart shows what the predicted values of PD would be for the other amperages, based on the experimental figure at 30 amps. The predicted parabola was always close to the actual readings,

On July 19, we went up and down the scale several times because it had been suggested that our readings might be due to thermoelectric effects between the two capacitor plates. This proved they were not. If our readings had been due to heat, they would not go up and down the scale with the current. There readings also show that the readings were not due to an e.m.f. induced by changing flux. You will note, however, that after a few times up and down the scale, the generator did begin to warm up, and the readings on the electrometer began to increase. We had noted this many times and had usurped that it was due to thermoelectric effects and, immediately, stopped experimenting until the generator cooled down. However, on June 4, we decided to see just what the effect of heating was on the measurements.

For comparison purposes, the first set of measurements in Figure 4 were taken when the generator was at room temperature. The second measurements were taken the same day when the generator was hot to the touch. When the generator was hot, the PD at all levels increased, and you will see the curve is no longer a parabola. However, the difference was not totally due to thermoelectric effects, because there was a substantial jump back at 25 amps. Several measurements were taken with the hot generator that day with almost identical results. We were sorry that the voltage measurements were not taken because they could have given us an idea of how hot the generator was.

Because heat resistance in the generator seemed to increase the PD measurements, it was decided to try other forms of resistance in the circuit with the generator. The first set of numbers in Figure 5 was obtained when we put a carbon pile rheostat in the line. The normal resistance of our generator was 3.7 ohms. The rheostat increased the resistance in the circuit to 5.3 ohms. We discovered that these first measurements were very similar to the ones where heat was the added resistance, in Figure 4. We then increased the resistance to 7.5 ohms, and, as you can see, there was another substantial increase in the PD readings at 30 amps. Then, we added photofloods of 1500 watts to the circuit, increasing its resistance to 12.3 ohms. In order not to burn them up, we only put 13 amps in the line, but, if you will compare that 13 amps with the IS amps above, you will find a substantial increase. For more comparison, we then returned to the rheostat and adjusted it to 12.3 ohms and at 13 amps we got exactly the same PD reading. Then, when all resistance was removed, the reading was substantially less.

These experiments showed that our PD measurements, believed to be the measurement of the motional E field, increased with the addition of resistance in the circuit, and that the form of that resistance, whether heat, carbon pile rheostat, or photofloods, didn't make any difference.

Since Dr. Hooper anticipated that the best way to intensify this field would be through the use of superconductivity, he wanted to see the effect that cooling would have on our generator. On February 28, we packed the generator, capacitors and all, with dry ice for five hours. Then, we took the first set of measurements, shown in Figure 6. Unfortunately, there is no record of voltage which would have indicated how cold the generator had gotten. At first, the results were very puzzling to us; certainly not what Dr. Hooper had expected. The curve was not at all parabolic. When you look at the PD at 30 amps, it is not much different than at room temperature.

We soon discovered, however, that the results almost exactly fit the curve having a formula of PD = Kl4, where K is the proportional constant and I is the current, whereas the formula for a parabola is PD = Kl2. Then we became excited, for it could mean that a radical change had taken place in the drift velocity of the electrons in the copper wire, somewhere between room temperature and dry ice temperatures. If this was so, it could help explain the phenomenon of superconductivity. Whether it was a gradual change or whether there was a critical temperature, we could not determine from these experiments.

That night we packed the generator in dry ice overnight, 17 hours. The readings that were taken the next day all fit the formula, PD = KI4. Fortunately, the first two sets of readings included voltage measurements from which we determined that the resistance had dropped from 3.7 ohms to 2.3 ohms, over one third. You will note that sometimes we missed the proper 5 amp interval; it was because we were taking the measurements rapidly before the generator could heat up. I am sure that is also why we skipped the voltage measurements on that last run, and afterwards we were sorry we had.

Have you ever tried to visualize what happens to the electrons in a wire when AC voltage is applied? We decided to try to find out. On several occasions we put AC voltage into our generator from the 220 line coming into our laboratory and through our power supply. Figure 7 is typical of the results. You will note that the PD readings were no longer a parabola, but almost a straight line, having its beginning at less than zero. The bottom figures are the result of adding resistance to the circuit with AC current. Here again, you will note that the PD increases with the addition of resistance to the circuit.

At one point we began to ask ourselves, if this is the measure of the motional E field, what is happening in those wires? Fortunately, there are formulas available to give us a clue. First of all, we determined that there was no reason to believe that the intensity of the virtual magnetic field around the generator changed with temperature when the current was the same, so therefore it must be the drift velocity of the electrons that was changing.

To get a close approximation of VD, the drift velocity of the electrons, we used the equation:

PD = B ´VL Equation 3

where PD is the measurement of the field's intensity across the capacitor plates, L is the distance between the plates, B is the virtual magnetic field and V is the measurement of the drift of B. which is identical to the electron drift velocity, vd. From the formula,

I = AENvD Equation 4

where I is the current, A is the cross-sectional area of the wire, E is the charge on the electron, and N is the number of conduction electrons, we see that if VD changes, N. the number of conduction electrons, must also change, for in this particular generator A and e are constants. Therefore, if the drift velocity changes with temperature, so must the number of conduction electrons. If one goes up, the other goes down.

Using Equation 3, and using the calculus to integrate the line integral of the electric field intensity, PD, between the capacitor plates, a more exact figure for vD can be obtained. Doing it this way, using the PD reading at 10 amps from one of the early experiments, Dr. Hooper determined the drift velocity to be 1.78 cm/sec. Using the classical derivation of the drift velocity, with Avogadro's number, and then decreasing it by 100 as indicated by the Fermi-Dirac statistics, he arrived at almost the same figure as the experimental, 1.762 cm/sec.

These experiments show that the number of conduction electrons remains fairly constant at room temperatures and that the drift velocity increases linearly with the current. When resistance in the form of heat, carbon pile rheostat, or photo floods was added to the circuit, the number of conduction electrons decreased from that of room temperature and normal resistance while the drift velocity increased. At dry ice temperature and at low current, there were almost ten times as many conduction electrons moving, but moving very slowly, like cars on a crowded highway. As the amperage increased, the number of conduction electrons decreased rapidly, causing a greatly accelerated increase in the electron drift velocity. When AC current was put in the generator, it appeared that 3 to 4 times as many electrons were moving at low amperage as move under DC current at room temperature, but as with dry ice, when more electrons were moving, they were moving very slowly. By the time the amperage increased to 20 amps the number of electrons had increased to almost the same number as with DC current at room temperature. From 20 to 30 amps the number of electrons remained fairly constant. The electron drift velocity increased rapidly at low amperages and continued to increase but at a decreasing rate at higher amperages.

These observations regarding electron drift velocity and number of conduction electrons would appear to be more consistent with the current theory regarding gases, semiconductors, and semi-metals, than with the current theory for metals. If these findings are true, they would seem to indicate that the conductivity of a metal is related to the number of electrons in motion and their velocity, both of which change with temperature and resistance.

In his book, Electromagnetism and Relativity, published in 1957, E. G. Cullwick predicted, based on experimental evidence, that the magnetic field of the electron could move with the electron drift velocity. He also said, "Measurements of the normal Hall effect in metals are often assumed to confirm the conventional view that all the available conduction electrons participate continuously in a conduction current." He then shows that this need not be so. Our experiments also indicate that this might not be so.

The question is usually asked about how this motional E field fits into the relativity theories. Dr. Hooper has a section in his manuscript where he says that he feels there is no conflict with the Special Theory of Relativity, only with how it is currently being interpreted by some relativists. It does appear to conflict with the General Theory of Relativity.

In the beginning I said that Dr. Hooper began by challenging the assumption of electromagnetic theory that there is only one electric field, the electrostatic, and that this led him to make more challenges of field theory. In formulating his theory of gravity, he had to challenge the current belief that the magnetic field, known to be present when an electron is in motion, does not move with the electron. However, if his theory is correct, we have a solid basis for a unified field theory, based on the motional E fields created when the charges in the atom are in motion. When he built a generator to test his theory, the results challenged the belief in current theory that the electron drift velocity in metals does not change with temperature, an aspect of current theory which makes metals different from all other substances, gases, semi-conductors, and semi-metals.

Dr. Hooper not only visualized that if his theory were correct that we could [...] the gravitational field for energy, "atomic" energy in its most usable form; he also saw the possibilities, it this motional E field could be intensified enough, of gravity free areas on earth, artificial gravity in space, space vehicles, and even off the road vehicles on earth. He felt that this field could be used for communication through previously impenetrable barriers, and to separate ions, such as in the desalinization of water and the control of thermonuclear plasma.

Now, let's go back to Equation 2, E = B ´ V, where E represented the intensity of the field we were producing. That intensity represents the strength of the field. It must be substantially increased before the field can be made useful. The V in the equation represents the electron drift velocity in the material making up the generator. An increase in the drift velocity would increase the field's intensity. This research indicates that it can be done at both higher and lower temperatures, and with increased resistance in the circuit. Hence, it provides a direction for more research.

To begin, most would want to duplicate the experiments here outlined. All the original equipment is still available. That might lead to building generators like this from a variety of materials, which would give a great deal of information about the conductivity of solids, heretofore unknown, which could indicate a pattern of activity for electrons in various materials, making possible predictions about what happens to electron drift velocity at both higher and lower temperatures, amperages, and with varying amounts of resistance. There would probably be some materials that would be best used at high temperatures, others that would be best at low temperatures, and still others that might do well at room temperature.

The possibilities are great that this experimentation begun in 1969 will transform the world.


Figure 1. The All-Electric Motional Electric Field Generator

Figure 4

Voltage

Amperage

PD mv

Parabola at 30 amps

Cold Generator

10

11

12.8


15

27

28.8


20

50

51.0


25

80

79.9


30

115

115.0

Hot Generator

10

13

25.0


15

40

56.3


20

75

100.0


25

123

156.3


30

220

220.0


25

130


Figure 3 Measurements taken when generator was at room temperature.

Voltage

Amperage

PD mv

Parabola at 30 amps

February 4

35

10

7

6.7

52

15

15

15.0

73

20

25

26.7

91

25

40

41.7

110

30

60

60.0

February 11


10

10

10.0


15

25

22.5


20

41

40.0


25

60

62.5


30

90

90.0

July 19


10

15

13.9


15

30

31.2


20

55

55.6


25

85

86.8


30

125

125.0


25

85



20

50



15

27



10

10



15

26



20

55



25

87



30

140



25

90


Figure 5

Voltage

Amperage

PD mv

Parabola at 30 amps

Rheostat 5.3W

53

10

11

22.2

80

15

30

50.0

107

20

70

88.9

133

25

80-100

138.9

160

30

200

200.0

Rheostat 7.5W

225

30

360


Photofloods 12.3W

160

13

100


Rheostat 12.3W

160

13

100


Nothing added 3.7W

48

13

15


Figure 7

AC voltage in the generator at room temperature.

Voltage

Resistance

Amperage

PD mv



10

-4.5



15

25



20

70



25

115



30

150

With added resistance

120

4 W

30

200

61

4 W

15

55

120

18 W

6.7

160

275

18 W

15

220

Figure 6

Voltage

Amperage

PD mv

Parabola at 30 amps

Dry Ice, 5 hours

10

1.5

1.2


15

6

5.9


20

17

18.8


25

45

45.8


30

95

95.0


Dry Ice, 17 hours

20

10

1.5

.5

32

15

2.5

2.3

43

20

6

7.3

55

25

14.5

17.8

68

30

37

37.0

21

10

--

.6

33

15

2

2.8

45

20.5

6

8.9

57

25

18

21.7

70

30

45

45.0


11

1

1.3


16

5

6.0


20

14.5

14.7


25

40

36.0


31

85

85.0

Toward a new electromagnetics part 4: Vectors and mechanisms clarified

By T.E. BEARDEN

FOREWORD

This paper is an adaptation of the oral/visual presentation given by the author at the 1983 Annual Conference of the U.S. Psychotronics Association on Saturday, July 23, 1983.

The presentation was delivered directly from the vugraphs alone, and not from a formal, written text.

The title of the presentation at the conference was "New Electromagnetics: Where the 'Old Math' Took the Wrong Turn."

As originally conceived, the lecture was to be given in a single period of some 45 minutes and cover only the first part of this paper, the clarification of the vector concept in physical theory. The Symposium directors graciously scheduled two periods instead, allowing time to present additional material further clarifying vector and scalar waves, and to present a variety of unusual physical mechanisms that apply the concepts.

After the conference, the author prepared this paper directly from the same slides, in the same order. However, no attempt was made to match the words in this paper to the words actually delivered in the formal presentation. The gist of the two, however, is the same - except that, in the conference lecture, the author covered (as an aside) some important additional material: (1) the nature of what actually occurs in an "electrical ground," and (V the author's explanation of the theory of Tesla's magnifying transmitter.

An audio tape and a videotape of the author's USPA presentation were made by the conference officials. Copies are available at nominal cost from:

Mr. Robert Beutlich, Secretary/Treasurer, U. S. Psychotronics Association, 3459 Montrose Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60618, U.S.A., phone (312) 478-7715.

TOWARD A NEW ELECTROMAGNETICS PART 4: VECTORS AND MECHANISMS CLARIFIED

© T. E. Bearden 1983

SLIDE 1. TOWARD A NEW ELECTROMAGNETICS (TITLE)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my deep appreciation to two of my fellow colleagues, Dr. William Tiller and Mr. Frank Golden, for many fruitful hours of discourse and interchange on these and related subjects.

Also, I wish to thank the Association of Distinguished American Scientists (A.D.A.S.) for support and assistance in the long and arduous struggle to revise the basic foundations of electromagnetics and mechanics.

SLIDE 2. OUTLINE

This presentation is one part of a three part presentation, consisting of the main briefing on physical effects, the historical background, and the cements of the emerging new electromagnetics.

In this present briefing I will not cover the historical background. Instead, first I will address the concepts of the new theory, and then I will give an abbreviated main briefing, including some weapon aspects. I will present one simple free energy motor and show how it works, and where it gets its energy.

Much of this material I have known for some time, but have hesitated to release it because it enables one to develop - in a fairly straightforward manner - weapons and beams (ray) systems that can disable electronics, computers, communications, and people. Anyone handy in electronics, who has a few thousand dollars and access to bench equipment and an electronics parts supply house, can develop these weapons in his or her basement workshop. But because certain very radical elements in this country already know some of this information and may plan to utilize such devices in criminal activities, I am openly releasing the information as a warning to be prepared.

Of course, there are many good things that can be developed with this technology, including machines to heal a remarkable variety of ailments and illnesses. I strongly urge everyone to use this information wisely and only for benefit of other human beings. There exists a cosmic or karmic law for those who misuse it against their fellow persons; if one does that, one will assuredly suffer the consequences.

Also, I strongly urge the development of Western defenses against the Soviet strategic and tactical weapons already developed utilizing these principles. Unless the West wakes up to the extreme urgency of this task, in the near future we may be overwhelmed in short order by a much harsher, dictatorial system. If that should happen, it will plunge the human race into a new dark age far more terrible than that dark period in history following the fall of Rome.

These are the final times, and this is the beginning of the final technology. The ability to directly engineer physical reality itself has been laid in our laps. Pandora's box is already spilled open, and there is no longer any stopping the new technology.

Let us prepare, then, for that which is to come.

With these introductory remarks, let us now turn to the main presentation.

SLIDE 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED CONCEPTS

On this slide I show some fundamental defining characteristics of energy, "charge" or charged mass as presently in the theory, flux, flow, and current. These fundamental concepts are often somewhat confused in the literature.

Particularly note that the concept of energy, being tied to "the capacity to do work," is specifically tied to the concept of mass. Eventually, energy must be expressed in terms of moving masses - specifically, in accelerating or decelerating masses.

I introduce the term "anenergy" here, specifically in relation to the concept of a virtual particle. Anenergy is roughly equivalent to the present idea of "virtual energy," except it more precisely implies the flow or flux of virtual particles.

We also redefine charge as virtual particle flux, in order to remove the present error in EM theory where "charge" always implies a charged mass. The electrostatic scalar potential, phi (F), then merely becomes the intensity of the massless charge - that is, the intensity of the virtual particle flux - at a point. Let me point out, however, that in the new view this "point" is always in e-dimensional space, where n is equal to or greater than four. The present 3-space formulation of F is thus a highly special case.

SLIDE 4. QUOTE FROM NIKOLA TESLA

One of the things we will find is that Hertz or transverse electromagnetic waves are strictly mass waves in a charged mass particle medium.

For example, transverse EM waves do not, and CAN not, exist in vacuum. Vacuum EM waves are longitudinal waves of compression and rarefaction. What is compressed and rarified is the virtual particle flux that comprises vacuum itself. Vacuum EM waves in this virtual flux are just like sound waves in air - in the flux of molecules and atoms that comprise the atmospheric gas.

Nikola Tesla, of course, knew this and he frequently pointed out the falsity of the accepted transverse wave theory. Here is one Tesla quote, for example, taken from The Electrical Experimenter.

Almost every scientist - even the "Tesla bugs" - has thought Tesla wrong in his adamant opposition to the idea of Hertzian waves in the vacuum. As we shall see, Tesla was right and all the present scientists and textbooks are wrong.

SLIDE 5. FORCE BETWEEN TWO LIKE CHARGES

In my presentation last year, I noted some 22 fundamental flaws in present electromagnetics theory. One of these flaws was in the actual vector theory itself. As we shall discover, one cannot simply plug geometrical vectors into physical systems without making fundamental errors. The vector concept itself must be adapted, for there are now four different kinds of vectors in physics, all confused as the same thing. We will come to that shortly.

To begin, let us look at the fundamental kind of experiment, shown on this slide, from which the idea of electrical force and electrical field was taken.

We have a fixed static charged object q(1) in the laboratory, and we bring in a test charged mass q(2). The test charged mass may even be a single electron, as we illustrate here. We show in our example the fixed charge to be negative. When we release the test charge electron, it accelerates away from the fixed charged mass, as shown in the diagram. Note that we have no force at all until we bring in the test charged mass. Indeed, we shall find that the force is actually COMPRISED OF the accelerating test electron. Specifically, it is not something mysterious which appears in vacuum and PUSHES on the electron. We shall find that FORCE IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE. It CONSISTS OF the "smeared mass" that is accelerating - in this case, it consists of the smeared, accelerating electron.

We summarize the experiment: in the absence of the charged test particle, no force exists in the vacuum. When we bring in the test charged mass, it accelerates away, and THE FORCE CONSISTS OF THAT ACCELERATING CHARGED MASS PARTICLE. The experiment does not at all address or deal with WHAT EXISTS IN THE VACUUM AROUND CHARGED MASS Q(l) IN THE ABSENCE OF TEST CHARGED MASS Q(2). Any assumption of a force existing in the vacuum is sheer speculation and not based on this experiment.

SLIDE 6. REPETITIONS LEAD TO THE VECTOR "FIELD" CONCEPT

On this slide, we show that, as we repeat the experiment by bringing in the test charged mass from differing directions, the same thing happens around the fixed charged mass q(1). Test charged mass q(2) - our electron - accelerates radially away from q(1).

As we repeat the experiment and draw many of the little arrows radially outward, gradually the idea of a "vector field" emerges. That is, we form the idea that, at every point in space around fixed charge q(l), there exists one of our little vector arrows. Thus we assign a vector field to the space: to every point of it, there is assigned both a magnititude and a direction.

However, note that this does not describe the situation as it exists, at any time, in the "present." That is, rigorously, any one arrow only exists whenever a little test charged mass is present and accelerating radially away.

We may take the view that the arrow WILL exist WHEN a test charged mass is brought to that point and released. In that case, the arrow WILL exist in the FUTURE, not in the present. And we may refer to that as, it POTENTIALLY exists, when and if.... etc.

So already we see a fundamental logic problem in the idea of such a field. It WILL exist in the future, but only POTENTIALLY exists in the present.

Of course I am not the first one to point out such difficulties; the fact that the field concept is erroneous is already well known to foundations scientists. But it is such a USEFUL concept that it is retained.

Now the E-field, or electric field, is defined as "the accelerating force on a charged mass per unit charged mass accelerated by it." If there is no charged mass present to be accelerated, then there can be no E-field present. So an E-field cannot exist in a vacuum, for vacuum presupposes the absence of all observable mass. So we can rigorously say that no E-field of force exists around the charged mass q(1) IN THE PRESENT. At best, it can only POTENTIALLY exist IN THE FUTURE.

SLIDE 7. A SCALAR HAS A HIDDEN (VIRTUAL) VECTOR SUBSTRUCTURE

Our next slide shows that a physical scalar quantity has a hidden vector substructure. For example, we show on the left a closed vessel containing a pressurized gas. The pressure at a point in the gas is a scalar quantity, since it has a magnitude but not a direction.

However, physically what we have in the gas is a flux of individual molecules continually through any small volume, which we may let approach a point in the limit. Thus we have a flux in all directions through the point at which we specify pressure. That is, the scalar "pressure" at a point may be said to contain a substructure of individual molecule flow vectors.

All physical process scalars have such hidden substructures. In the equilibrium case, the summation of all the individual flux vectors yields a resultant vector zero. Thus we take the view that ANY PHYSICAL PROCESS SCALAR IS ALSO A ZERO VECTOR, AND ANY ZERO VECTOR IS A SCALAR AND CONTAINS A SUM-ZERO HIDDEN VECTOR SUBSTRUCTURE.

SLIDE 8. SCALAR AND VECTOR SUBSTRUCTURES

Now let us see if we can do some unusual thinking about the hidden vector substructure of a scalar or zero-vector.

On the leftmost figure in this slide, we show a plate with balanced opposing forces. The vector summation of all the forces is zero, so the system has no resultant vector. The plate therefore does not move. However, the plate - that is, the medium in which the forces act - is stressed, much like the previous example of pressure in a gas. The difference is that now the stress is patterned in its substructure, and not random.

Now suppose we rhythmically vary the forces, each the same, in a regular manner in time. Yet we maintain a continuous balance, so there is never a resultant system greater than zero. In this case, we maintain our vector zero, but we are producing regular stress waves in the plate medium.

I think you now can see that I can vary the individual opposing vector pairs so that rhythmic waves flow from top to bottom, or from bottom to top. That, of course, will describe a vector gradient traveling through the medium, and that will be an ordinary "vector wave." Is there any way I can make waves through the medium, and not have such vector waves ever appear?

Indeed there is, if I look further into the substructure.

Take one point on one of the vectors shown acting on the plate in the left diagram. That point is a scalar, and it also has a substructure of even finer vectors, as shown in the lower middle figure. And any point in one of these second-order hidden vectors is a scalar and composed of a still finer hidden vector substructure, as shown in the lower right figure. This process repeats ad infinitum, and all is structures within structures. At least it can be modeled that way, for it already is treated that way in particle physics.

Now go back to the second order vector substructure. Here I can establish whatever patterns I wish, and not affect the first order pattern shown in the figure on the left. I can even rhythmically vary things in the second order substructure, and leave a blissfully unchanged first order substructure, to the first order observer.

So I can make as many waves as I wish through the medium, as long as I stay second order or higher, and the external observer will never see any change at all unless he has a special detector of some sort to detect the lower substructure changes.

As I showed in the Appendix to my book, The Excalibur Briefing, these substructures are in reality the same thing as hyperspaces. And movements in them can proceed much faster than the speed of light. So I can have higher order signals and waves through the stressed medium without changing the overall first order stress in the medium. This is a sort of superrelativity; the present relativity is just a special case.

Superluminal communication systems are perfectly possible, but not with the present first order transmitters and receiver/detectors.

Note also that higher order stresses - stresses in the higher order substructures - represent special stresses in time, and time has an internal stress-pattern substructure. The higher order stress waves are phase waves or phase fluctuations in that respect.

Also note that Charles Muses has already created the hypernumber mathematics of the structure of time, and it is largely in his mathematics that these concepts will have to be mathematically modelled.

SLIDE 9. SUPERPOSITION DOES NOT ELIMINATE THE VIRTUAL SUBSTRUCTURE

Next we show some simple substructures of a zero vector. All of these vector systems sum to zero vectorially. Note that if we superpose two of these structures, all substructure vectors are still present, and the vector summation is still zero.

Also notice that, from the standpoint of substructuring, zeros can be and are drastically different. We can even make rhythmic waves in a substructure by superposing patterned zero vectors in a regular fashion.

SLIDE 10. PHYSICAL VECTORS

In quantum mechanics, as we approach the quantum level, we find that the notions of a particle (static concept) and a wave become inseparable. That is, any particle becomes a "smear" in length and time, and it becomes inseparable from its smear. At the quantum level, there is no separate energy, length, mass, momentum, energy, or time - all are welded together inextricably into a quantity called "action," having the units of angular momentum.

So at the fundamental quantum level, a moving point becomes a smear, and a vector represents a physical, undifferentiated entity.

We now define a vector as consisting of a smeared particle. That is, the particle is smeared in both time and length, and it is not differentiated from time or length.

There are four kinds of particles in physics which can be smeared to form vectors. First, there is a point in space or spacetime. This point may be approximated as massless and chargeless. At least that is the way the geometers of old conceived of it in the abstract, and so the idea of a "point" in space assumes it to be chargeless and massless. Second, there is a tiny particle of mass, often abstracted to be a "point-mass," but visualized as having no charge. This is the mechanic's particle. Third, there is a tiny charged mass, such as an electron, and this is the electrician's particle. Again, it is often abstracted as a charged point-mass. Fourth, there is a charged point, having no mass, and this is the advanced electrician's particle, which he uses to form the idea of potentials and fields.

Smearing these four particles at the fundamental quantum level produces four different kinds of physical vectors: the geometer's, the mechanic's, the electrician's and the advanced electrician's vectors. They are all different.

SLIDE 11. THE FOUR VECTORS OF PHYSICS

On this slide we show a graphic illustration of each of these vectors. Note that they may be visualized as smeared particles, but the particle is not separate from the smear in time and length.

Each vector must be considered as a unitary entity - it is a special kind of quantum, if you will. Each is a special quantum of motion. And Dewey Larson has it right when he says, "All is motion."

SLIDE 12. FORCE DEFINITION

We now look a little closer at the concept of a force.

I point out that a true definition is an identity. If a supposed definition of an entity is not an identity for that entity, then it is not a definition at all, but only a statement ABOUT the entity.

It may come as somewhat of a shock to the traditional engineer or scientist that the foundations concepts of physics - such as force, mass, energy, etc. - are ALL in serious difficulty and contain many unresolved logical conflicts.

Force is in that kind of difficulty, and it has that kind of logical conflict. In fact, in its force equations, physics has not even applied its own present definition of force! As we show here, force is generally defined as the time rate of change momentum. If that is true, then as an identity the definition states that a force CONSISTS OF the time rate of change of momentum. And of course, momentum is mass times velocity. Hence momentum is a mass smeared through a length and through a certain time.

Force then consists of the time rate of change of that smearing. That is, we smear the mass through time and length, faster or slower.

But if force CONSISTS OF that smearing change, it does not CAUSE it. Force is thus an effect or result, not a cause.

This implies that there is a more fundamental mechanism that causes or generates force itself - ANY force. If we can find that hidden mechanism, we may well find the long-sought unified field theory, since it will unify all forces on a common mechanism.

SLIDE 13. FORCE IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE

On this slide, we show briefly how one might express this idea in mathematical symbology. Macroscopically, momentum consists of mass times velocity. Microscopically, the mass and the velocity are inextricable, and it is not proper to speak of a "mass in motion," but only of "mass-motion." We show this in Equation 2.

We take the macro definition of momentum, as shown in Equation 3, and express it for the microscopic, unseparated case, as shown in Equation 4. In the nonrelativistic case, we may consider m-dot to be zero, since the time rate of change of mass is almost zero. In that case, force may be defined for the microscopic case as a smeared accelerating mass, as shown in Equation S. Force thus consists of the welded mass and acceleration, with no seam in the middle. It IS mass-acceleration; it does not CA USE it. Therefore force is an effect, not a cause.

SLIDE 14. FORCE AND E-FIELD DO NOT EXIST IN VACUUM

But if force CONSISTS OF mass welded to acceleration, it cannot exist in the absence of mass.

Hence force does not exist in vacuum.

Further, the E-field (Electric field) of a charged particle is defined as the force on a charged mass, divided by the mass. That is, the E-field is thought to represent the force per unit charged mass. And then it is assumed to exist in vacuum. But vacuum is without mass or charged mass, observably. Without mass, neither force nor charged mass exists.

Therefore the E-field does not exist in the vacuum.

Magnetic field (B) and gravitational field (G) are similarly defined, and they have the same logical difficulties.

Therefore neither magnetic field nor gravitational field exists in a vacuum.

A priori, NO force field exists in a vacuum.

The greatest error in physics has been the assignment of a force as a cause, and thus assigning it to the vacuum. The force is an effect, and it never exists in vacuum, a priori.

SLIDE 15. COROLLARIES
Without belaboring the issue, I now point out and summarize some of these conclusions.

First, a more primary mechanism causes or generates force - ANY force. Second, force implies the presence of mass a priori. Force does not exist in vacuum, since vacuum is the absence of mass. Third, no force fields of any kind exist in vacuum, including E-field, B-field, and gravitational field. Fourth, since Hertzian waves are defined in terms of E and H force fields, and these fields do not exist in vacuum, then Hertzian waves do not exist in vacuum.

Tesla pointed out long ago that vacuum EM waves are longitudinal waves, not Hertz waves. Vacuum EM waves are similar to sound waves in a gas. The Hertz wave exists as a matter wave in the electron gas in a transmitting antenna, and in the electron-gas in a receiving antenna, but does not exist in the vacuum in between the two antennas. Between them, EM waves are longitudinal waves.

SLIDE 16. ENERGY IS DERlVED, NOT FUNDAMENTAL

Energy is usually taken as "the capacity to do work" at some future time. In other words, when we refer to the energy of something, we refer to HOW MUCH WORK IT CAN DO IN THE FUTURE, IF AND WHEN WE ARRANGE FOR IT TO DO IT. Rigorously, a body has no "work" at a particular instant in time, so we use "energy" to refer to potential work that can, or will, be done in the future.

Thus energy is always congruent to work in the future.

And for that reason, the units of energy are the units of work; the only difference is in the time the work is done, relative to the "now" or "present" we are speaking of.

Energy is the potential for work to be done in the future.

But what is work?

Well, work is defined in terms of the movement of a force through a distance. And it is understood that only the projection of the force along the line of movement is "working."

Thus work is defined differentially as shown on the slide. The differential of work is equal to the dot product of the moving force times the differential of displacement. But as we have seen, force is an effect, not a cause. That is, when we calculate the work done, it's always in the past, never in the present or in the future. It's always been DONE, and has been expended.

Being in the past, it's gone forever, so it certainly isn't the CAUSE of anything which happens in the future. Thus work is an effect, not a cause.

That's interesting, because then it certainly does not directly generate "energy," since energy is something in the present which speaks of future work to be done.

Rigorously, the fundamental quantum - which is what exists in the present, in unseparated and unquantized form - consists of action. NOT energy, NOT time, NOT length, NOT momentum exclusively, but all of these INclusively.

And a change in energy occurs when a quantum is separated at a certain rate in time. Thus delta energy equals the time rate of change action, or data action divided by the delta time used in separating the quantum and fissioning it into parts (collapsing the wave function).

Thus energy itself is an effect or result of a more fundamental mechanism, and it is not a cause.

In quantum mechanics all this has been neatly "buried" in the mysterious "collapse of the wave function, " which is supposedly what ''causes" everything to happen. And then we swear that what results after the collapse is a totally statistical selection from the possible states of the system we are examining. We thus say that the microworld is totally statistical at base. Of course we also build a wave equation or wave function which propagates forward in time with rigorous causality, and that wave or function absolutely controls the basket of "possible states" allowed.

All that says is that the "wave function times time" is what exists in the present, when observation has not been made by "stopping time." And then we "stop time" in a rather blunt manner, somewhat like firing a billiard ball blindly into a group of billiard balls on a table, and we live with what gets hit and pops out.

If we examine this "time" that is flowing, look into its substructure, and arrange that substructure as we will, we can control which "billiard ball" is hit and which pocket it goes into. By working on the vector substructures of time, we can thus deliberately control the microworld and make it causal, not statistical. Quantum mechanics is in error in stopping where it has; it is presently only a first order approximation of the real quantum mechanics that awaits.

Einstein was correct after all; God does NOT play dice with the universe when one considers all levels. One finds oneself in a statistical situation at one level only when the constituent sublevels of it are uncontrolled.

SLIDE 17. EXISTENCE IN, AND PASSAGE THROUGH, TIME

On this slide, we simply point out that translation of a body through space and its passage through time are related, according to relativity. Now "mass" is spatial. It does not exist in time. Only things which contain the unit of time can "exist in time". Otherwise, the thing only exists as such when the passage of time has been momentarily stopped - usually by photon emission and the consequent carrying off of the time unit by the photon.

Since every mass that has temperature - and every mass does - is continually absorbing and emitting photons, then the mass is continually grabbing a time tail (absorption) and losing it (emission) shortly thereafter.

Masstime is what exists in time, not mass.

And every mass particle is continually turning from mass to masstime to mass, etc.

Indeed, it is the summation of the absorption and emission of virtual subquanta by a mass particle - i.e., its "charge" - that determines its rate of flow through "time."

And the spherical spin of a mass particle couples the particle of mass to the spacetime vacuum; that is, to the virtual particle flux. Passage through ordinary time is controlled by creation and annihilation of quanta, and these processes are controlled by substructure (subquantal) actions and interactions.

SLIDE 18. SOME IMPLICATIONS

Without belaboring the issue, I now simply point out some implications of the new approach.

First, we modify two laws - the conservation of charge and the conservation of energy - by combining them into one law, a new conservation law in which anenergy is conserved.

Neither charge per se nor energy per se needs be conserved; but the overall anenergy (massless charge) equivalency is what is conserved. This allows us to derive mechanisms for free energy from the vacuum, for example. These mechanisms readily violate the present conservation of energy law, but do not violate the overall conservation of anenergy law.

It is the total anenergy equivalency of mass, energy, and massless charge that is now to be conserved in general. The old laws are now just special cases.

Also, Newton's third law - for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction - is modified. It still applies, but in changed form.

The reaction still occurs, but it need not be local, and it need not be antiparallel to the original action.

Thus it is now possible to design and build a "locally reactionless" inertial space drive for a vehicle.

The final implication is that the common mechanism producing force - any force - provides a unified field theory. Specifically, it provides one which easily lends itself to direct engineering. It is not esoteric nor mysterious. It is practical and physical, and it can be done with some modifications to our present electrical circuits and devices.

SLIDE 19. CONSERVATION OF ANENERGY (AE): (AN EXPANDED ENERGY CONSERVATION LAW)

We briefly show a simplified derivation of the new conservation of anenergy law.

We express the conservation of charge law by correcting the term "charge" to show its true meaning: charged mass. We use the absolute value symbol to mean the "anenergy equivalency."

As shown on the slide, we account separately for the mass (m-sub-c) of the conserved charges and the virtual particle charge flux (the anenergy - AE-sub-c) of the charges conserved. That law now says that the absolute values of the masses and the massless charge fluxes have a total constant summation.

For a dynamic mass, we do a similar thing, in this simplified case ignoring potential energy of position, and taking the energy equivalence of the dynamic energy (E) and the rest mass energy of the particles, M-sub-E. The conservation of anenergy now states that these two terms have a constant absolute value summation.

We add Equation 1 and Equation 2, getting Equation 3. We consolidate like terms to get Equation 4. Expressing all terms in their anenergy equivalencies (absolute values), we get Equation S. which is the overall conservation of anenergy equivalency.

Note that we can now change mass into energy or anenergy (massless charge), energy into mass or anenergy, and anenergy into mass or energy. Thus, we can turn everything into pure vacuum ether (pure massless charge, pure anenergy, pure electrostatic scalar potential, pure stress on spacetime) or we can turn part of the vacuum into energy or particles of mass.

Vacuum now becomes a very real thing indeed.

It is pure anenergy - pure massless charge, pure electrostatic scalar potential, pure "broken bits" (subquantal bits) of (quantized) energy.

The vacuum is identically the virtual state. It is not an emptiness filled with virtual things; rather, it IS the sum total of those virtual things, for they are totally unseparated until some sort of "conceptual observation" is invoked.

Physics should have adopted Einstein's suggestion that the vacuum, complete with its EM and gravitational fields, be called the ether.

SLIDE 20. FREE ENERGY IS ALLOWED

Now we can put the search for free energy devices on a rigorous scientific basis.

As shown here, mass and energy are translatable one into the other. So are massless charge and energy. And the universe is filled with fantastic amounts of anenergy; ultimately, that is what the universal vacuum IS.

Any one-way gating process from anenergy to energy yields "free energy" since the anenergy is automatically replenished by the universe. A sort of Maxwell's demon, after all, is what we need. Only we need one which works with the virtual state, not observable molecules.

Fortunately, nature has provided several Maxwell's demons of this sort, if we but recognize them and learn to use them.

SLIDE 21. SCALAR POTENTIAL CAN FORCE THE RELATIVISTIC CASE

First, Id us now digress to point out that one does not have to have relativistic velocity to obtain relativistic effects. One can use the common electrostatic scalar potential to drive the situation relativistic. On this slide we show just one of several references in the standard literature that addresses this fact.

Let's understand what we are saying.

Anything you get from a relativistic situation, you can get directly by cleverly applying electrostatic scalar potential.

You can get a change in the passage through time, you can get energy changes, mass changes, inertial resistance changes, etc. You can bend, warp, and twist space time a pretzel.

If you "wave" the scalar potential by simply varying it, you can create pure time waves. You can also produce pure inertial field waves, pure gravitational waves, etc.

The ability to engineer the curving of spacetime allows the direct ability to engineer physical reality itself.

SLIDE 22. SCALAR STRESS WAVE (PHI-VECTOR WAVE) (TESLA WAVE)

On this slide we now show a simple way to make a scalar, zero-vector wave - the kind of wave originally discovered by Nikola Tesla.

It's simple. We just believe that a sum-zero vector substructure makes a scalar quantity, and we MAKE some scalars that way.

We also understand that a zero-gradient of a scalar is a zero vector, so that the scalar itself may be taken to be a zero vector.

The simplest explanation of this wave is as follows: First, in physics we have two competing, mutually exclusive theories as to the nature of electromagnetic energy: the wave theory and the particle theory. Physicists argued for decades over these theories, for some experiments support one and some support the other. They never solved the problem; they just agrees to quit arguing. They formulated the "duality" principle to allow both sides to save face.

Briefly, the duality principle implies that, whatever the nature of electromagnetic energy is before an interaction, in the interaction you can get it to act as a wave or as a particle. In other words, AS IT EXISTS, BEFORE THE INTERACTION, it is implicitly both particle and wave, joined together in some fashion, without being explicitly either one.

With the fourth law of logic, this becomes perfectly clear. With three-law Aristotelian logic, the problem cannot be resolved.

Let us use this idea of "explicit duality without implicit duality" to analyze the wave shown on the slide.

First, from a wave aspect, the E-fields and the B-fields of the two waves do superpose and vectorially add. Since the waves are 180 degrees out of phase, the exterior resultant wave has a zero electric field and a zero magnetic field. Therefore it is a "zero-vector" wave, or "scalar" wave. It is a wave of pure stress in spacetime.

However, this scalar wave has a precisely determined substructure, consisting of two ordinary sine waves, each of which comprises an ordinary E-H vector EM wave. Now we apply the photon consideration (remember, before we interact with the wave, it must implicitly possess BOTH wave and particle natures combined, and we have so far only examined the implication of the wave nature). The theory of photons states that they are monocular critters. Photons pass right through other photons without interaction, in a linear situation. Therefore they can coexist without interaction, which is what we show here.

One photon, by the way, is one wavelength.

The photon theory requires that both substructure waves continue to exist as independent photons. Therefore we are assured that our substructure is intact. However, notice that the totality of the two waves stresses spacetime. In other words, we have twice the stress on spacetime now as we would have from either wave separately. This wave is therefore just a pure stress wave in spacetime itself.

This thing oscillates time, oscillates the relativity of the situation, and can affect energy, time flow rate, inertia, gravity, etc. aspects of an absorbing system. Note that we have a rhythmic oscillation in phi (F), and we have a longitudinal stress wave, very similar to a sound wave. The MEDIUM for this wave is the virtual partical flux that identically comprises vacuum spacetime itself.

SLIDE 23. SCALAR PHI-WAVE PRODUCTION

On this slide we show how to regard the magnitude of the stress, by using one wave envelope as "virtual ground. " In the top diagram, the original E-field stress of each wave has a magnitude of S. and the composite stress wave now has a magnitude of 10, in whatever units we choose to express them.

We show in the bottom diagram that during one half cycle we have compressive stress in the virtual particle vacuum flux, and during the second half cycle we have tensile stress

This shows the wave is like a sound wave in the gaseous molecules of the air.

However, this wave has one difference. It also oscillates time, and thus has at least one additional degree of freedom, compared to ordinary EM waves.

In fact, this wave can be made n-dimensional and hyperspatial. As a first order approximation, we can treat such a wave in a spatial fashion, if the wawe is not too great in magnitude and the relativistic oscillation of time and inertia is not too large.

SLIDE 24. A SlMPLIFIED CHARGED PARTICLE

We now digress slightly to pick up some more concepts.

On this slide, we show a simplified physical model of a charged particle. According to present particle physics, we model it as an observable, spinning bare mass in the middle, connected to a spray of virtual particles on and off the mass in all directions.

It is the spin of the mass that "attaches" the spray of virtual particles to and from itself.

Note that, because of the spin, the gradient lines of flux will actually be spiral or vortex in nature. Also note that, when EM theory was founded, no one knew that an electron was spinning. Electron spin was therefore omitted from the foundations of present electromagnetic theory, and compensated for later by strictly ad hoc measures.

SLIDE 25. A CHARGED PARTICLE IS A SPECIAL KIND OF "SPRAY NOZZLE"

Here we show a very important concept, and a very important fact of nature.

A charged particle may be idealized as a special kind of spray nozzle. The 3-dimensional particle of mass is spraying out virtual particle fluid, and sucking in virtual particle fluid, in four or more dimensions.

We never have to furnish or replenish the spray. Nature provides that. And it's inexhaustible. It comes from the entire virtual particle flux vacuum of the universe. It's already connected firmly to matter, by its connection to the spinning charged particle of mass.

I repeat and strongly stress: This tremendous, continuous spray of virtual particles is absolutely free, and absolutely furnished by the universe. We don't have to create the basic pumps for the fluid. We just move the spray nozzles around, by moving the spinning charged masses around. We never furnish any ultimate energy to or in our present EM circuits. We just pump around the spray nozzles, gating the spray furnished by the universe.

SLIDE 26. AN OBSERVABLE CHARGED PARTICLE IS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX VACUUM

On this slide we accent that our 3-dimensional particle of mass is directly connected by its spin to the vacuum ether itself - to the virtual particle flux that identically IS the vacuum spacetime.

Interestingly, relativity states that the mass itself is nothing but a "kink" or curvature in spacetime. The fact that the surface of the particle is spinning at right angles to the virtual particle vacuum flux "drags" part of the flux along with it, spiraling it, and certainly "kinking" or "bending" the vacuum flux.

That's the MECHANISM for the bending of spacetime. And that's what MAKES the particle of mass in the first place, and reduces it dimensionally to three.

Also note that the vacuum IS phi-sub-zero, and that is never a zero value. This is contrary to present EM theory, which erroneously assumes phi-sub-zero - the charge of vacuum - to be zero or non-existent.

SLIDE 27. SPIN COUPLES VACUUM TO PARTICLE

In fact, the bits and pieces of many of the new concepts are strewed all through the scientific literature. Here we show one example, establishing a good model that spin of a particle couples the particle to the vacuum.

This paper is by E.P. Battey-Pratt and T. J. Racey, and was published in the International Journal of Physics in 1980.

Note again that very high values of electrostatic potential can induce relativistic conditions, even though relativistic velocity is not present.

SLIDE 28. ELECTRON PRECESSION (SIMPLIFIED)

On this slide I show the effects of precession of an electron when it encounters a longitudinal scalar wave that contains "spin vortex holes" into which the electron can fall into and with which it can mesh its spin. The basic idea here - that electron precession accounts for the Hertzian waves in the electron gas in a transmitting antenna and in a receiving antenna, came from my close colleague and friend, Frank Golden, and I am most happy to give him full credit for this important insight.

As we have previously stated, transverse (force) waves cannot exist in vacuum in the absence of mass. Hertz waves, therefore, cannot exist in vacuum, just as Tesla stated.

Yet we know that Hertz waves exist in the electron gas in our transmitting antennas and in the electron gas in our receiving antennas. How, then, do we get Hertz waves here, if only longitudinal waves can exist in the vacuum in between?

Electron precession is the key.

We never measure what's happening in vacuum with our instruments. Instead, almost always we measure what is happening to and in the electron gas in our antenna or probe and feeding current to the instrument.

Here we show a "normal" EM vacuum wave - which is a longitudinal wave containing spin vortexes from the electrons that generated it - approaching and striking a spinning charged electron. As the peak and trough of the wave passes, it is as if we had a force pressing against the spinning electron, first along the line of wave travel, and then antiparallel to the wave travel.

The electron acts as a little gyroscope, and precesses laterally, first in one direction and then the other.

Therefore, the wave recovered in the electron gas in our receiving antenna or instrument probe is a transverse Hertzian matter wave.

Hertz waves are always matter vector waves.

Vacuum EM waves are always nonmaterial longitudinal scalar waves.

Longitudinal scalar waves in vacuum normally contain many spinning vortex "holes" of flux, created from the spinning electrons which launched the wave and stayed behind in the transmitting antenna. This kind of longitudinal wave is directly detectable by a normal free electron charged gas in a receiving antenna or probe. It also directly interacts with free electrons in a conducting metal shield, and so is shielded by Faraday cages.

On the other hand, our zero-vector longitudinal wave, made by opposing waves, contains opposing spin holes which annihilate or cancel each other.

In the absence of spin holes, the longitudinal wave will not mesh with spinning electrons in a conductor, and so it is not detectable in the normal fashion. It also does not interact with free electrons in a conducting metal shield, so it readily penetrates Faraday cages.

An easy way to see that electrons do not interact with that substructured longitudinal zero-vector wave is to visualize both substructure component waves interacting on the electron simultaneously, pushing in opposite directions equally. In that case the electron tries to precess in both directions, equally, and so it does not precess in either direction. Therefore it does not "detect" the passing wave.

The wave without "golf ball holes", however, is detectable by any circuit having high nonlinearity actions occuring in it. Such highly nonlinear dynamic areas act to provide a phase shifting between the composite substructure waves. This phase shift results in violation of the sum-zero condition, producing a "normal" EM wave which deposits energy in the out-of-phase area.

From the spin vortex "golf ball hole" concept, the out-of-phase condition means that now we have an alternating preponderance of spin holes, spinning first in one direction and then in the other. Thus the electrons in the nonlinear, phase shift area are hooked and oscillated (precessed) to and fro, producing energy.

Solid state, highly doped transistors are particularly vulnerable to this effect, as are gas discharge tubes, spark and cascade ion discharges, plasmas, etc.

SLIDE 29. VACUUM/SPACETIME IS PURE VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX (F0)

We pause here to again summarize some important things we now know about vacuum.

Vacuum IS IDENTICAL TO virtual particle flux, spacetime, anenergy, Phi-sub-zero, massless charge, unquantized action, and infolded energy, momentum, length, time, power, velocity, acceleration, etc.

Vacuum is made of unquantized action, dimensionally.

It is without definite length or time, as Einstein stated.

It is e-dimensional, where n is always four or greater.

It is not an emptiness filled with things. Rather, it is identically a plenum filled with things which are totally unseparated, unfixed, and undetermined.

From vacuum: mass, energy, time, frames, and all the rest of physical reality are dynamically made.

Vacuum is the ether. The ether has never been eliminated from physics. Ether just has become much more subtle, and physicists have used other names for it.

SLIDE 30. VACUUM IS:

Again, we list some of the things that vacuum identically is.

It is spacetime, massless charge, electrostatic scalar potential, broken bits (subquantal) of energy, pure virtual particle flux, zero-vector wave flux, multilevel, structured, patterned, a virtual plenum, and an observable emptiness.

It is all things and contains all things in potential state.

It is not, in that it is not observable. But from it comes all observables.

It is both ordered and disordered, simultaneously.

It involves four-law logic, not just three-law Aristotlean logic.

SLIDE 31. GRADIENT OF ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL

Again I accent that, in vacuum in the absence of a charged spinning particle of observable mass, del-phi does not yield an E-field, and the conventional equations of EM are wrong in that respect.

In the presence of a spinning charged particle, in a del-phi which contains electron-vortex-holes to mesh with, the charged particle attaches itself to the moving del-phi flux gradient, moving itself with the river. This produces an E field. The E-field CONSISTS OF the smeared electron, it does not CAUSE THE MOVEMENT of the electron. It is an effect, not a cause. The conventional equation for del-phi equals E is correct for matter waves in electron gases; it is not correct in vacuum itself.

SLIDE 32. IN A DEL-PHI, A CHARGED PARTICLE MOVES ITSELF

We show clearly on this slide that a spinning charged particle, when it hooks to a spin-hole in a del-phi river, MOVES ITSELF.

Note that a del-phi implies a "pressure difference" in phi-flux between two points. Therefore there is a moving river - a gradient - of phi-dot, moving from the higher pressure to the lower. If a charged particle is attached to this moving river, it flows along with the river. It is just like putting a boat into a moving stream of water. If the boat "latches" to the moving water, it moves with the river.

Electron spin and spin vortexes in the del-phi mesh, to accomplish the "hooking" or "latching. " Once hooked into a moving river, the electron moves itself. One does not have to furnish work to move it. If the river is accelerating, the electron will accelerate itself.

By cleverly gating such rivers into and onto sources of free electrons, one can directly produce free energy. The extra energy comes from converting anenergy (massless charge, vacuum flux) to energy of a moving mass.

SLIDE 33. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN ELECTRON GAS IN A CONDUCTOR

Here we pause to summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic waves in the electron gas of a conductor.

First, these are vector EM waves in the accepted sense.

They contain E and B fields.

They are generated by spin coupling of electrons with spin-holes in a scalar wave delta-phi river. The electrons move themselves under that condition, producing work and forces. They are transverse oscillatory, not longitudinal.

They are waves of force or force field variations. They are matter waves.

They are Hertzian waves. They are waves of electron precession.

SLIDE 34. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN VACUUM

Here we summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic waves in vacuum.

They are scalar longitudinal waves of alternate compression and rarifaction of the vacuum virtual particle flux.

That is, they are waves of electrostatic potential.

They are zero-vector waves.

They are internally structured and patterned.

They usually contain electron "spin holes" unless made in a fashion so as to make opposing spin holes that cancel each other.

Since they are pure phi-waves, they need not be limited in velocity to the speed of light.

They are hyperspatial waves.

They are waves in virtual state itself.

SLIDE 35. DETECTION OF TRANSVERSE AND LONGITUDINAL WAVES

In the top drawing on this slide, we show a normal transmitter putting out a normal EM wave, which is received in a normal antenna/receiver. What we call a "transverse" wave rigorously exists only in the electron gas in the transmitting antenna and in the electron gas in the receiving antenna. Specifically, a longitudinal wave exists in the vacuum in between the two antennas. However, due to the method of production, the longitudinal wave contains spin-holes for electrons, so the electrons in the receiving antenna readily couple with the wave by falling into and meshing their spins with the spins of the spin-vortex holes. Electron precession produces electron gas waves that are transverse oscillatory, hence Hertzian waves in nature.

In the bottom drawing, we show a translator/transmitter. In other words, we oppose ordinary EM waves in a sum-zero substructure, deliberately producing longitudinal EM waves in vacuum with the spin-hole vortexes cancelling each other. This type of wave does not "hook" spinning electrons in the normal receiving antenna, and thus it is not detected. The normal antenna/receiver system never sees it at all.

However, by means of a special antenna which generates nonlinear phase shifts in the composite substructure waves, "hooking" holes are restored in an oscillatory nature. Electrons then hook with this output and detect the wave.

Note that it requires a two-stage detector, operated in an interferometer fashion, to detect this pure scalar wave.

SLIDE 36. CREATING A "RIVER" OF ANENERGY

Now if we wish to get free energy, we are going to have to provide a continuous anenergy river, and a means of tapping it to produce mass movement.

This slide shows one easy way to make an anenergy river.

We simply pump some electrons (spray nozzles) onto an elevated charged ball, and we LEAVE them there. A second ball is connected to ground. A higher phi - that is, a denser spray - is now in the vicinity of the elevated ball on the left. A lower phi - that is, a less dense spray - is in the vicinity of the lower ball on the right. Between the two balls, now, there is a gradient in phi, and a virtual flux flowing from the "higher virtual pressure" to the "lower virtual pressure."

This del-phi river does NOT constitute an E-field, as we have previously pointed out.

The del-phi region, however, is definitely a region of curved spacetime. As is well known from general relativity, in such a region energy need not be conserved.

Therefore it is entirely possible - consistent with ordinary physics - to violate conservation of energy in this del-phi river, if one believes general relativity. If one argues adamantly that conservation of energy cannot be violated under any circumstances, then one must throw out general relativity. Also, one must throw out most of particle phys ice, whose explanations presently involve virtual interactions, each of which violates the conservation of energy.

SLIDE 37. A 2-WIRE SYSTEM IS CONSERVATIVE

Here we show that, as engineers, we've all been tricked into releasing our virtual river so that we would not discover free energy.

While I cannot prove this as yet, I tentatively suspect that J. P. Morgan and Thomas Edison are directly responsible for this. Tesla utilized a single-wire system; we have all been taught to utilize only two-wire systems.

What we in effect do is connect a wire or circuit to our charged ball, allowing our hoze nozzles to drain away. In other words, we first do some work to pump haze nozzles (electrons) into and onto our elevated reservoir, so we will obtain a denser flux, and a flux river to utilize. Then we release the nozzles themselves, and let THEM move on the flux river, deplenishing our river. Of course we can get back as much energy as we pumped up there in the first place. But this two-wire system is at best theoretically even. Since real circuits have losses, we can never even quite break even. Thus we have to continue to pump haze nozzles, and let them bleed off to provide energy, in a less-than-100% fashion.

By foolishly releasing our haze nozzles, we guarantee that we Will never achieve free energy. And that's nice, because the people who control things, and for their own wealth and power depend on selling us energy at high prices, are guaranteed to stay in power and control.

One is never truly free unless one is energy independent in a self-contained fashion. Tesla nearly succeeded in giving us free or very cheap, inexhaustible energy - and for that reason was quickly and dramatically suppressed. Only three graduate schools of electrical engineering existed in the U.S. at that time. The only one of any real importance was at Columbia University.

Only one or two professors were necessary to "reach" to modify and subtly direct the entire foundations of the emerging electrical theory.

Professors were in general poor, and had no research funds unless some rich industrialist or philanthropist gave them a few dollars.

The setup then was certainly very ripe for Morgan and Edison to stop free energy, and suppress Tesla at the same time. They could have done so by influenced only one - or at most two - theoreticians at Columbia.

At any rate, the theory was developed in such fashion as to rule out the single wire circuit and the longitudinal wave. Free energy was suppressed, and the financial empires of Morgan and Edison stayed secure.

SLIDE 38. A HOLLOW CHARGED SPHERE

Here we show another easy source of a higher vacuum charge, hence an easy source for a free river.

Simply charge up a sphere. As is well known, inside that sphere one has no del-phi. So one can introduce an electron therein and not produce an E-field.

However, since we've piled up additional spray nozzles, the density of the spray inside the sphere (as well as outside it) is certainly higher.

In other words, the inside of the sphere is also a source for an increased del-phi river. In the bottom drawing, we drill a tiny-hole in the sphere, insulate a thin wire running into the inside of the sphere, and run the wire out to a terminal opposing another grounded terminal. Between the two terminals now there must exist a del-phi river.

And between those terminals there now exists a curvature of spacetime, hence the theoretical possibility to obtain free energy without violation of principles.

SLIDE 39. ONE-WAY GATE VALVE

Here we show one way to provide a one-way gate valve from a del-phi river to energy released into the outside world.

By providing a properly tuned, oscillating phi wave, one can cause an orbital electron in an atom to raise itself to an excited state. Remember, in a del-phi, an electron that hooks to it raises itself.

We then switch out the phi application, and the excited electron decays in normal fashion, emitting a normal photon of energy. By phase locking the processes, one produces a steady stream of photons. By absorbing or directing the photons, one can produce heat, light, energy beams, etc.

By this means, one produces free energy by gating anenergy into energy. And if one does not release spray nozzles in the phi-oscillations which feed the mechanism, one has an inexhaustible energy production.

A very similar thing can be done with the excited states of the nucleus. For example, by using a radioactive material with a predisposition to emit some particle - say an electron - the nucleus can be made to continually emit the particles WITHOUT ITSELF DECAYING INTO BYPRODUCTS. In other words, an electron is lifted from the Dirac sea of vacuum to instantly replace the electron emitted from the nucleus.

This provides a one-way gate valve from the Dirac sea to the external universe.

Theoretically, these mechanisms are no more mysterious than an hydraulic ram, which raises water higher than the stream that feeds the ram.

In the 20's and 30's, T. Henry Moray successfully built such gating devices for converting vacuum anenergy to external energy.

In the Kervran effect, living systems are able to directly transmute elements, even though they only possess feeble energies, by influencing the virtual particle interactions in the nucleus that furnish its binding energy.

Reich used an adaptation of a cloudbuster - which emits scalar waves - to drastically speed up radioactive decay of radioelements.

Both plants and animals transmute elements by similar processes.

SLIDE 40. SIMPLE FREE ENERGY MOTOR

On this slide, we show a theoretical scheme which several researchers have discovered and used to build simple free energy motors.

In this scheme, we drive an ordinary D.C. series motor by a two wire system from an ordinary battery. The motor produces shaft horsepower, at - say - some 30 or 40 percent efficiency, compared to the power drained from the battery. This much of the circuit is perfectly ordinary.

The trick here is to get the battery to recharge itself, without furnishing normal power to do it, or expending work from the external circuit in the process.

To do this, recall that a charged particle in a "hooking" del-phi river moves itself. This is true for an ion, as well as for an electron. We need only make the del-phi in correct fashion and synchronize it; specifically, we must not release the hose nozzles we utilize to produce our del-phi river or waves.

The inventors who have discovered this have used several variations, but here we show a common one.

First, we add an "energizer" (often referred to by various other names) to the circuit. This device makes the del-phi waves we will utilize, but does NOT make currents of electron masses. In other words, it makes pure phi-dot. It takes a little work to do this, for the energizer circuit must pump a few charges now and then. So the energizer draws a little bit of power from the motor, but not very much.

Now we add a switching device, called a controller, which breaks up power to the motor in pulses. During one pulse, the battery is connected and furnishes power to the motor; during the succeeding pulse, the battery is disconnected completely from the motor and the output from the energizer is applied across the terminals of the battery.

If frequency content, spin-hole content, etc., are properly constructed by the energizer, then the ion movements in the battery reverse themselves, recharging the battery. Again, remember that these ions MOVE THEMSELVES during this recharge phase. Specifically, we are NOT furnishing ordinary current to the battery, and we are not doing work on it from the energizer.

If things are built properly, the battery can be made to more than recover its charge during this pulse cycle.

To prevent excess charge of the battery and overheating and destroying it, a sensor is added which senses the state of charge of the battery, and furnishes a feedback signal to the controller to regulate the length of recharge time per "power off" pulse. In other words, the system is now self-regulating.

This system, if properly built and tuned, will furnish "free shaft energy" continually, without violating conservation of anenergy. Remember that the del-phi condition across the battery terminals means that spacetime is suddenly curved there, and conservation of energy need no longer apply.

Again, this system is consistent with general relativity and with the fact that the phi-field alone can drive a situation relativistic. We have deliberately used these facts to do direct engineering. Our "extra energy" comes from shifting phi-flux - the energy of the universal vacuum spacetime - directly into ordinary energy for our use. Thus we draw on an inexhaustible source, and our device is no more esoteric than a paddlewheel in a river. The only difference is that, in this case, we have to be clever enough to make and divert the river in the right timing sequence.

This is a free energy device which an ordinary person, who knows a little electronics, can experiment with in the basement. To develop it, one is talking several thousands of dollars and a lot of persistence and tinkering; one is not talking millions.

SLIDE 41. THE TRANSLATOR

We now turn to a fundamental concept we need in order to understand some of the effects used by the Soviets in their Tesla weapons.

Note that one other country - one not hostile to the U.S. - also has such weaponry.

This slide shows the concept of a TRANSLATOR. Briefly, if we input a transverse matter wave, the translator outputs a scalar longitudinal wave without spin vortex hooks. If we input a scalar longitudinal wave - even one without hooks - the translator puts out a normal vector transverse matter wave.

We define a translator as anything which will accomplish one or both of those functions (usually both).

Basically, any device which is TOTALLY nonlinear to transverse waves will produce scalar waves from a transverse wave input. Any device which is totally nonlinear to longitudinal waves will produce transverse waves from a longitudinal wave input.

This is comparable to certain plasmas, which, as is well known, produce such a translator effect. If you input longitudinal waves, you get transverse waves. If you input transverse waves, you get longitudinal waves. And the plasma is rather totally nonlinear.

Again, if our translator outputs non-hooking waves, it means that the component substructure waves oppose each other in sum zero fashion, and "kill" or nullify the vortex spin-holes.

SLIDE 42. TRANSVERSE WAVE INTERFERENCE

On this slide we show "normal" transverse wave interference, as we presently teach it in our textbooks.

We visualize two identical transmitters, each producing a beam in a pattern of about 55 degrees or so. Where these beams overlap - in the ideal, perfect case, we have constructive and destructive interference, with absolute zero-vector linear regions being formed. We put in the energy, and out-of-phase interference creates the zero zones, which contain no energy as such.

We point out, however, that these zero-lines are scalars, and contain high stresses on spacetime.

SLIDE 43. LONGITUDINAL WAVE INTERFERENCE (SCALAR WAVES)

On this slide we show the interference pattern that emerges from the interference of two identical scalar wave beams from translator/transmitters.

Now note we are interfering two zero-vector waves, each containing a substructure. In this case we assume similar substructures. What happens now is that we get a similar interference pattern, but with some startling differences.

First, we put in the zero-lines. These represent in-phase conditions for the substructures.

Second, the substructures themselves interfere, and form energy in the grid zones between intersecting zero-lines. In the perfect case, however, this energy cannot radiate away. It is physically created and trapped as if in an "energy bottle. " We are CREATING this energy at a distance, and storing it in a bottle. If the bottle were perfect, we would continue to accumulate energy in the grid zones - notice we are continuing to pour energy into both transmitters, and there is zero ordinary energy anywhere else except in the grid zone "bottles."

If we turn off the transmitters smoothly, we extinguish the energy in the bottle completely. It is sucked right out of there, and the vacuum returns to its normal condition. If we erratically and nonlinearly turn off the transmitters, we destroy the bottle and "dump" the energy suddenly. This is exactly like a sudden EMP from a nuclear weapon. A sudden pulse of energy is freed to radiate and interact in the region where the bottle was. The high altitude booms off the East coast of the U.S. a few years ago were made in precisely this fashion, from such a weapon being adjusted and calibrated in the Soviet Union.

SLIDE 44. CREATING ENERGY AT A DISTANCE

But let us look at one way to do this sort of think more efficiently.

Here we show two scalar transmitters (that is, two translator/transmitters) which form narrow beams, and which cross those beams at a distance. In the crossing zone, scalar interference is established, making an energy bottle and producing trapped or locked in energy.

If I have a physical target in that crossed zone, I can literally "fry" the target, for I get all the power inputted to the transmitters contained in the bottle zone. I don't have any square law losses.

I can heat a metal object white hot at a distance, for example. Because all real bottles are slightly imperfect, the real bottle is leaky and some photons escape. I can observe the white hot steel in the bottle,, and I can record and measure the temperature from the escaping photons, by simple radiometric methods.

Now if I smoothly turn off both transmitters linearly, all the energy in the bottle disappears immediately. I can immediately reach in and pick up a black, cool piece of steel. And that cannot be done with ordinary inductive or radio-wave heating.

That has been done in a laboratory on the North American continent.

SLIDE 45. NONLINEARITIES CAUSE SHIFTING (PARTIAL TRANSLATION)

Here we show the results of electrical nonlinearities in an object which encounters a true translated (non-hooking) scalar wave. All objects have some electrical nonlinearities in them, and so all act partially as translators.

This means that any real object creates a small scalar aura around itself from its continual temperature interactions - from absorbing and radiating ordinary EM waves. In addition, the object normally is subject to undetected scalar wave radiation, and so it also produces a small aura of transverse vector waves around itself by translation.

All real objects accomplish at least a little bit of translation.

SLIDE 46. THE SCALAR AURA

We examine now an object with temperature; that is, a normal object continually absorbing ordinary EM radiation and continually emitting EM radiation.

The object has a small fraction of its incident energy expressed as a scalar aura around it, because of translation. Note that normal detectors will not detect this aura, but special two-stage interferometric detectors will detect it. Also note that the object replenishes the ordinary radiation flow by its translation of some of its incident scalar radiation into the normal or "transverse" (so-called) radiation.

The entire internal pattern - all interactions and functions of the body - are precisely present in its scalar aura, down to the finest detail. This makes an x-ray pale by comparison.

True psychics actually use the nonlinearity of their nervous systems (note the avalanche ion discharges across dendrite gaps!) and the interferometric aspects (note two cerebral hemispheres, connected by a corpus callosum) to detect the scalar aura. This is a physical fact and not esoteric delusion. To control this, however, is normally as difficult as learning to walk a high wire and do acrobatics on it. There are not many high wire walkers in the world, but it certainly is a skill within human control capability and purview.

T. Galen Hieronymus was absolutely correct when he stated that the entire internal working pattern of an object is radiated by that object in terms of an extraordinary energy, which he called "eloptic" energy. It is actually translated scalar wave energy, and entirely consistent with present EM theory when the glaring errors in its foundations are corrected.

Shortly I hope we will see instrumentation which can directly examine the scalar aura in the finest detail, seeing every illness, and simply setting dials to hadiate the body with gentle, harmless scalar waves to directly correct illnesses.

SLIDE 47. VIRTUAL FLUX AND MAGNETIC FIELD (LINEAR CASE)

Briefly, let's look at some nice things we can do with magnetism. Specifically, let's find out how to make magnetic monopoles and use them to do things in the laboratory. This again has been done in a laboratory on the North American continent.

First, about all the present science can tell us about a magnet is that "a big magnet is made of littler magnets." And if we examine one of the smaller magnets, it's made of even smaller magnets. This is like saying big dirt piles are made of smaller dirt piles, and that explains what dirt is.

However, let's use that with our knowledge of the virtual flux vacuum.

In this slide, we show diagrammatically the situation for a common magnet. Note that domains in the magnetic material are themselves little magnets, and their alignment and vector summation determine whether or not there's said to be a magnetic field present. Nonzero summation states that there's a resultant magnetic vector, and hence an external magnetic field. Zero summation states there's no external nonzero resultant, hence no external magnetic field.

Actually, there's an external scalar magnetic potential field, even when the external vector magnetic field is zero. The substructure is still there.

If we pursue this "big magnets are composed of smaller magnets," eventually we reach the quantum threshold, and we have a substructure of virtual, subquantal magnets in vacuum, in the virtual particle flux. At least we conceive each little virtual particle as if it were spinning, and hence a little magnet.

We put a conceptual bag around each little virtual magnet. In a linear situation, the north pole is as strong as the south pole, and so just outside the bag, the poles cancel or appear zero. Since the virtual bag appears to be zero length to an external macro observer, the poles seem to be directly superposed on top of each other, yielding no pole at all to the observer.

However, you and I now know that both poles are still in there, in the virtual substructure, and we certainly have remaining with us a translated scalar magnetic field.

There's a virtual flux to and from each observable particle of charged mass in the observable state as shown, but this flux is now scalar in virtual magnets, except for nonlinearities in the structures above the quantum level. Thus accelerated portions - atoms with electrons in whirling orbit, spinning electrons, protons, etc. - possess nonzero ordinary vector magnetic fields by translation. Again, notice the successive interlocking levels of reality, all the way from deep in the virtual state into interlocking levels in observable state.

SLIDE 48. PRODUCING MAGNETIC MONOPOLES

Now let us look at a nonlinear case of the some sort of thing. Now the bags are still around the little virtual magnets, but they are nonlinear. This means that, to an observer outside the bag, one pole seems bigger or more powerful than the other. In other words, to the quantum observer, this bag appears to be a magnetic monopole at a point.

In the flux still on and off each observable spinning charged mass, we now have a steady component of "monopoles". If we have a standing scalar wave present in a physical material in which the nonlinearity exists - and the scalar waves can even be PRODUCING that nonlinearity - we will have nodes available at which the monopoles will congregate and emerge and interact.

North monopoles will congregate at one node, while south monopoles will congregate at the next, and so on in alternating fashion. That means that, at any one node, monopoles of the same kind are steadily being "deposited" in the material. These monopoles strongly repel each other, and so the material at that node is increasingly stressed in a tensile fashion.

Eventually the material will be torn apart at the node, stress relieving the situation. Movement of the material will release the nonlinear condition, stopping monopole production and deposit. However, at a break node, the same kind of magnetic pole will appear on each side of the break.

That is, the breaks will be N-N, S-S, N-N, S-S, etc.

An ordinary magnetic does not do that when it breaks. Instead, it breaks N-S, N-S, etc.

SLIDE 49. BREAKING METAL WITH MAGNETIC MONOPOLES

Again, metal has been broken in a North American laboratory utilizing the production and deposit of magnetic monopoles in this fashion.

On this slide we show what was done.

An ordinary bar of steel was exposed to standing scalar waves in a nonlinear situation, depositing magnetic monopoles at the wave nodal points in the metal bar. The breaks occurred as shown on this slide.

Much of what I am presenting is based on certain experiments accomplished in experimental laboratories here and abroad. Most of the mechanisms have actually been produced in the lab. However, these are proprietary labs and I cannot violate trust and reveal the precise construction details utilized. In some cases I have not seen the precise constructions, but only the direct results.

But ironically, the production of magnetic monopoles - which has fiercely resisted the normal scientific approach - yields readily to the new approach.

SLIDE 50. CREATING AN INERTIAL FIELD (ANTIGRAVITY)

We now show schematically how to produce an inertial field, or antigravity. Also an inertial space drive can be produced in this manner.

This again has been done in a North American laboratory. In fact, inertial fields have been produced in more than one lab here in North America.

In the setup shown here, three translator/transmitter projectors are used and oriented so as to give three-dimensional interference, or interference along all three spatial axes. By controlling the substructures of the three projectors all together, one can control the precise phasing in all substructures, with respect to a common time reference.

By this means, a unilateral force can be created on each and every charged mass particle (that is, on each proton) in the nucleus.

Since we know that the neutrons and protons in a nucleus of an atom are continually interchanging, one into the other, back and forth, all of the nucleons can be treated as "diffuse protons" for mass purposes, and scalar wave interaction purposes. Thus if we have the correct pattern to affect protons, we can control the phases of the substructure waves of the projectors so as to produce unilateral, parallel forces on and of each spinning proton in the nucleus.

This means we can produce unilateral thrust in an object exposed to the triad interference of the projectors. In short, this produces antigravity. If sufficient force is produced, the test object in the interference zone simply lifts itself off against earth gravity. This has been done in North America.

If we phase the projectors so that counterbalancing forces are produced on each proton, we can either make the proton "lighter" inertially or "heavier".

In fact, we could "freeze" a common pistol so that it could not be moved and its trigger could not be pulled, simply by sufficiently increasing its inertia. This was done in experimental demonstrations in Toronto, Canada in 1969, and witnessed by the Chief of the Homicide Squad of the Toronto police. It was his pistol that was frozen for demonstration.

If the projectors themselves are on board a space capsule, for example, they can produce such a unilateral thrust in and of a central mass or disc attached to the frame of the craft. By this means, an inertial spacedrive can be built.

SLIDE 51. EFFECTS ON HUMANS

Now let us look at some of the effects on humans, when radiated with a true scalar wave beam from a translator/transmitter.

First, the human nervous system is highly nonlinear. Essentially, across billions of synapses, sudden ion discharges - analogous to spark discharges - are continually or periodically occurring. Brain waves, for example, are not waves along wires; instead, they are waves of avalanche discharges across tremendous numbers of nerve cell gaps.

The central nervous system is thus highly nonlinear, and the gap firings of the nerve endings act as translators.

These translators partially translate incident scalar waves, so that additional transverse matter waves - or ordinary energy inputs - occur in the ion discharges.

Thus additional energy is being added to the nervous system by incident scalar waves. Many long-term effects of the environment on the body are gradually kindled in this fashion, even over a period of years. For a stronger dosage of scalar waves, the nervous system experiences "jamming" of its signals. This leads to four basic "noise jamming" effects.

If a small dose is absorbed, the interference is slight. One feels as if one had taken a whiff of anaesthesia - an unreal, dreamy feeling.

If a slightly larger dose is absorbed, the interference is moderate. Now the single channel system - the motor system - goes, and the individual is paralyzed. Mentally he is barely conscious, in a sort of hypnotic, waking dream state. Any tendency toward epileptic seizure or other nervous disorders may surface here, as may heart palpitations or even heart failure.

For a heavier dosage yet, the interference is now strong. Now the multiple systems start failing. Consciousness is lost and the individual is in a deep coma. In addition, seizures and convulsions, and loss of control of some body functions, may occur. The autonomic nervous system is keeping the heart beating with difficulty and keeping the body gasping for breath.

For a very strong dosage, the entire nervous system fails and death results almost immediately. This is quite similar to the effects of nerve gas.

These are the four major symptoms of scalar wave radiation of the body and translating absorption by the nervous system in an uncoordinated fashion.

SLIDE 52. INITIATING SPECIFIC BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

If we now add precisely patterned modulations to the substructure waves of the scalar zero vector beam, we can induce deliberate patterns in the dosage absorbed by a biological system.

As Kaznacheyev's experiments showed, any death or disease pattern can be induced upon an electromagnetic carrier - specifically, upon the near-ultraviolet as an example. Some of his experiments were duplicated at the University of Marburg in West Germany, utilizing infrared carriers. These patterns can be dumped into cell cultures, eventually kindling the pattern of death or disease in the target cells.

The same can be done to a human from an external source. The major entry point is the acupuncture system, which reacts to scalar waves and transfers them to the nervous system for translation.

Pavlita, Czechoslovakian engineer, has built "psychotropic generators" for over 30 years that affect the human body. Adamenko, Soviet physicist, found that the acupuncture points formed groupings or plexuses that were frequently sensitive. In other words, certain frequency bands affect one plexus more than others. Further, these acupuncture points are known to be connected to effects produced at remote locations in the body.

Pavlita stated he had found 64 different sensitive "points" on the body, and had succeeded in building a generator for each. If by his points he meant Adamenko's plexuses, then frequency patterns can be created that affect certain acupuncture groupings - and thereby certain specific body locations and effects - more than others.

It thus appears reasonable that, by placing the proper frequency pattern in the modulations of the substructure waves feeding into the translator/transmitter, the scalar ray or beam can be made highly selective as to body part affected and the effect generated or kindled in the body.

By this means, specifically tailored attacks on the body can be created.

Strong emotions such as sheer terror, overpowering rage, blind panic, etc. can be induced. Or physical effects such as epileptic seizure, loss of control of internal functions, loss of muscular control, severe weakness, specific failure of an individual organ such as the heart or liver, or blackouts and comas can be induced. In addition, patterns for specific toxins and diseases can be induced. With a strong absorption, these changes can be effected quickly. Imagine bubonic plague developing in 30 seconds, for example, or the effects of a cobra bite developing in 10 seconds.

If the individual is placed in crossed interference beams (that is, in the interference zone of a scalar interferometer), strong effects can be produced essentially instantly, including instantaneous death.

Of course BENEFICIAL effects can also be accomplished. As instrumentation is developed, one should be able to scan the aura, do a computerized readout to show the different medical problems either developed or developing in the body, have the computer compose a "cancellation of offsetting pattern," and radiate the body with a totally beneficial pattern, customizing for that particular condition at that particular time. One should be able to quickly cure cancers and leukemia, for example, even of the brain and the bone marrow. One may even be able to quickly reverse the effects of aging; at least there is no foreseeable reason why it should not be possible.

The new technology is a very powerful tool, and it can be used for either good or bad, depending upon the intent of the developer and the user.

SLIDE 53. GROUND-TO-AIR USE

Here we show another use of the scalar beam technology already developed by foreign powers.

A modified track radar - either continuous wave or pulsed - transmits a scalar wave beam. It radiates an incoming hostile aircraft, keeping the beam on it, and kindling energy in the nonlinear electronic circuits of the aircraft by translation. Communications, navigation systems, airborne radar, missile armament electronics, etc. are all vulnerable to this translation kindling of internally jamming energy from the incident scalar beam.

The electronics can be knocked out and the aircraft knocked down.

The pilot himself is also vulnerable because of his highly nonlinear central nervous system.

Some or all of the eight F-11 l's mysteriously lost in Vietnam may have been bagged by modified SA-2 FANSONG radars, using this effect.

SLIDE 54. TACTICAL AIR-TO-GROUND USAGE

As shown on this slide, the technology is also usable from aircraft against ground targets, particularly ground-based radars and communications systems.

As shown, the aircraft has a modified jammer, able to emit a beam of scalar energy from one or more translator/transmitters. By simply training a beam on the radar, eventually the radar can be knocked out. That is the simplest use.

A more sophisticated usage is provided by more than one translator/transmitter, acting as a scalar interferometer.

In this mode, each translator/transmitter emits multiple scalar carrier frequencies. Two Fourier expansions are established, so that a three-dimensional "ball" or sphere of interference-zone energy is established. By pulsing or phasing, this ball is moved to strike the location of the radar, delivering a large burst of energy to it and knocking it out. Alternatively, the energy bottle is "dumped" when it reaches the targeted radar or its near vicinity.

A still better way is to fire one Fourier scalar pattern directly at the target radar, then fire a second pulse faster so that it overtakes the first directly upon the target. (The velocity of such a pattern acts as a soliton, and its velocity is controllable by controlling the amplitude of the pattern generated).

When the second scalar overtakes the first, a sharp interference is formed, with a fast energy bottle, which is then nonlinearly dumped in microseconds or milliseconds. In this fashion, all the energy put out by the jammer is delivered directly upon and into the target in one sharp EMP pulse, much like that from a small nuclear explosion. The target is destroyed.

Note that such a weapon can be utilized against tanks, vehicles, explosives, missiles, ammunition, bridges (the airblast), bunkers (the blast can occur INSIDE the enclosure), ships, planes, personnel, and targets of varied types.

The Soviets have had such secret weapons for years.

One additional country has them also.

SLIDE 55. INTEGRATED WEAPONS DISPLAY (MODIFIED JAMMER)

Here we show diagrammatically what a modified Soviet integrated weapons display for a modified jammer might be, to employ scalar interferometer weaponry.

As the "main bang" is emerging from the antenna of the target radar on the ground, the phi-field from it reaches to infinity, including through the aircraft with a finite magnitude. In the aircraft, two channels act in interferometer fashion as a scalar detector. The main bang creation is detected, and displayed as the leftmost pulse.

At that time, a computer time-base starts clocking off microseconds.

At some time later, the third channel, acting as a normal receiver, receives the ordinary Hertz signal from the radar, which has travelled to the aircraft at the speed of light. The computer converts elapsed time between the scalar pulse and the Hertz pulse to range. Azimuth and eleviation angle to the radar are obtained by normal angle tracking. At this time, the computer has the exact coordinates of the radar, allowing for motion of the aircraft during the lapse time. The computer switches the interferometer into transmit mode, and arranges amplitude patterns to target the radar.

It fires the first scalar pulse, then fires the second so as to create the full EMP directly upon the target. The EMP flash occurs, destroying the radar.

At that time, another target can be processed.

In a more advanced weapon, scanning may be used to detect, locate, target, and engage multiple targets, including incoming air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles, one after another.

The same weapon is usable against a variety of aerial and groundbased targets.

The major weapon is the electronic emitter, not a missile or ordinary ordnance. Hordes of such special "jammer aircraft" now become a potent force on the battlefield, destroying all before them with annihilating ray weapons.

Star Wars is a reality now.

The High Frontier is already seriously obsolete.

Our entire defense establishment is completely vulnerable to these weapons at present, for we have not developed countermeasures or defenses.

SLIDE 56. RADAR INVISIBILITY

On this slide we show another effect which can be obtained. We can make an airplane invisible to ordinary radar.

Imagine now the same "jammer" type aircraft with three channels, one for use in scalar interferometry and one as an ordinary channel.

This time, a Fourier interference pattern is established around the aircraft, so this establishes an "energy bottle" around the plane. We specifically arrange this bottle in the frequency band of the hostile radar we wish to avoid. For multiple bands, we establish multiple bottles - this just requires more frequencies or more translator/transmitters.

The beam from the ground radar now strikes the energy bottle, and its energy enters and is trapped in the bottle grids. Since the bottle is leaky, the incident energy gradually disperses and "leaks" out all around, with very little emerging energy.

The ground radar receives no return pulse or reflection. Therefore it sees no target.

The same interferometer system is usable both in this defensive screen fashion and in the attack fashion previously discussed.

Use of this system has been demonstrated internationally.

An energy bottle has been created in a North American laboratory as well.

SLIDE 57. NETWORK OF VIRTUAL TRANSMITTERS

As is well-known, for years the Soviets have blank eted the world with large, powerful transmitter signals in the communications band, referred to as the "Woodpecker" signals because of the staccato noise the chirped signals make to the ear. The carriers have been modulated with known harmful bioactive ELF frequencies. At least some effects have been noted on humans from these signals, and other human effects are suspected but not proven.

In addition, evidence exists that such transmitters, utilized in the scalar transmission mode, may have been used to cause earthquakes and to control the weather. High altitude bursts off the coast of the Eastern United States and Canada, over Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and off the coast from St. Petersburg, Florida have occurred also.

Mysterious "blackouts" of U.S. satellites - and British satellites - have occured. These would be difficult to explain as the result of illumination from a ground laser, but easily explained as the result of illumination from a ground-based scalar beam or scalar interferometer.

Strange patterns of micro sky quakes and micro earthquakes occured at various locations throughout the U.S. just before and shortly after the death of Leonid Brezhnev. These strongly appear to be connected with the adjustment of a scalar interference pattern - a gigantic "energy bottle" across North America, as shown on this slide.

Shortly after this suspected adjustment and alignment, the underground net in the U.S. detected the emergency of numerous ELF-modulated signal carriers throughout the U.S., generally utilizing carriers in the vicinity of 40 MHz. Locations of the apparent transmitters were such places as Atlanta, North Georgia; St. Petersburg, Florida; Mississippi; Alabama; in the vicinity of Washington, D.C.; near Boston; around the Great Lakes; Michigan; in the Pacific Northwest (Washington and Oregon); and in both northern and southern California.

Researchers knowledgeable of the Soviet woodpecker signals and ELF modulations detected and reported these signals.

Physical effects were reported and correlated to the signals, including wakefulness at night, restlessness, fatigue, headaches, nausea, ringing in the ears, anxiety, disturbed dreams, etc.

What appears to have occurred is the adjustment and alignment of a vast scalar interference pattern across the U.S. Recall that energy emerges in each grid, by phase interference between the composite substructure waves of the scalar beams.

Thus the Woodpecker "over-the-horizon radars," as accepted by Western intelligence analysts, may have acquired a diabolical new strategic capability.

It is as if the Soviets had been permitted to build a vast network of transmitters directly on U.S. soil, for hostile employment against U.S. citizens.

Shortly after the net was aligned, a curious pattern of weather assaults on the U.S. began. Storms assaulted California unceasingly. Then they roared across the Rockies, dipping sharply down to hit the Texas Panhandle, and bending northeast again to assault the South and the East.

The mighty jetstreams themselves were diverted and "kinked" into this looped, distorted pattern.

And the storms and floods assaulted the U.S. one after the other in this highly unusual fashion.

I maintain that the virtual transmitter net, just established by the Soviets and adjusted in on the U.S., was tested in the weather control mode. If so, it proved highly effective. Imagine what would have happened to the U.S. if it had been unleashed full force, and not just "gently tested."

And imagine what happens when disease, death, and nervous system disturbances are modulated upon these blanketing signals. The "transmitters" for the patterns are in each grid, all across the U.S.! And there are no physical transmitters there to destroy.

A counter is needed quickly. A simple one would consist of recording the signals in each grid zone, analyzing the substructure, reversing the signals and their structured patterns 180 degrees, and feeding the "cancellation signals" out in each area.

A great strategic Russian weapon of devastating power and potential is now operating directly on U.S. soil. The need for a crash countermeasures program is urgent.

In 1975 Brezhnev had introduced to the SALT talks the strange proposal that we should also consider outlawing the development of new weapons more frightful than the mind of man had ever imagined. We didn't know what the Russians were talking about. When we asked them later what weapons they meant, they referred vaguely to weapons of an electromagnetic nature.

The presentation I have just given you is a part of what Brezhnev meant.

CONCLUSION (NO SLIDE)

In conclusion, today I have released a number of powerful mechanisms that result from the new technological concepts. Many of these were originally discovered - at least in rudimentary form - by Nikola Tesla. In the West, the suppression of Tesla led to the suppression of these effects. And our knowledge of them went to the grave with Tesla.

After World War II, the Soviet Union mounted a massive campaign to obtain all the scientific literature of the West and thoroughly digest it. Great centers were set up, and thousands of PhDs devoted to this purpose. Gradually they synthesized this technology from the errors in EM foundations they uncovered, and from obscure, ignored papers published in the orthodox Western scientific literature.

They rediscovered the technology of Tesla, Moray, and Rogers. And they have highly weaponized the effects, and adjusted and aligned the weapons upon us.

Now the radical movements are onto part of this technology. As late as about six months ago, one such group discovered how to build a translator and a scalar beam projector. Excitedly, they planned to build them the size of a large pistol, powered by a portable battery pack, and sell them to street criminals to kill or stop the police. They planned to get rich by this illicit means. At that time, a personal friend of mine, who moves in underground circles, was attempting to purchase one of the prototypes for my analysis. Fortunately, the inventor stepped into the beam of one of his devices and was almost killed. This frightened the group, and at least for now they have desisted. But be forewarned: this technology is coming down the pipe, and the police establishments in the West are in for the shock of their lives if the scientific community does not wake up and prepare defenses.

Again I urge my fellow colleagues to experiment vigorously with these new concepts, but build equipment for the benefit of man. Insect control, disease elimination and control - both are noble purposes. Defense against the hostile use of such devices is also a fitting purpose.

We are in the final days, and the final technology is upon us. It is a stupendous tool for either good or bad, and assuredly it will be utilized for both means. I call attention once again to the fact that my ultimate purpose is to use this technology benevolently to achieve mind linkage, and elevate man from his present brutish state to the lofty state that is his destiny and his true God-nature.

For better or worse, Tesla technology is once again loose in the world, this time for good, and on a massive scale.

Let us prepare ourselves for a wild canoe ride, for the real white water lies just ahead.

Thank you for your attention, and good evening.

SLIDE 1

TOWARD A NEW ELECTROMAGNETICS

@)1983 T.E. BEARDEN

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

SLIDE 2

OUTLINE

· MAIN BRIEFING

· TRANSLATOR EFFECTS
· POTENTIAL WEAPONS
· INCIDENTS
· CONCLUSION

· HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

· TESLA/MORAY
· WWII AND AFTER

· ELEMENTS OF THE EMERGING THEORY

· LONGlTUDlNAL/TRANSVERSE WAVES
· VACUUM/MASS EFFECTS
· FLAWS IN VECTOR THEORY
· IMPLICATIONS

SLIDE 3

CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED CONCEPTS

CONCEPT

CHARACTERISTIC

· ENERGY

FLOP OF OBSERVABLE MASS PARTICLES

· ANENERGY

FLOW OF VIRTUAL PARTICLES

· PRESENT "CHARGE"

VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX TIED TO OBSERVABLE MASS PARTICLES

· TRUE CHARGE

VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX WITHOUT BASS

· FLUX

MULTI-DIRECTIONAL FLOWS THROUGH A POINT

· FLOW

UNI-DIRECTIONAL MOVEMENT OF A FLUX (GRADIENT)

· CURRENT

UNI-DIRECTIONAL GRADIENT OF A (USUALLY CONSTRAINED) FLUX

SLIDE 4

QUOTE FROM NIKOLA TESLA:

"THE HERTZ WAVE THEORY OF WIRELESS TRANSMISSION MAY BE KEPT UP FOR A WHILE, BUT I DO NOT HESITATE TO SAY THAT IN A SHORT TIME IT WILL BE RECOGNIZED AS ONE OF THE MOST REMARKABLE AND INEXPLICABLE ABERRATIONS OF THE SCIENTIFIC MIND WHICH HAS EVER BEEN RECORDED IN HISTORY."

NIKOLA TESLA
"THE TRUE WIRELESS,"
THE ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER

SLIDE 5

FORCE BETWEEN TWO LIKE CHARGES


SLIDE 5

A NEGATIVELY CHARGED TEST MASS (E. G.. AN ELECTRON) BROUGHT INTO THE VICINITY OF q1 EXPERIENCES A FORCE AS SHOWN. NOTE THE ELECTRON ACTUALLY IS SPINNING. THIS WAS NEVER BEEN DONE WITH A TRUE "STATISTIC CHARGE," FOR THERE IS NO SUCH THING IN NATURE.

NOTE THAT THE PHOTON INTERACTION HAS BEEN INTENSIVELY OCCURRING, ALTHOUGH NEOLECTED IN THE EXPERIMENT (AND IN THE TROUGH PROCESS ABOUT THE EXPERIMENT).

SLIDE 6

REPETITIONS LEAD TO THE VECTOR "FIELD" CONCEPT


SLIDE 6

REPEATING SLIDE 5 A NUMBER OF TIMES LEADS TO SETS OF FORCE ARROWS, WHICH WE THEN VISUALIZE IN TOTAL AS A FIELD, E, OF FORCE(S) ABOUT q1

RIGOROUSLY THIS "FORCE FIELD" WOULD REQUIRE THAT A SPINNING CHARGED PARTICLE OF MASS EXIST AT EACH AND EVERY POINT IN SPACE ABOUT q1.

SLIDE 7

A SCALAR HAS A HIDDEN (VIRTUAL) VECTOR SUBSTRUCTURE


SLIDE 7

SLIDE 8

SCALAR AND VECTOR SUBSTRUCTURES


SLIDE 8

SLIDE 9

SUPERPOSITION DOES NOT ELIMINATE THE VIRTUAL SUBSTRUCTURE


SLIDE 9

SUPERPOSITION DOES NOT ELIMINATE THE VIRTUAL SUBSTRUCTURE.

TWO OR MORE MACROSCOPICALLY "EQUAL" VECTORS OR SCALARS CAN DIFFER DRASTICALLY IN THEIR VIRTUAL SUBSTRUCTURE DISTRIBUTION. EVEN THE "ZEROS" MAY BE DYNAMICALLY DIFFERENT DUE THEIR DIFFERING SUBSTRUCTURES.

SLIDE 10

PHYSICAL VECTORS

· VECTOR: A "SMEARED PARTICLE"

· FOUR MAJOR PARTICLES IN PHYSICS:

- POINT (MASSLESS, CHARGELESS)
- MASS (CHARGELESS)
- CHARGED MASS
- CHARGED POINT (MASSLESS)

· LEADS TO FOUR MAJOR VECTORS:

- GEOMETER'S
- MECHANIC'S
- ELECTRICIAN'S
- ADVANCED ELECTRICIAN'S

SLIDE 11

THE FOUR VECTORS OF PHYSICS


SLIDE 11

SLIDE 12

FORCE DEFINITION

· A TRUE DEFINITION IS AN lDENTITY.

· FORCE CONSISTS OF THE TIME RATE OF CHANGE OF MOMENTUM

· MOMENTUM IS A MASS SMEARED THROUGH A LENGTH IN A CERTAIN
TIME

· FORCE CONSISTS OF MASS-MOTION-CHANGE

· FORCE IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE!

SLIDE 13

FORCE IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE

1. [MACROSCOPIC]

2. [MACROSCOPIC]

3. [MACROSCOPIC]

4. [MICRO]

5. [NONRELATIVISTIC]

6. FORCE CONSISTS OF A "SMEARED MASS"

7. IT IS MASS-ACCELERATION, IT DOES NOT CAUSE IT.

8. FORCE IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE!

SLIDE 14

FORCE AND -FIELD DO NOT EXIST IN VACUUM

1.

2. WITHOUT M, THERE IS NO MP, NON

3. DENSE FORCE DOES NOT EXIST IN VACUUM.

4.

5. WITHOUT M, THERE IS NON acm

6. DENSE -FIELD DOES NOT EXIST IN VACUUM.

7. SIMILARLY, AND DO NOT EXIST IN VACUUM.

8. NO FORCE FIELD EXIST IN VACUUM.

SLIDE 15

COROLLARIES

· MORE PRIMARY MECHANISM CAUSES/GENERATES FORCE --ANY FORCE

· FORCE DOES NOT EXIST IN VACUUM, SINCE VACUUM IS THE ABSENCE OF MASS

· FORCE FIELDS DO NOT EXIST IN VACUUM

· -FIELD
· -FIELD

· TRANSVERSE [HERTZIAN] WAVES DO NOT EXIST IN VACUUM

SLIDE 16

ENERGY IS DERIVED, NOT FUNDAMENTAL

· ENERGY IS CONGRUENT TO WORK

· BUT FORCE IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE

· THUS WORK IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE

· ENERGY WORK CAPACITY

· A MORE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISM GENERATES "ENERGY"

· ENERGY lS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE

SLIDE 17

EXISTENCE IN, AND PASSAGE THROUGH, TIME

· IN RELATIVITY, TRANSLATION OF A BODY AND PASSAGE THROUGH TIME ARE RELATED

· "MASS" IS SPATIAL

- DOES NOT EXIST lN TIME
- "MASS-TIME" EXISTS IN TIME

· VIRTUAL FLUX TO AND FROM A BARE PARTICLE DETERMINES ITS " PASSAGE
THRU TIME"

· SPHERICAL SPIN OF A MASS PARTICLE (L3) COUPLES IT To THE SPACETIME VACUUM (L3T) VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX

· PASSAGE THROUGH ORDINARY TIME IS CONTROLED BY CREATING AND ANNIHILATION OF QUANTA

SLIDE 18

SOME IMPLICATIONS

· MODIFIES CONSERVATION OF CHARGE

· MODIFIES CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

· MASS
· ENERGY
· ANENERGY (MASSLESS CHARGE)

· MODIFIES NEWTON'S LAW

· FOR EVERY ACTION, THERE IS AN OPPOSITE AND EQUAL REACTION
· REACTION NEED NOT BE LOCAL
· REACTION NEED NOT BE ANTIPARALLEL

· UNIFIED FIELD THEORY.

SLIDE 19

CONSERVATION OF ANENERGY (AE): (AN EXPANDED ENERGY CONSERVATION LAW)

1. CONSERVATION OF CHARGE:

- "CHARGE" = MASS (Me) + CHARGE (AEe)
-

2. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY:

- DYNAMIC ENERGY (E)
- ENERGY EQUIVALENCE OF MASS (ME)
-

3. ADDING (1) AND (2):

4. LETTING
,

5. LETTING
,
,
,

SLIDE 20

FREE ENERGY IS ALLOWED

· ANY ONE-WAY GATING PROCESS FROM ANENERGY TO ENERGY YIELDS "FREE ENERGY" SINCE THE ANENERGY IS AUTOMATICALLY REPLENISHED BY THE UNIVERSE.


SLIDE 20

SLIDE 21

SCALAR POTENTIAL CAN FORCE THE RELATIVISTIC CASK

· FOR SCALAR POTENTIAL ENERGY OF APPRECIABLE SIZE RELATIVE TO A PARTICLE'S REST ENERGY,

· NEWTONIAN MECHANICS AND
· THE SCHRODINGER EQUATION

· MAY BE INADEQUATE,

· EVEN IF V/C IS SMALL

Block & Cretar, " Lorentz-Invariant potentials and the non-relativistic limit," American Journal of Physics. Vol. 49, No. I, Jan. 1981, pp. 67-75.

SLIDE 22

SCALAR STRESS WAVE [-WAVE] [TESLA WAVE]


SLIDE 22

SLIDE 23

SCALAR -WAVE PRODUCTION


SLIDE 23

SLIDE 24

SIMPLIFIED CHARGED PARTICLE


SLIDE 24

(THINK OF THE FLUX IN AND OUT, EXCEPT GRADIENTS
ARE SPIRAL-LIKE, DUE TO PARTICLE'S SPIN)

SLIDE 25

A CHARGED PARTICLE IS A SPECIAL KIND OF "SPRAY NOZZLE"


SLIDE 25

(SPRAY IS THROUGH 4 DIMENSIONS, NOT JUST 3)

SLIDE 26

AN OBSERVABLE CHARGED PARTICLE IS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX VACUUM


SLIDE 27

SPIN COUPLES VACUUM TO PARTICLE

· SPHERICAL ROTATION IS THE KEY

· A PARTICLE CAN BE MODELLED AS A SPHERICALLY ROTATING VORTEX OF SPACE-TIME

· ITS MASS IS DUE TO ITS SPIN

· THE SPINNING OBJECT IS CONTINUALLY CONNECTED TO ITS ENVIRONMENT

· VERY HIGH VALUES OF ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL CAR INDUCE RELATIVISTIC CONDITIONS

· CHARGE RATE OF FLOW OF TIME
· EVEN THOUGH VELOCITY IS NONRELATIVISTIC

E. P. BATTEY-PRATT AND T. J. RACEY., "GEOMETRIC MODEL FOR FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES," INTL. J. OF PNYS. 19, NO. 6, 457-475, 1980.

SLIDE 28

ELECTRON PRECESSION [SIMPLIFIED]


SLIDE 28

SLIDE 29

VACUUM/SPACETIME IS PURE VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX []


SLIDE 29

VACUUM IS IDENTICAL TO:

· VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX
· SPACETIME
· ANENERGY
·
· MASSLESS CHARGE

VACUUM IS:

· MADE OF UNQUANTIZED ACTlON

· WITHOUT DEFINITE LENGTH INTERVALS

· WITHOUT DEFINITE TIME INTERVALS

· N-DIMENSIONAL (UNFIXED)

SLIDE 30

VACUUM IS:

· SPACETlME (LnT, where n3)

· CHARGE (MASSLESS)

· ELECTROSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL ERROR IN PRESENT THEORY

· BROKEN BITS OF ENERGY (SUBQUANTAL)

· PURE VIRTUAL PARTICLE FLUX

· -WAVE FLUX

· MULTILEVEL, STRUCTURED, PATTERNED

· A VIRTUAL PLENUM

· AN OBSERVABLE EMPTINESS

SLIDE 31

GRADIENT OF ELECTROSTATIC POTENTlAL

IN VACUUM

ON AND OF A MOVING CHARGED PARTICLE

SLIDE 32

IN A A CHARGED PARTICLE MONIES ITSELF

IMPLIES A MOVING RIVER, AND THE CHARGED PARTICLE IS "MOOKED TO" THE
RIVER


SLIDE 32

SLIDE 33

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN ELECTRON GAS IN A CONDUCTOR

· VECTOR WAVES

· CONTAIN E. B FIELDS

· GENERATED BY SPIN COUPLING OF ELECTRONS WITH SCALAR WAVE "SPIN-HOLES"

· WAVES OF FORCE

· HERTZIAN WAVES

· TRANSVERSE WAVES

· WAVES OF ELECTRON PRECESSION

SLIDE 34

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN VACUUM

· SCALAR LONGITUDINAL WAVES

· VECTOR ZERO WAVES

· WITHOUT FIELDS

· INTERNALLY STRUCTURED

· PATTERNED

· MAY CONTAIN ELECTRON "SPIN-HOLES"

SLIDE 35

DETECTION OF TRANSVERSE AND LONGITUDINAL WAVES


SLIDE 35

SLIDE 36

CREATING A "RIVER" OF ANENERGY PROVIDE TWO "LOCKED-IN" SEPARATED -SOURCES OF DlFFERENT MAGNITUDES


SLIDE 36

IN VACUUM, THIS IS NOT YET A VOLTAGE DROP (NO MASS FLOW), NOR IS THERE AN -FIELD

SLIDE 37

A 2-WIRE SYSTEM IS CONSERVATIVE

· HAS LOSSES

· DOES NOT BREAK EVEN

· DOES NOT PRODUCE FREE ENERGY


SLIDE 37

REPLENISH SPRAY NOZZLES BY PUMPING MORE ELECTRONS. (MOVING ELECTRON MASSES AGAINST A "SPRAY PILEUP" REQUIRES WORK).

SLIDE 38

A HOLLOW CHARGED SPHERE


SLIDE 38

SLIDE 39

ONE-WAY GATE VALVE (ANENERGY TO ENERGY)


SLIDE 39

IF PROPERLY OSCILLATE -APPLICATION, GET STEADY EMISSION (MORAY EFFECT)

IN A TRAPPED -FIELD. ELECTRON CAN LIFT ITSELF TO AN EXCITED STATE. REMOVING THE ALLOWS DECAY, WITH EMISSION OF A NORMAL PHOTON

ANENERGY (-FIELD) IS CONVENTED TO ENERGY. FIELDING "FREE ENERGY" FROM THE VACUUM

· SIMILAR THING IN NUCLEUS

· TRASMUTE ELEMENTS (KENVRAN EFFECT)

· SPEED UP RADIOACTIVITY (REIGN EFFECT)

SLIDE 40

SIMPLE FREE-ENERGY MOTOR


BATTERY RECHARGES ITSELF


BATTERY POWER

SLIDE 41

THE TRANSLATOR


SLIDE 41

SLIDE 42

TRANSVERSE WAVE INTERFERENCE


SLIDE 42

SLIDE 43

LONGITUDINAL WAVE INTERFERENCE (SCALAR WAVES)


SLIDE 43

SLIDE 44

CREATING ENERGY AT A DISTANCE


SLIDE 44

SLIDE 45

NONLINEARITIES CAUSE SHIFTING (PARTIAL TRANSLATION)


SLIDE 45

SLIDE 46

THE SCALAR AURA


SLIDE 46

SLIDE 47

VIRTUAL FLUX AND MAGNETIC FIELD (LINEAR CASE)


SLIDE 47

SLIDE 48

PRODUCING MAGNETIC MONOPOLES


SLIDE 48

SLIDE 49

BREAKING METAL WITH MAGNETIC MONOPOLES


SLIDE 49

SLIDE 50

CREATING AN INERTIAL FIELD (ANTIGRAVITY)


SLIDE 50

SLIDE 51

EFFECTS ON HUMANS


SLIDE 51

SLIDE 52

INITIATING SPECIFIC BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

NOTE:

· PAVLITA'S 64 POINTS

· ADAMENKO'S PLEXUSES


SLIDE 52

SLIDE 53

GROUND-TO-AIR USE


SLIDE 53

SLIDE 54

TACTICAL AIR-TO-GROUND USAGE


SLIDE 54

SLIDE 55

INTEGRATED WEAPONS DISPLAY (MODIFIED JAMMER)


SLIDE 55

SLIDE 56

RADAR INVISIBILITY


SLIDE 57

NETWORK OF VIRTUAL TRANSMITTERS


SLIDE 57

On the fundamental properties of matter

By R.C. JENNISON

Electronics Laboratories, The University of Kent in Canterbury, England.

Sixty years ago de Broglie conceived the idea of ascribing wave properties to particulate matter. His original concepts were soon absorbed into the somewhat different treatment by Schrodinger which evolved into the wave mechanics that is used to compute orbitals and other problems concerned with the probability of finding particles in a particular physical situation. Wave mechanics has told us little about the particles themselves although de Broglie has always maintained that his original treatment held the key to the fundamental structure of matter itself. Very recent work, stemming originally from research into the problem of how the units of length and time are preserved in the proper frame despite the effects of acceleration, has shown that the principles of phase-locked cavities may be combined with de Broglie's wave treatment to provide a unique description of a spinning particle. Various modes of the trapped wave system are available and the properties of rest mass, inertia (independent of Mach's Principle) and quantisation all appear simply as a result of the phaselocking and feedback process that is intrinsic to phase-locked particles. The sharp bounding of the spinning wave-mechanical packet has interesting relativistic properties which may indicate why the action of quantum phenomena are concentrated into particular space-time events and are not diluted over large regions of the Universe. This approach to the understanding of fundamental matter is radically different to the philosophy of highly energetic collisions where the exotic products of the collisional energy demonstrate the patterns available from ever increasing energies. It may do more to elucidate the fundamental properties of matter upon which the quantum hypothesis, Newton's laws and the concepts of charge, angular momentum, mass, length and time are based.

The enigmatic duality of particles and waves has influenced the development of science for hundreds of years. As with so many aspects in the history of science it has been influenced by the timing of discoveries and by the stature of the researchers. There is an old conundrum which poses the hypothetical question of what would have happened if Michelson and Morley had performed their experiment at the time of Copernicus - surely there was proof that Galileo's teachings were unscientific heresy! The nature of light has also swung between extremes of interpretation. Newton claimed that it was corpuscular, despite his experiments with prisms, and then Young demonstrated the interference from a double slit which appeared to show that it was waves. If the photo-electric effect had been discovered at about that time, Young would have been disgraced and all the development of wave theory in the nineteenth century would have taken a back place. Then in 1905 Einstein showed that light interacted with matter as if it were quantised according to the relation E = h. It is often said that Einstein invented the photon but I do not believe this to be true. He proved, quite correctly, that the interaction was quantised; he did not unequivocally state that the light itself was particulate. Despite his unique contributions to the quantum theory Einstein was highly suspicious of its interpretation and campaigned against it for the remainder of his life.

The story turned full circle when, in 1925, Louis de Broglie showed that matter could be treated as waves. His remarkable discovery coincided with the birth of quantum mechanics dominated by the presence of Max Born in Germany and Niels Bohr in Copenhagen and so de Broglie's ideas were quickly absorbed into the somewhat different structure of wave mechanics developed by Schrodinger. This was much more compatible with the matrix mechanics of quantum theory but differed in considerable detail from the ideas of de Broglie. Wave mechanics became essentially a probability computation and did nothing to elucidate the nature of matter itself. For many decades scientists have been trying to solve the internal structure of the fundamental particles by colliding matter at ever increasing energies and studying the products of the collisional energy. But if de Broglie's original ideas were correct then there ought to be much cheaper and more effective ways of solving the mystery.

Mackinnon (1981, a, b) showed that de Broglie's wave equation, when viewed from an assemblage of observers, could give a solution of the form

(1)

which befits a non-dispersive wave packet for a free particle of mass m traveling in the + x direction at velocity v, where K0 = mv/h and = m2ch. He showed that this is consistent with a classical description of the particle and is equivalent to the electromagnetic form of a phase-locked cavity proposed by Jennison (1978). De Broglie's disciples Gueret and Vigier (1982) extended Mackinnon's work and also noted the similarity to the author's phase-locked cavities. Mackinnon's solution, however, does not have a finite distant boundary, whereas such a boundary is required to return the wave in a phase-locked cavity.

At about the same time as Mackinnon's publication, Jennison (1981) had generalised his inertial analysis, phenomenalogically, to include J. particles - all particles or regions of space containing trapped wave energy of any type (no longer restricted to the electromagnetic case), wherein the requisite echo effect for feedback could occur at velocity c. (The insignia 'J0' particle referred to the rest energy in Joules.) These particles possess the property of inertia without the need for Mach's principle and they respond in a quantised manner in response to a classical wave without the need for the wave itself to have quantum properties. It is of interest to see what further information may be obtained by comparing or combining these two very different approaches.

Consider the equatorial plane of rotation of a wave-mechanical phase-locked cavity containing a very large number of wavelengths. Let this rotation be measured against a non-rotating inertial frame in which light paths are straight lines. For very small values of rotational angular velocity () there will be distant parts of the system () where the rotation will create a tangential velocity approaching the velocity of light. Applying () equally to all points in the matter-wave system, the steady-gate geometry becomes the inverse case of that discussed by Jennison (1963), the rotating radius now lying on a circular arc relative to the straight line radius in the inertial system. The whole system will become closed at a radius of r = R = c/ but the wave distances in the cavity will correspond to measurements on the circular arc which has a maximum length of Smax = /2R and is related to r as an arc of a circle is to a chord

(2)

From the phase-locking principle, there must be an integral number of half waves in the cavity (assuming no phase reversals at the ends). Smax can therefore only have integral values of n /2 where is the wavelength of the matter wave = . The only systems which can be rotated therefore have

(4)

where n is an integer.

If is now increased, the physical size of the matter wave system must therefore reduce in successive steps to preserve phase-locking at the boundary and, from the limiting relationship R = c, the value of must correspondingly increase in successive steps which are integral sub-multiples of , thus = /2n.

Consider a matter wave distribution of the form discussed by Mackinnon. In the rest frame = m0c2/n and we may substitute k = /c. If this is rotated, we have the non-linear form in the equatorial plane:

(4)

where we have replaced r in the argument of the sin function by the measure s, the r in the denominator is not affected since the divergence is dependent on l/r. Successive shells of this function are therefore shed off as is increased from zero. The non-linear form of equation (4) corresponds to the real particle within 0 <r <c/. [The double solution envisaged by de Broglie and Vigier may include c/< r < . Substituting from (2) into (4) we have

(5)

This function, which is contained within the range , is therefore applicable to the equatorial distribution of in all simple rotating wave-mechanical phase-locked cavities. The radius to the first minimum corresponds to a half wavelength from the centre at twice the Compton frequency, i.e. half the pair-production wavelength pivoting about the centre. The circumference through the first minimum corresponds to the Compton wavelength. This double role is significant for the interpretation of the conversion process in annihilation and pair production. Furthermore, the formation of a real particle phase-locked to the Compton dimensions defines a combined proper measuring rod and proper clock of fundamental significance, as predicted by Jennison and Drinkwater (1977) and utilized by Jennison (1 983).

It should be noted that if a phase reversal can occur at the central node then another series of modes is possible, based upon an odd number of quarter waves pivoting about the centre. The fundamental solution (n = 1) in this case gives a uniform distribution of within the limiting radius .

The finite boundary condition has important consequences for inertia, for it provides an essential requirement for a phase-locked particle, that there shall be an outer boundary from which information may return to produce the requisite feedback in the system. Thus we can identify the closed systems of matter waves discussed in this paper with the J0 types of phase-locked cavity and expect them to possess the various properties that have been discussed in that context. In particular, such particles of matter possess inertia corresponding to their rest mass and independent of the rest of the Universe (Jennison, 1981 etc). This is currently of especial importance in view of the recent discovery of a possible rotation of the Universe and the resulting inapplicability of Mach's principle (Birch, 1982).

SOME COMMENTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE ROTATING SOLUTION

It will be noted from (4) that if we follow de Broglie's concept in contra-distinction to Schrodinger's interpretation and we identify with the distribution of mass, then the mass distribution in any shell decreases as 1/r2 along a single radial line and as 1/r for successive complete rings in the equatorial plane. The angular momentum for a ring is, however, proportional to the mass in that ring, the square of the radius of the ring and the angular velocity of rotation. For a system defined by the limiting radius , becomes mRc but we have seen that m varies as 1/R, the angular momentum for the interior shells therefore increases precisely to compensate for those shells which are discarded as the system is spun up. Within the limiting radius, the angular momentum of the total system is conserved as increases in integral steps.

The excess angular momentum is, conversely, shed in equal quantised steps as increases and Rmax progresses inwards in discrete steps from . A perfect detent mechanism therefore operates at the boundary to maintain a quantised state by shedding quanta of angular momentum from the system as its angular velocity is increased. If the system is born in a rotating state, as might correspond to the circumstances in the process of pair production, then the solution simply indicates that a rotating mass results, the angular momentum of which is conserved and quantised in the manner indicated.

The properties of the boundary formed from the rotating transformation are remarkable and probably of some importance to the interpretation of measurements in particle physics. The boundary represents an onset of matter with a tangential velocity at the velocity of light. The formation of a mechanical system with a boundary rotating at this velocity would be quite impossible in macroscopic classical physics but in this case it is simply constructed from the component matter waves so that the usual mechanical constraints are inapplicable, indeed the mechanical system appears to correspond closely with the electromagnetic models discussed in Jennison 1978. In that paper it was shown that the Compton energy and momentum equations could be derived classically for such a system whilst Ashworth and Jennison 1974 showed that the angular scattering could be treated classically. Ashworth (1978) showed that the angular distribution of the scattering could be expressed in a form directly compatible with a specular reflection and with the Jennison 1978 energy and momentum treatment. In these treatments it is usual to transform from the laboratory frame to that of the particle and then back again. It is assumed that a fundamental observer at the particle could apply the usual laws of physics and that Snell's law and the usual conservation laws apply.

From the present analysis we now ascertain a number of very remarkable facts relevant to such a particle observer. If the reflection occurs at a surface which is rotating at or very close to the velocity of light then the scale size of the Universe will be vanishingly small. (This effect has been discussed in Ashworth and Jennison 1976.) If this observer receives radiation, then, as the Universe has been reduced to vanishing dimensions, the remainder of the wavefront which strikes him is contained in the encounter at the rotating observer's point in space-time. We can speculate that it may therefore disappear, or strictly, never appear, as far as all other observers are concerned. Furthermore the apparent specular reflection encountered in the Compton effect may be a simple outcome of the curious rotating geometry at this boundary. If this is the case, the communicating properties of fundamental particles in space-time are out of this world but still amenable to physical understanding.

No attempt has been made in the paper to discuss wave-mechanical models for the system which embrace the axial dimension and I have ignored the possibility of co-related electromagnetic phenomena, whereas many fundamental particles having rest mass also have electromagnetic properties. This paper has been concerned entirely with the wave-mechanical system but it invites the speculation that the boundary, rotating at the velocity of light, may behave as a ring displacement current, giving rise to an axial dipole magnetic field which may well constrain the polar component of the matter waves. I repeat that this is entirely speculation but the present treatment has taken one so far down the road in providing a wave-mechanical description of a discrete fundamental particle that one suspects that the final axial closure must come about in an equally simple manner.

REFERENCES

Ashworth, D.G. 1978, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 9, 1759-63.
Ashworth D.G. and Jennison R.C., 1976, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 7, 803-6
Birch P., 1982, Nature, 298, 451-454
Davies P.A. and Jennison R.C., 1975, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 8, 1390-7
Gueret P. and Vigier J.P., 1982, Lett Nuovo Cimento 35, 256-259
Jennison, R.C.,
1963, Nature 199, 739-41
1964, Nature 203, 395-6
1978, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 11, 1525-33
1981, Second Oxford Quantum Gravity Conference OUP, pp. 657-69
1982, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 15, 405-408
1983, The Observatory, 103, 173-5
Jennison R.C. and Drinkwater A.J., 1977, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen. 10, 167-79
Mackinnon L.,
1981a, Lett Nuovo Cimento 31, 37-38
1981b, Lett Nuovo Cimento 32, 311-312

Energy and paranormal phenomena

By RAYMOND A. NELLI, Director

High Energy Electrostatics Research (HEER) Springfield, Virginia

My dear friends, associates, colleagues and researchers, I would like firstly to express my appreciation to Ken MacNeill and George Hathaway for inviting me to speak at this meeting.

I believe that most of you are particularly interested in specific hardware aspects of alternate energy, such as the Hubbard Generator, the Ecklin Motor, the Moray Device, Tesla Scalar Wave Technology, the Hendershott Generator, the Biefeld-Brown/Hooper & Wallace antigravity devices, the Searl Levitating Generator, Mobius Coils and Propulsion systems and Mobius effects on electrical transmission configurations and probably a couple of dozen other devices which I have not yet had the pleasure of learning about.

I must indicate that the areas which are being investigated by HEER encompass somewhat more objective and broader aspects of such technology. We are of the very firm opinion at this point in time, or until we discover facts or evidence to the contrary, that to most effectively make, use and understand such devices in PHYSICAL REALITY, we must first understand WHAT the energy is that we are trying to tap and control, and from where it originates.

Based on many years of experimental studies with electrical fields and discharges of high voltage of varying energy densities, we believe that the very essence of all energy in REALITY (physical and non-physical) may indeed be what we currently recognize and label in PHYSICAL REALITY as electromagnetic energy. However, in its more subtle and less measurable forms, we believe this energy to be of such extraordinarily high frequency as to be non-measurable by our conventionally utilized Physical devices which are borne of PHYSICAL REALITY and subsequently have certain physical limitations which prevent the detection of, or provide the alteration or destruction of the very things we seek to measure.

An interesting example of such elusive indications may be set forth by relating a series of subjective experiments I devised using the living organism as the detector. I assembled a series of simple electrical devices to provide carefully controlled electrical shock to myself at varying voltage, current and frequency combinations to determine the subjective effect on my own living biosystem, of the application of such potentials.

At first, it was interesting to see that the conventional descriptions of electrical shock held true. That is, when an electrical potential is applied across living tissue, the contractions which occurred varied in intensity, directly with the amount of power conducted therethrough, the typical threshold potential of feeling such contractions varying greatly with each individual's skin conductivity, surface moisture and muscular fluid content, but usually appearing to be in a range from 18-38 Volts.

The FREQUENCY of such contractions was clearly and easily detected to vary directly with the applied frequency of the shocking potential. This led to an accidental discovery which I feel is critically important. In the process of building these devices, quite unhappily I received a few shocks of intensity far beyond anything to which I would deliberately expose myself.

Some of these shocks were 60Hz line current across both hands from which I was barely able to break free - a somewhat sobering experience. When the intensity of such shock causes muscular contractions to the point of nearly arresting your ability to respirate, you become a little gun-shy for awhile.

At any rate, two other instances were equally unpleasant but highly educational. One was a serious 30 KV RF shock resulting in tissue destruction at the point of contact, leaving a neat little hole in my palm which took about 3 years to disappear; the other was a "DC" shock of about 90V from a small bank of photoflash batteries. A fascinating thing registered in my mind at that point. I noticed that in both cases the shock was subjectively identical. That is, both the DC shock and the RF stock felt the same, notwithstanding the tissue destruction of the RF shock because of the extremely high potential involved.

In both instances the feeling was a powerful pinching/burning sensation. Repeating these shocks under less unpleasant and more controlled conditions led me to a very strong subjective conclusion, that is that direct current simply does not exist.

We have designed hundreds of quantitatively analytical measuring devices which are highly responsive to various frequencies and potentials, but the currents we measure with "electrostatically" sensitive devices is more of a capacitive effect.

This immediately raises some questions: when we utilize a "DC" Voltmeter or Ammeter for measuring so-called "Direct Currents", if they do not really exist, how do our meter coils develop the resultant magnetic field causing deflect ion?

Those of you who have experimented with very high voltages particularly in induction coils are well familiar with the inter-turn and inter-layer "Capacity" effects resulting in dielectric punch-through when certain potentials are reached.

Are we here dealing with "electrostatic effects", "electromagnetic inductive effects", "Capacitative Effects", "Magnetic Effects" or perhaps even "Gravitational Effects"?

I submit to you that we are dealing with all three simultaneously, the differences there-between which we tend to categorize and pigeonhole as Electric, Magnetic or Gravitational effects. I submit that they all are slightly different manifestations of a greater more generic energy of such high electromagnetic frequencies as to defy detection and categorization via normally utilized "instrumentation" borne of Physical Reality. In some instances, the biosystem is infinitely more accurate as a subjective detector - but not for quantitative evaluation.

Perhaps the very essence of this "energy" in its ultimate form can be "categorized" or "labeled" as Consciousness itself.

It is not my intent, nor was it ever, to delve into highly "esoteric" areas behind which one could hide and set forth indeterminable vagaries which forever fascinate and interest people but fail to provide the critical links and knowledge between physical and non-physical Reality.

It is my contention, however, that such links indeed exist and may, with some hard work and practice be controlled by PHYSICAL man to alleviate the interminable destruction and consumption of physical mass to generate minute and inefficient quantities of energy.

Persistence in our current direction of such consumption will ultimately surely create such gross unbalances in man's physical environment on which he is so dependent, as to cause the very destruction of man's physical world, and perhaps physical man himself.

We know well, by the proliferation of documented material on Kirlian Photography, Extrasensory perception, Radionics, Psychotronics and much more not necessary to delineate here, that the living biosystem indeed is energetic in its nature and is in obvious electromagnetic (consciousness??) communication with every other living biosystem and more. We know the brain emanates electromagnetic radiation of various types, some of which are detectable as sinusoidal-like waves. These, however, I submit to you are a function of the living biostructure. The CONSCIOUSNESS operates on little bursts of energy, much like capacitative discharges. These cascade-like discharges may carry incredibly powerful harmonics of indeterminably high frequencies which are unmeasurable by physical devices and may be the Key to the omnipresent communication between all CONSCIOUSNESS. These may comprise the very source of limitless energy we seek to tap and utilize in physical reality.

How indeed do we obtain such energy? Well, before we can utilize it, we obviously must first understand it. I submit to you, my friends, that if we bury ourselves in laboratory experimentation without first understanding that the very physical devices we seek to build may be doomed to failure unless we realize that in some of the areas we are working, our very thoughts and attitudes can PHYSICALLY AFFECT the device we are building or the success of its operation, or the repeatability of an experiment.

We cannot isolate ourselves as robots building another robot, but we can be aware of the fact that we are an inseparable part of what we build, think or operate. For example, if we work with an extremely high-Q electrical resonant circuit, say a Q of about 4000 or maybe even 10,000, and we're dealing with a bandwidth of 1/2 Hz, not only will the most minute changes in physical environment shift the resonant point immediately, but so will even the normal EM radiations from our biosystem brain. If we have powerful thought activity, the cascade discharges in the synapse areas alone could play havoc with such a delicate circuital balance. It was not ever my intent in attempting to understand the nature of our very existence, to delve into areas which can be devoid of hard experimental repeatability, but years of study and experimentation have led me to understand that there really is no such thing as "esoteric" or "paranormal" phenomena, but only phenomena non-measurable with devices borne of physical reality or understandable in conventionally perceived terms.

There is no separation between PHYSICAL and NON-PHYSICAL REALITY and there are LINKS which may be established there-between. These may be directly or indirectly related to the individual consciousness of each living entity. There are both direct and indirect ways to use consciousness energy to affect REALITY. In the highest forms of practice, this involves using the consciousness directly or aiding it indirectly by physical devices which can act to amplify and channel such energies.

A few of my distinguished colleagues have investigated these areas to some depth as exemplified by some of the concepts being developed in the areas of Crystalography, Light, Sound, Hyperspace, Radionics, Psychotronics and Kirlian Aura. I have done many subjectively successful experiments in Reality Creation which will be discussed in significant detail in my upcoming second Volume on Paranormal Phenomena.

Digressing momentarily back to the days of ATLANTIS and LEMURIA some 13,000 years ago, it is alleged via Psychic Inputs, some limited biblical interpretations and in some of the barely understood Dead Sea Scrolls, that the ATLANTEANS utilized a great power crystal operated from sunlight for energy, communications, levitation and weaponry. This smacks strongly of some of the so-called "Soft Particle" concepts set forth by Joe Cater. I currently see no strong evidence for the physical validity of a "soft particle" theory, but am thoroughly investigating the principle to determine whether or not there are any effects at all. How we label these effects is completely irrelevant. We will publish the results in our books or follow-up reports. In fact, in each area of experimental investigation, we plan to publish results and procedures in significant details clearly indicating whether or not positive results occur, and welcoming constructive criticism to improve such experiments should the results be negative.

If, for example, there is a notable effect achieved by such a multiplicity of front-surface reflections of light as purported by Cater and Clark, we will thoroughly document the measured or observed results. We fully expect that some notable phenomena may be caused, especially since there is a very strong similarity to the internal stimulation of Light which causes the coherent laser beam.

We do not want to forget our objectives, that is, to find viable links between physical and non-physical Reality which will enable us to channel in usable ways, the enormous field of energy within which we not only dwell, but are of an intrinsic and inseparable part.

We must all, in our experiments and investigations, always maintain as much objectivity and honesty as humanly possible. We are dealing in areas which many individuals of the conventional and powerful Scientific Priesthood regularly and viciously denigrate, sometimes to the point of professional or physical violence. It is difficult enough to educate the general public to the validity of such phenomena while under constant attack by the so-called professionals, but such difficulty is enormously compounded when serious researchers like ourselves are usurped and driven to loss of credibility by those who would sometimes make fantastic claims with absolutely no support, and in some cases not even a reasonably objective and intelligent approach. This is sometimes done out of innocent enthusiasm, but it can be the kiss of death for the researcher's credibility.

Objectivity and honesty are the most powerful tools we have with which to work.

I am a firm believer in the principles of truth, knowledge and understanding. While I fully realize that one man's Reality can be another man's fantasy and vice-versa, all new things should be presented in a light which will bear the utmost scrutiny. Regardless of those who would mindlessly dismiss and deride new concepts without taking the effort to investigate them, the truth will indeed eventually be brought to surface.

When we set forth dogmatic conclusions with absolutely no physical evidence or, even worse, without even a reasonably acceptable explanation, we open ourselves to the worst type of criticism and derision, which could be highly damaging to new ideas which indeed should be set forth. We then, reacting with human nature, become even more dogmatic and defensive than those who mindlessly criticize us. This is not a good situation as we then lose credibility. Remember, always endeavor to maintain objectivity, honesty and credibility.

Continuing at any rate, to look for the viable and usable links between physical and non-physical reality, we have, based on years of observation and experimentation with electrical discharges, and many other phenomena, been drawn to the following tentative conclusions which we feel are valid until we either discover or are shown otherwise:

There is such a preponderance of speculative data coupled with communications leaks in many of these areas, that I do not feel the "secrets" regarding any truly successful device in OUR area of research can either be held proprietary or otherwise concealed too much longer, nor should they be. We at HEER are trying to put into print, all of our experiments, ideas and speculations to get as much information as possible out to the public. We do not dismiss any theories and speculations, provided they are not totally devoid of fact, reasonable logic or even reasonable speculation. We do strongly avoid collaboration with those who are absolutely certain that they know all the answers or who persist in their ideas with dogmatic closed-mindedness.

A closed dogmatic mind has no room to learn or grow. On the other hand, any idea we come across which appears to have any merit whatsoever, we believe is worth checking out to satisfy its degree of credibility to ourselves. We will not, nor should anyone, dismiss a bizarre idea no matter how poorly it may be conceived or presented, prior to checking it out thoroughly both with laboratory and thought experiments.

We are living in an age of transition, where mankind will evolve to a different level. This has already started and will continue over the next 5 to 25 years. Hopefully, the transition will not be a painful one - but then this is in our hands alone. But those who have read some of the possibilities of the horrors of what could occur during the transition should not fear it. The transition will be made by every consciousness entity and whether or not it is a painful or pleasant one is really of little consequence, inasmuch as pain is a part of experience in physicality, and it is one of the many CONTRASTS required to give physicality meaning. Without the counterparts of pain and pleasure, good and evil, struggle and reward - all pulsating contrasts, physicality . . . and perhaps existence itself - would simply cease to be. Physicality is a marvelous unending (in our temporal terms) game which gives "BEING" its meaning. The CONTRASTS of PHYSICALITY are the CATALYSTS of existence.

Reality in all the many forms it takes, provides a totally malleable substance, fully manipulable by every single consciousness entity of exitence, both individually and en-masse. We each create our own Realities sometimes in readily recognizable terms, other times in non-readily recognizable terms. For example, if you decide you're going to build a table, when the idea hits you, you immediately start imaging the table and how you want it to look. The imaging is visually an agglomeration of past tables you have seen, with your mind scanning, comparing and modifying features and construction details to meet your particular needs. this imaging, once you've decided your final configuration, becomes an instantaneous thought form or REALITY in a non-physical dimension, or virtual state reality, if you will.

You then proceed to list the hardware and lumber you need to construct this thoughtform, while you may further push it towards evolving into a physical reality by sketching it on paper.

Now you've gone a step further towards physical materialization of your thoughtform Reality.

Next you actually go out and purchase the raw materials . . . already congealed and shaped energy forms . . . you take them to your workshop and start to cut, shape, drill and assemble until you've completed your Physical Reality creation.

This is a typical example of creating your own reality via physical channels. The actual operatives involved in creation of Reality may easily transcend the intermediate and cumbersome steps of manipulating already existing physical matter.

The CONSCIOUS procedure you followed, and follow every day of your life in PHYSICAL form, involves imaging or virtual state thought forms, then an intermediary of congealing the imaging on paper, and finally to 3-dimensional spacetime.

Suppose you were able to simply go directly from thoughtform to PHYSICAL congealment or energy assemblage? Then you would have evolved to the point where your electromagnetic consciousness directly controls energy.

This is indeed possible. Tom Bearden has presented some very worthwhile ideas along these lines, along with what appears to be very close to the actual modeling of the links between Physical and Non-Physical Reality.

I will further expand very greatly on this subject in my second volume on Paranormal Phenomena in non-mathematical and non-technical terms with actual exercises which will permit subjective, but highly convincing proof of such phenonmena. These exercises will be presented in a manner which will teach one to control his own Reality along with affecting the reality of others.

This may appear to have dangerous implications, and well it does, however, not as uncontrollably so, as some might think. Although we can powerfully affect the thoughts and actions of others, we can only do so within the limitations of the others' ROOT BELIEF STRUCTURES. This is how voodoo works. The victims are convinced of the power of the Witch Doctor. They are brought up in a religious cultist culture which powerfully affects their ROOT BELIEF STRUCTURES in favor of the Witch Doctor's power. This is all he needs. Now we are convinced that he can, with his little voodoo dolls, inflict pain, injury and suffering upon us, and indeed he can! We have opened the electromagnetic consciousness linking channel between us and him, giving him such power by virtue of our combined belief structures.

Now, we are not talking magic here; we are discussing very real energy operatives under conscious control of the involved entities.

Such belief structures provide the very same operatives for Faith Healers and fringe lunatic cult groups who would combine their energies to override that of a single individual. This too, unhappily, is dangerously possible. There are also other methods of amplifying this consciousness imaging energy using crystal devices to give an individual somewhat inordinate power.

I would not want people to run around in a panic thinking that anyone who is out to get them has them at their mercy by using such techniques, as they do not. The biggest danger to an individual which weakens his ability to protect himself against such an attack lies only in the weakness of his own belief that he may not have equal power rooted in his belief structure!

The most insidious element which feeds such a weakness is FEAR. We must FEAR NOTHING!

Do not FEAR the corporate megalopolies, the police state, some of the mindless and violent drug cultures, the lunatic fringe groups or death itself, since all of these are part of the very necessary CONTRASTS which maintain the very physical world REALITY wherein we exist!

We will evolve beyond these points, physicality being only a portion of the transitional experience.

We should enjoy the game of existence, play it as we must, and relish in our little discoveries of Physical Reality creation and manipulation as this is why we ARE.

So, in conclusion my friends, the only religion or belief structures I would recommend are those which purport Love, Learning, understanding, caring, sharing and discovery . . . all fascinating CONTRASTS which make BEING palatable. The only real evil is to deny others these same experiences.

Thank you for your kind indulgence.

The possible detection of magnetic monopoles and monopole tachyons

By PHILIP S. CALLAHAN

Insect Attractants, Behavior, and Basic Biology Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida 32604 USA

ABSTRACT

Based on the theory that living organisms are room-temperature superconductors, a Ficus plant was utilized as an end-fire stop-start array. It was hooked to a highly sensitive electrometer in a search for magnetic monopoles and tachyon events. During a three-year period, 218 square wave monopole events were recorded. Between June 13 and July 4 (period of summer solstice), 28 presumed square wave monopole-diffraction and eight monopole tachyon events occured. These recording events meet all seven mathematical and physical criteria for monopole-tachyon detection. Accordingly, this author believes that this is the first report of magnetic monopoles detected by a living system and that such systems are room-temperature superconductors. It is also the first report of the possible detection of magnetic-monopole-tachyons.

The existence of magnetic monopoles (charges) and monopole tachyons(1) must at this time be considered as purely speculative, however, in an attempt to determine if insects and plants are room-temperature superconductors, as postulated by Okress(2) based on my nonlinear infrared dielectric antenna theory(3) of insect olfaction, I have lately accumulated considerable experimental evidence that magnetic monopoles exist in nature, and that at certain times of the year the monopole charges exhibit the characteristics of tachyon particles.

The philosophical nature of the monopole-tachyon theory is emphasized by the attitude of physicists toward the theory. This narrow line between science and philosophy is articulated by J. S. Trefil in his paper on the causal paradox published in the monograph(4) of the Enice First Session of Interdisciplinary Seminars on Tachyons and Related Subjects (monopoles). In the introduction of that monograph Erasmo Recami directs attention to the place of monopole-tachyon theory in Special and General Relativity and the possible application of tachyon philosophy to astrophysics(4).

J. S. Trefil in his paper on the causal paradox states:

"The fact that signals could be transmitted faster than the speed of light might necessitate a fundamental reformulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. However, quantum mechanics itself is the result of discoveries that violated the intuitions of classical physicists, so, although a new type of physics might ultimately emerge from such a discovery, no changes in scientific logic would be required. If, on the other hand, it could be shown that the existence of tachyons would violate the laws of causality (for example, by having some observers see the "effect" preceding the "cause"), it would be much more difficult to reconcile tachyons to our present understanding of the physical world."

This philosophical difficulty is inherent in the reaction of physicists to the possibility that there might exist in nature particles (tachyons) faster than the speed of light. H. C. Corbin(5), in his paper on the properties of tachyons, points out that there are three types of physicists. The first type believes that tachyons exist, but that they are fundamentally different from ordinary particles, whereas a second type of physicist believes that they are basically the same as ordinary particles. A third type of physicist believes that tachyons do not exist at all and are equally skeptical about magnetic monopoles. Obviously as an entomologist I fall into the second category, or I would not have attempted to detect monopoles and tachyons to begin with.

If tachyons are fundamentally the same as ordinary particles, as H. C. Corben and his colleagues(5) believe, then they most assuredly are detectable.

R. C. Root and J. S. Trefil(6) have constructed a causal "paradox" in which they demonstrate that "no difficulties with the laws of causality arise if we consider events at the level of elementary particles." It is not the intention of this author to outline the scientific philosophy behind certain physicists' belief that tachyons exist but rather to reinforce this belief by presenting an experimental paper that meets all the physical and mathematical criteria (7 in number) for monopole-tachyon detection.

The experimental work was begun in 1979 after I had become familiar with an elegant series of papers by Freeman Cope(1,7) (now deceased) on man in a gas of tachyon magnetoelectric dipoles(1). Long telephone conversations with this brilliant biophysicist stimulated me to consider the possibility- that plants might be room temperature superconductor detectors. Based on my dielectric antenna work, Ernst Okress (2) had already presented a similar superconductor hypothesis for insects.

It was postulated by me that if a plant were a sensitive antenna superconducting detector, then any sudden increase in current flux (induction of a square wave) would be indicative of a monopole event as distinguished from the gradual change in current flux brought on by an environmental electric held stimulation, where the rise time is gradual (sloped).

METHOD OF DETECTION - JUSTIFICATION

A primary logic for the utilization of a living plant as a monopole tachyon detector is the ever increasing evidence for the theory that living systems are room temperature superconductors(7). Due to the feebleness of a monopole tachyon signal, and the extreme background noise (flux) inherent in the natural environment at the earth's surface, it is highly unlikely that any detector not operating as a superconductor could separate a monopole tachyon flux signal from the background noise. Cabrera(8) utilized a squid superconductor magnetometer in his attempt to detect giant monopoles. He searched for a quantified flux where . There are in the literature of monopole tachyons two suggested methods of detecting these unique particles(9). One suggested method is based on the well known fact that any substance with a refractive index greater than unity (n>1) induces Cherenkov radiation when transversed by charged particles with a velocity b>1/n. The emission angle (q) relative to path trajectory, which is defined by

,

might be used to separate bradyons (normal particles) from tachyons charges.

Because of the large emission angle the bradyons would be trapped inside a plastic cylinder whereas the tachyons would penetrate the cylinder boundary and be detected on the outside by photomultipliers. Since this method depends on a plastic dielectric it is an unlikely configuration to detect magnetic monopole tachyons, as distinguished from electron or positron monopoles (charges).

The more likely configuration to succeed, as a magnetic monopole tachyon detector, is the TOF (time of flight) tachyon detecting system(9).

The TOF system, which is at present being experimented with at the University of Berne, consists of a time of flight (TOF) shaft 27 m high. Five scintillation counters are spaced equidistantly and connected at each level to fast risetime (~2 ns) photomultipliers. The charged particles transversing the shaft are analyzed by a start-stop technique.

The top pair of detector-counter reads out the start signal and the remaining 4 pairs of evenly spaced detector-counters reads out stop signals. A linear least square fit is made of the four averages for velocities across the four detector levels. This in turn yields an average of velocities for the various charged particles.

I consider that a plant to be an end fire array of connected leaf detectors. From the top (start) of the array plant (tower) to the bottom, there is a statistical series of stop detectors (leaves). The number of stop signals from each detector (leaf) might easily be averaged out to record a series of start-stop signals indicating a monopole tachyon event. Any significant print-out from a mechanical recorder and amplifier (electrometer) would, of course, depend on the plant also operating its own built in computer system. Indeed to draw out a significant tachyon, diffraction-orthorhomboidal configuration(5), the plant would have to perform its own start-stop transform, an unlikely expectation that actually occured.

METHOD

A potted fig plant, Ficus benjamina L, (30 cm in height) was connected to a 616 Keithley Digital Electrometer. The ground and low input impedence leads were connected to a copper ground rod inserted into the soil, and the high input impedence lead connected directly to a fresh medium sized leaf at the base of the leaf where leaf and stem adjoin. This in effect made of the plant a grounded end fire array antenna. The output of the electrometer was connected to a microampere DC Rustrak continuous pressure sensitive recorder. Recordings from the Ficus plant were begun in 1979 and continue to this time.

There were a few periods in 1979 and 1980 when the author was out of town. However, the system was in operation during the summer solstice of 1980, which was a peak for sun spot activity (Figure 1). The years 1981 and 1982 had long periods, including soltices, when the senior author was away.

The year 1983 has thus far been covered continuously and at times I have utilized a cotton plant which, unlike the evergreen Ficus species, is an annual.

For three days (March 17-19, 1983) the cotton plant was enclosed in a grounded 33 x 37 x 26 cm antimagnetic box (precision magnetic shield, Precision Mica Co.) type TPS 570. Magnetic monopoles would be expected to penetrate such a shield but any electric charge would be grounded out.

The plant Ficus benjamina, weeping fig, has been the primary configuration because it is a very sturdy plant that retains its leaves the year around. The Ficus plant is also quite sensitive to both light and to being moved around; i therefore is known to respond sensitively to its environment - a necessity for a good superconducting detector.

CRITERIA FOR DETECTION

According to the significant literature on the characteristics of tachyons there are at least seven basic theoretical criteria that define the expected physical detection of tachyons.

1) Tachyons are basically the same as ordinary quantum particles; e.g., photons and, therefore, detectable(5).

2) Tachyons are presumably associated with magnetic monopoles, as predicted by Freeman Cope, a researcher that had a good grasp of the effect of magnetic "radiation" on living systems(l).

3) The interaction between a bradyon (normal particle) and tachyon is analogous to light scattering by a diffraction grating(5).

4) A space-like tachyon with infinite velocity is described by a wave function that is periodic in space and independent of time (could, therefore, be detected) and will thus be recorded as an orthorhombic lattice(S): with a spacing:

5) As suggested by E. Recami, resonant systems (coherence) may be regarded as composed of photons (quantum particles) and tachyons(10).

6) A space-time plot of tachyons should not only demonstrate an orthorhombic lattice, but also "lay" itself out as a recursive network, as one might say, infinitely many infinities(11).

7) Finally, as Physicist H. C. Corben has stated, the Feynman diagnosis (for which Feynman received the Nobel prise) cannot he taken literally unless there is such a particle as a tachyon(5).


Time

A Feynman diagram is, of course, a positron-electron annihilation recursive structure with time (arrows) going both forward and backward.

A space-like plot of a series of these predicted theoretical parameters would be prime facie evidence of tachyon monopoles as an actuality. Such a plot would be also of extreme significance to biologists as it would be strong evidence that plants are room temperature superconductors, and that monopole particles without doubt enter into the process of photosynthesis.

RESULTS

Beginning in September 1979, a significant number of square waves began to show up in the print-out of the Rustak recorder. The incidence in flux ranged from a minimum of -0.01796 to a maximum of -0.0216 ´ 10-11 amps well within the usual expected quantum flux for a monopole event.

In order to rule out any environmental or static response the plant was periodically shaken, and also a 5 kph moist breeze was blown across the leaf antenna. Shaking the plant elicited no response whatsoever.

Blowing moist air across the leaf caused a slow rise in time in current and an extremely long recovery time of 20 to 30 min. The needle never returned completely to base line in less than 20 min.

A strong static charge, e.g., rubbing a plastic flashlight case on the cloth and holding it near the leaf elicited a sharp, fairly fast (4 see) sine wave (resonant) signal. With this type of stimulation the needle goes positive, then drops below the base line (negative) before returning exactly to the base line. This is of course the expected response of a wax dielectric (plants are wax coated) to a static change. No induced environmental signal ever produced a true square wave (I sec drop or rise time) as shown in the cotton plant recording (Figures 2, 3). There was no difference between the square wave recorded by the cotton plant inside the mu box (Figure 3) and the outside plot (Figure 2) except that the same irregular print-out of events occur inside the mu box that often occured before a diffraction or an orthorhombic tachyon event (Figure 3). It is the same type of random noisy plot that is evident in response to an electrical stimulus. The rise and drop time for the galvanometer, for a square wave, is always less than I see, which is the interval of time for the tap bar of the Rustrack recorder to hit the galvanometer and record a dot on the moving graph paper (Figures 2-4).

In 33 months of recording between 1979 and March 1983, 218 square wave events were recorded, with a time range from as short as 10 minutes up to 7 hours. At present, studies are in progress to determine whether or not there are any significant correlations between monopole square waves and sun spot activity (utilizing the Report of Solar-Geophysical Data issued weekly by National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce, Figure 1).

Beginning June 13, and continuing through July 4, 1980, a definite diffraction pattern began to show up in square wave recordings (Figure 4). Between June 12 and July 4, a total of 28 diffraction print-outs were obtained (Table 1). This time window exactly coincides with the 11-year sun spot maximum (Figure 1).

Beginning June 20, one day prior to the summer solstice, an orthorhombic pattern, as predicted by Corben(5), began to show up in the recordings (Table I, Figure 5). Between June 20 and June 24-25, seven well-defined diffraction-orthorhombic recordings were plotted by the Ficus plant (Table 1). Three of these were recursive orthorhombic patterns to the extent that they also printed out mirror images of themselves (Figure 5). All of the 28 diffraction-orthorhombic events were associated with square wave monopole events as predicted by Cope(l).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The mathematics of plotting recursive networks on graph paper is quite complex; that a plant can accomplish such a plot is remarkable.

On both sides the lines appear to cross over one another, but to really understand why the recording is so astonishing one must understand the mechanics of the recorder that produced it between 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. the night of June 24, 1980.

The recorder is a small Rustrack instrument (Figure 6) hooked to the output of my Keithley electrometer. The Ficus plant antenna is hooked to the input of the electrometer. The recorder has a drive motor that rolls the paper from right to left (actually from bottom to top). It has a one-direction motor that cannot reverse its rolls (start running backwards). Each second a sharp edged bar strikes a galvanometer needle (the same as any volt or amp meter) and presses the needle against a round bar fixed in place under the paper rolling across the bar (Figure 6).

Neither the bar nor striker can move but the needle moves back and forth between the two depending on how many microamps of current flow in the galvanometer coil. When the striker hits the bar it prints a dot on the pressure-sensitive paper depending on where the needle is, which of course, depends on current flow.

Since each dot represents one second in time, and the chart paper rolls up four divisions (15 minute increments) per hour, it would be mechanically impossible for the needle to print dots backwards in time whether or not the time lines cross like this:


Cross

or kiss like this


Meet

since the recorder roll only travels forward.

The recorder could therefore not form orthorhombic cells unless - unless what? Unless the Ficus plant is not only a superconducting detector, but is also a very sophisticated computer capable of processing and programming the incoming signals (registered by current flow as on any antenna) in such a way that time lines "appear" to be crossing or kissing one another.

For a signal to "appear" to reverse itself, and go backwards in time, it would have to start and stop the recording needle so that the one second print-out dots were placed on the paper in a very complex time ordered sequence like this :


Raster system

and in closely aligned forward moving parallel time lines. This, of course, is impossible unless the plant is a true start-stop and one signal detector and one preceeds the other in time.

The nature of such a stop-start recording is indicative of the second stated experimental design for tachyons, the start-stop (TOF) method. The recording also validates TOF plant experimental design. In other words one signal must be a regular monopole signal (speed of light) and other signal a monopole tachyon signal (faster than the speed of light) as predicted by Cope in 1980(1).

At this point it might be well to distinguish Cabrera's monopole from Cope's monopole - they are two different sizes of the same monopole theory. When Dirac postulated magnetic monopoles in 1931(12), based on Maxwell's equations, he was speaking of the existence of the + or - (N or S) particles of the smallest charge (like electrons for the electric field). Of recent times physicists have put forth a theory called GUT (grand unified theory) and are looking for giant particles (10-8 grams). If there are such giant quantum particles then it is likely that they are very rare and Cabrera's expensive helium cooled, superconducted detector only "sees" a small part of such an extremely huge magnetic quantum particle (wave). The event of Cabrera at Stanford University may or may not indicate such a rare giant monopole, but my work affirms Cope's(1) and Ehrenhaft's(13) contention that monopoles (and monopole tachyons) are not at all as rare as we would be led to believe end are what Dirac(12) was describing originally. It is not my intention as a biologist to enter into the Dirac-Ehrehaft controversy over magnetic monopoles, but certainly the work of Cope and my Ficus plant recordings demonstrates that objectivity on the part of theoretical physicists will require a more unbiased interpretation of the elegant research of that remarkable experimenter Felix Ehrenhaft. He was apparently the first to experimentally detect magnetic monopoles (at least small magnetic charges in gases or water).

Ferrari(14) in his work on "formulation of electrodynamics with magnetic monopoles" states:

"Today, the term "magnetic monopole" is used in different instances, in order to describe physical objects that have a common property (they bear what can be called a "magnetic charge"), but are different things. The most popular object is still the traditional monopole, postulated by Dirac on the basis of a straightforward extension of the Maxwell equations(l,2) (italics this author): one can use the name "Maxwell-Dirac monopole" for it. Recently, 't Hooft(3) found that Dirac monopoles arise as solutions to gauge theories with spontaneously broken symmetry: one sometimes uses, the expression " 't Hooft monopoles" for such objects. One should also recall the monopole solution found by McGuire and Ruffini(4) from Einstein equations. Finally, let me mention the very unconventional type of monopole (the "tachyon monopole") obtained by Mignani and Recami(5) from their formulation of the transformation law of the electromagnetic field under a superluminal Lorentz transformation. I say "unconventional" because the four-current associated to such monopoles is space-like, instead of being time-like (as happens for the usual electric charges and currents); therefore the physical behaviour of such objects turns out to be completely different from what one could intuitively expect on the basis of an analogy with the existing charges and currents."

Most of the events (218) recorded during the 33 months of the study appear to be traditional Dirac monopoles and are the same events as those first discovered by Ehrenhaft(13) in 1931 and by Cope in 1980 in flowing water and detected experimentally by inverse ampere law with a Josephson junction detector. Cope rationalized his experiment from the presumption of a magnetic-electric symmetry for Maxwell's equations.

Although a plant is presumably a Dirac monopole detector computer it is the tachyon diffraction-orthorhombic recording that is of utmost significance to what is labeled an emerging "new physics." The 28 tachyon events that occurred during the summer solstice of 1980 are very definitely "unconventional" space-like patterns. Space-like states are an integral part of relativistic quantum theory, and criteria for space-time regions, in which space-like states can be isolated, are given by Barut(15). One important space-like parameter would of course be a recursive pattern(u).

As Corbin(5) points out relativity forces us to deal with tachyons since certain wave equasions (Lorentz group) lead to space-like solutions. He further points out that without tachyon Feynman diagrams(5) are invalid. It will be noticed from our recording (Fig. 5) that time lines go backward. It is obvious that a magnetic particle could not turn and go backward without passing through a tachyon state. Corbin goes on to make a case for the actual measurements of tachyons. As he demonstrates a bradyon with a positive parity should appear to a superluminal observer to have a negative parity therefore the Klein-Gordon equation transforms to:

and for every time-like particle we can predict the existence of a space-like particle (tachyon) with the same mass, spin and quantum number as the time-like particle. It would have opposite space-parity.

Such a space-like particle (tachyon) is described by a wave function that is periodic in space, independent of time, and forms an orthorhombic lattice with spacing.

The interaction between a normal particle (monopole) and a tachyon monopole is therefore expected to be analogous to the scattering of a wave by a diffraction grating.

That is exactly what the astonishing and complex readout of my recordings demonstrates.

That the diffraction, orthorhombic recusive pattern is a coherent network is obvious. All seven criteria for tachyons are thus met by our Ficus plant antenna experiment. These are: 1) Association with magnetic monopoles; 2) Coherence; 3) Diffraction pattern; 4) Orthorhombic; S) Recursive network; 6) subject to a Feynman diagnosis; and finally 7) as this work irrefutably demonstrates, eminently detectable.

The elegance of this method of possible tachyon detection lies not alone in its significance to photosynthesis and thus to our understanding of plant life and to the art of practice of agriculture, but also to our understanding of the cosmos as a de Siter universe.

NOTES

1. Cope, Freeman W. 1978. Man in a gas tachyon magnetolectric dipoles, a new hypothesis. Part II. Introduction to the theory. Physiol. Chem. & Physics 10: 541.

2. Okress, E. C. 1965. Dielectric and organic superconducting waveguide, resonator, and antenna models of insects' sensory organs. Appl. Opt. 4: 1350.

3. Callahan, P. S. 1965. Intermediate and far infrared sensing of nocturnal insects. Part I. Evidence for a far infrared theory of communication and sensing in moths and other relationships to the limiting biosphere of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 58: 727.

4. Trefil, J. S. 1978. Tachyons and the causal paradox. In: Tachyons, Monopoles and Related Topics, Erasmo Recami, ed. North-Holland Publishing Co., New York. 285 pp.

5. Corben, H. C. 1978. Electromagnetic and hadronic properties of tachyons. In: Tachyons, Monopoles and Related Topics, Erasmo Recami, ed. North-Holland Publishing Co., New York. 285 pp.

6. Root, R. C. and J. S. Trefil. 1970. Letter al nuovo cimento 3, 412 (quoted from reference 4).

7. Cope, Freeman W. Discontinuous magnetic field effects (Barkhausen noise) in nucleic acids as evidence for room temperature organic superconduction. Physio. Chem. & Physics 10:233.

8. Cabrera, Blas. 1982. First results from a superconductive detector for moving magnetic monopolies. Physical Rev. Letters 48: 1378.

9. Hanni, H., and E. Hugentobler. 1978. Tachyons and experimental physics. In: Tachyons, Monopoles and Related Topics, Erasmo Recami, ed. North-Holland Publishing Co., New York. 285 pp.

10. Recami, E. 1978. An introductory view about superluminal frames and tachyons. In: Tachyons, Mono" poles and Related Topics, Erasmo Recami, ed. North-Holland Publishing Co., New York. 285 pp.

11. Hofstadter, Douglas R. 1980. Godel Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid; recusive structures and processes (Chapter V). Vintage Books, New York. 777 pp.

12. Dirac, P. A. M. 1931. Quantised singularities in the electromagnetic field. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A133: 60.

13. Ehrenhaft, Felix. 1931. Photophoresis and the influence upon it of electric and magnetic fields. Philos. Mag. 11, 140.

14. Ferrari, Ezio. 1978. Formulation of electrodynamics with magnetic monopoles. In: Tachyons, Monopoles and Related Topics, Erasmo Recami, ed. North-Holland Publishing Co., New York. 285 pp.

15. Barut, A. O. 1978. Space-like states in relativistic quantum theory. In: Tachyons, Monopoles and Related Topics, Erasmo Recami, ed. North-Holland Publishing Co., New York. 285 pp.

Table 1. Twenty-eight tachyon events 1980 (June 3 to 12 no events).

No.

Date

Time (h)

Comment

1

June 13

0815 to 1000


2

June 14

0 events


3

June 15

0645 to 0715


4

June 16

0 events


5

June 17

0 events


6

June 18

0 events


7

June 19

0730 to 1100


8*

June 20

0200 to 0615

Good

9*

June 21

1015 to 1230

Good (summer solstice)

10*

June 22

1000 to 1730

Very good

11*

June 23

1230 to 1745

Good

12*

June 24

1145 to 1430

Good

13*

June 24

1745 to 1900

Good

14*

June 24-25

2145 to 0340

Very good

15

June 25

0945 to 1600


16

June 26

0745 to 1600


17

June 26

1830 to 2100


18

June 27

0230 to 0915


19

June 27

1430 to 1545


20

June 28

1030 to 1230


21

June 28

1920 to 2400


22

June 29

0145 to 0745


23

June 29

1250 to 1500


24

June 29

1910 to 2045


25

June 30

1310 to 1350


26

June 30-July 1

1450 to 0400

All night long

27

July 1

1245 to 1322


28

July 2

0010 to 0145


29

July 2

1215 to 1345


30

July 2-3

2330 to 0130


31

July 3

0845 to 1015


32

July 4

0930 to 1045


*Best recursive graphs occurred around the summer solstice so that tachyons appear to be associated with the solstice.

OBSERVED AND ONE-YEAR-AHEAD PREDICTED SMOOTHED SUNSPOT NUMBERS


Fig. 1 - Observed sun spot numbers for years from June 1974 to April 1982 and predicted sun spot number from June 1974 to June 1988. (From Report No. SESC PRF 380. 7 Dec. l982 of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce).


Fig. 2 - Magnetic monopole events (square wave) for February 21, 1983 (5:00 pm to 12:00 am} from a cotton plant. One short half hour, and one hour long burst are shown proceeding a long event that lasted from 11:45 pm to 5:00 am the next morning.


Fig. 3 - Magnetic monopole events (square wave) for March 17 (8:00 am to 4:00 pm) from a cotton plant in a magnetic grounded shield (mu box). Around 8:00 am, March 17 irregular (noisy events) began to occur. They could not be attributed to static electrical charges as the metal mu box shielded the cotton plant and was grounded. Such recordings are probably incoherent (out of phase tachyons signals). We must consider that the end fire plant-antenna is only vectored to operate during the summer solstice and is out of aperature at other times of the year.


Fig. 4 - Magnetic monopole and tachyon evens (square wave end diffraction pattern) for June 29,1980 (12:00 am to 8:00 am), from a Ficus plant. On either side of the summer solstice (Table 1) perfect diffraction recordings were obtained. This June 29 recording shows the diffraction square wave proceeded by the irregular incoherent (changes) signal that usually accompanies a diffraction orthorbomboic signal. As the summer solstice zenith period (+ 4 days) approached the recordings became more and more orthorhombic and as the zenith receeded it became less and less orthorhombic.


Fig. 5 - Best tachyon event (diffraction-orthrobomboid) for June 24, 1983 (9:00 pm to 3:00 am). Note that not only is the pattern a diffraction orthorhomboid pattern but that it is also recursive - trails off to the base Iine and contains two mirror image patterns. Bottom an enlargement of the center of the main mirror image orthrobomboid pattern. These recordings are far more precise and elegant than Professor Cabrero's single presumed monopole event.


Fig. 6 - Schematic of the Rustrak recorder that printed out the monopole-tachyon signals.

Attempting a non-conventional interpretation of systems and laws of nature

By NORBERT HARTHUN

Again and again there have been attempts to discover unknown field structures - to express it in quite a general way. There are theoretical and technical approaches concerned with measuring. We shall try to describe a new technique which may permit to prove that theory by means of presumptive evidence approaching step by step what we are looking for.

Nature has always furnished ideas and examples; e.g. there was no need of science to invent the raft having seen pieces of wood swim. Imitating the bird's way of flying, however, and designing the first aeroplanes (Otto Lilienthal 1891) were not that easy any more. Here it becomes evident that it was impossible and did not make much sense to imitate natural examples directly. Those natural examples rather served to imitiate a process of reflection and set off creative inspiration. Bionics makes systematic use of this procedure. Officially it was born on the occasion of the first "Bionics Symposium" in Dayton, Ohio, on September 13 - IS, 1960. Its subject indicating the direction to be followed was: "Living prototypes - the key to new technology". It is true, bionics deals with non-conventional projects being realised with the help of interdisciplinary methods, yet the conventional point of view has not been left behind altogether.

What is meant by that can be made clear with the example of cybernetics founded by N. Wiener (1948): Cybernetics is an interdisciplinary scheme of thinking whose logic pattern allows to seize and treat the essential aspects of individual disciplines by means of non-specific terms and to establish relations that can be expressed mathematically'. This coarse-meshed pattern is made up of the formal framework of rules belonging to the theory of control and information. On the other hand, it is not possible to solve any special problem because of the wide meshes of the pattern. The results taken from individual disciplines are thus examined from the point of view of the theory of control and information as to whether they comply with each other or not and as to new conclusions. Interdisciplinary methods and non-conventional points of view, but both combined with conventional projects.

In order to advance one step further we lay particular stress on wholistic aspects which are not very much taken care of by conventional disciplines. Furthermore, let us make courageous use of deduction by analogy as a cognitive means in spite of the danger of aberration. As we shall see, this method may result in new and most profitable formulations of questions, if used in a disciplined manner. I would like to call this "enlarged cybernetics" somewhat "comparative science" to avoid confusion. Comparative science might represent a means of a wholistic research of nature.

I would like to give a hint in this context: it is often worthwhile reading the original papers of famous scientists and researchers on the background of our modern knowledge. Lots of wholistic aspects have been crippled by successors due to a lack of understanding or they have got lost altogether - aspects that might lead us ahead today if we knew them. This also applies to statements of so-called scientific outsiders, who were very often trapped in an analogous way of thinking.

The following quotation may serve as an example of successful examination of sources, as it represents an excellent introduction to our first example2: Johannes Kepler clearly called the sun the source of motion (foes motuum) of our system of planets when formulating its three laws of form and motion. This viewpoint was completely suppressed by later authors. The way Kepler conceived this becomes apparent at another instance (works VII, pp. 747-748) he says: "The magnetic (that is to say the 'attractive', the author) force lies in the extremely large body of the sun whence it spreads out into the wide world and thus forces all planets, when attaining them, on the way the sun himself, as the origin of that force, rotates on".

This early conception gives a picture of the planetary system as a whole, being one with all of its parts. How scanty the sentence left over today without the above information: "The planets travel on ellipses in one focus of which there is the sun." Today we would deduce from Kepler's words that he was speaking of a field structure filling the entire planetary system, a field structure still unknown being responsible for the propulsion of the planets - among other things.

Another wholistic conception by Aristotle is known to us: he taught that the planets orbited the sun on spheres composed of imperishable ether8.

Based on both of these wholistic conceptions and on the information furnished by the contemporary physicist M. Bauer3 saying that the mean radii of the planetary orbits are graded in accordance with an exponential function (Fig. 1)

k = 0.52
n = number indicating the planets (Mercury - 0;...)
r = radius of the orbit of the planet (Venus - 1;...)
rme - radius of the orbit of Mercury

let us formulate the hypothesis of a static [standing - ed.] wave, which reminds of how Aristotle conceived the planetary system. We assume unknown static waves in the space between the sun ant the planets where the planets are places at the nodes ´. The number of the planet concerned equals the respective number of notes starting with Mercury (Fig. 2). In order to back this assumption the unknown wave has to fulfill one further condition: its velocity must have an exponential increase with its outward movement (away from the sun).

In this case the exponentially increasing distances between the "planetary spheres" are travelled in equal periods of time. On calculating the resonant frequency of this system of orbital shells of sun and planets you will be surprised: The duration of the vibration is about S minutes. Contemporary research has succeeded in measuring pulsations (sound waves) in the same range on the sun's surface.

Our next example originates from the famous poet and scientist Goethe whose wholistic view of the world has probably not yet been understood in all its significance. In connection with this theory of colors he establishes an order: the circle of colors. He mate a circular arrangement and assigned a value to the colors according to their influence on the human soul. He pretended that the interaction of two polarities produced something new. For instance: yellow and blue produce green. The following pair are the intensifications yellow red (from yellow) and blue red (from blue). Yellow red (-orange) and blue red (- violet) produce purple, the color of highest order.

Goethe didn't know anything about electromagnetic waves or the linear representation of the spectrum which we want to refer to now5. It can be seen immediately that Goethe considered the color "green" as the center of symmetry and the farther two colors symmetrically arranged to green were apart from each other in the spectrum, the higher the order of than combination (Fig. 3)!

According to Goethe those two electromagnetic signals belong together whose respective frequencies are symmetric to that of green light. This wholistic polarity is confirmed by contemporary scientific results6: Popp again proved according to Gurvitch the combination of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in biological tissue. In addition there is the result of a scientific experiment scientists haven't been able to explain so far, but in our eyes it is no longer as enigmatic as that: mice which were exposed to microwave radiation survived a dose of X-rays that otherwise would have been mortal for the calls of their bone marrow!

Let us talk about a remarkable structural pattern of the hydrogen atom as a third example of possible unknown field structures behind what is known today. The spectrum of emission of the hydrogen atom (again electromagnetic waves) allows conclusions about the structure of the atom's shell. The gradual evolution of the associated models is known to the expert. In this connection a new evaluation and interpretation' of the spectrum may be of some intererest: the harmonic sequence (1, 1/2; 1/3; 1/4 ...) is of great importance in the field of vibrations and waves, and it has been found that it is also of great importance for concerning the structure of the hydrogen atom. The spectral lines correspond to energies, and the latter may be calculated by assuming the layers of the structure of a spherical capacitor for the shell structure.

The condition to be taken into consideration here is that the radii of the concentric spheres must decrease towards the nucleus according to the harmonic sequence (Fig. 4). Then the energy (frequency) of the spectral lines is exactly equal to the differences of sphere surfaces.

This concept does not necessitate any clouds of charges and functions of distribution, but simple mathematics of static electricity. There is still the concept of an unknown flux involved in the notions of charge and displacement going back to the early days of electrical engineering, and the Balmer-formula for the spectral lines may be changed into:

where E1 is the energy of a charged sphere of radius r1. (Derivation of this equation follows.)

Seen in this light, energy is emitted in all directions (spheric symmetry) by the nucleus and penetrates the surrounding layers of the sphere.

This approach to the hydrogen spectrum may enable the experts concerned to develop a deeper understanding of energy than we have presently!

We have talked a lot about entities and structures. Structures are well-arranged systems carrying information, which is one basis of the cybernetic way of thinking. Applying this pattern of thinking to both notions of energy and physics, to potential and to kinetic energy, the question how to assign it to the notion of information arises.


Fig.1


Fig.2

Conventional conversion of energy is carried out by changing structures of a higher order into such of a lower one (e.g. combustion of fossil fuel), i.e. order is turned into chaos. Structures are destroyed, information inherent in the structures is demolished. Hence energetic effects can be obtained if (information-bearing) structures are at hand.

We call this phenomenon "potential energy". Not before these structures undergo a change (conventionally expressed a destruction) will there be energetic effects on their surroundings: in this case we speak of "kinetic energy".

On close consideration we notice that, be it microcosm or macrocosm, we always deal with moving particles of matter which - as may be presumed - at the same time interact with so far unknown fields. Briefly: Changes of structure or movement of matter respectively produce energetic effects. From hence arises the challenge for future technology to create energetic effects, too, by means of a build-up of structure and correct movement respectively which are thus helpful to mankind. This is the great chance of bringing forth a truly responsible technology helpful to life and not a destructive factor in the overall system of nature, but inaugurating a higher degree of order.

I'd like to thank my colleague F. Fiedler for his help in establishing the English version!

NOTES

1. H. Teichmann
Der gegenwartige Stand der Kybernetik
Der Feramelde-lngenieur 32. Jahrg. (1978) Nr.1 S.1-29

2. Rudolf Lammel
Von Naturforschern und Naturgesetzen
Hesse und Becker Verlag; Leipzig 1927 S.80-83

3. Wilhelm M. Bauer
Geo- und Astrophysik
Selbstverlag 1975; Nonntaler Hauptstre.14; A-5020 Salzburg

4. Norbert Harthun
Sonne und Planeten in Resonanz - Zusammenhalt durch unbekannte Energiewelle?
Mensch und Technik - naturgemass 1981 H.3 S.83-91

5. Norbert Harthun
Der Mensch - Mass so marcher Dinge?
Die biologische Ordnung elektromagnetischer Signale
Kosmische Evolution 1979 H.2 S.41-45

6. F.A. Popp et al.
Electromagnetic Bio-lnformation
Urban und Schwarzenberg; Munchen-Wien-Baltimore 1979

7. Norbert Harthun
Die electrische Harmonie - Schichtung des Wasserstoffatoms
Mensch und Technik - naturgemass 1982 H.3 S.99-104

8. Hans Schavernoch
Die Harmonie der Spharen
Verl. K. Alber Freiburg; Munchen 1981


Fig.3.1


Fig.3.2


Derivation

(1)

(2) ;

(3) and
(3) in (1)

(4) ;

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

c = speed of light
n = m+ 1; m+2; m+3 ...
Ry = Rydberg-constant
ra = outer shell radius
ri = inner shell radius
= Energy
me = electron mass (neutralized based on the Bohr model)
D = charge on the surface of conducting sphere (r1)
= Surface potential
= Difference between areas (ra and ri)
A1 - Area of sphere (r1)
E1 - Energy of the charged sphere (r1)


Fig.4

Systems in nature: models for technical conversion of energy - statements by Viktor and Walter Schauberger

By NORBERT HARTHUN

INTRODUCTION

The name "Schauberger" has a worldwide reputation today which is undoubtedly due to Alois Kokaly, who founded the magazine Implosion in 1962, and who published quite a number of Schauberger's letters and essays. We must be aware that we can't apply the same severe scientific standards to private letters as we would to scientific publications. Statements, assumptions etc. printed in lmplosion have often been misunderstood by readers who had no scientific experience and who, at the same time, were full of hope and expectations. But we have to make clear, that there is no "Schaubergian" 'Theory of Nature', and that it is impossible to draw complete methods of construction from his essays! Kokaly's additional essays unfortunately were of little help to correct the biased image of existing practical fundamentals of a "Schaubergian biological engineering". Nevertheless those publications were incredibly valuable because they enabled a large public to learn about those important and uncommon ideas and indicated the direction to pursue to new ends. Let's be thankful to those who formulated them. Thus scientifically trained people got into contact with those new ideas, too.

One important step forward was O. Alexandersson's book1 (now existing in English2), and Frokjaer-Jensen's report at the "1st International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology" in Toronto in 19813. A special edition of Mensch und Technik - naturgemass4 (Man and Technical Science - in accordance with Nature) has been published since. This is the publication I refer to here. I have some copies with me for those among you who are interested in it.

REMARKS CONCERNING LIFE AND WORK OF BOTH SCHAUBERGERS

Viktor Schauberger was born in Austria on June 30, 1885. He became a forester and got known because of constructions in his professional field. Furthermore, he carried out lots of scientific experiments on liquid and gaseous substances in a small laboratory he had set up himself. It was from there and from his observations as a forester in (sometimes even untouched) nature that he derived his ideosyneratic ideas concerning the evolution of technical science so far. Later he was forced to develop new kinds of aircraft (like flying saucers) in the Mauthausen Concentration Camp. Those developments had not got any further than more laboratory models by the end of World War 11. After the war he stayed in the USA for a short time (25/6/48-20/9/58) where they tried to find out about his knowledge and to turn it into technical applications. Having had a heart disease for a long time, he died on September 25, 1958, home again.

Walter, his son, (born on July 26, 1914) had studied physics and had accompanied his father to the USA. It was there that he came to know his father's ideas far better and in a far more coherent way because of the fact that they lived together permanently. After his father's death he carried on theoretical research from a mathematical-physical point of view. In addition to that, he made a lot of fundamental experiments and took care of public relations in order to make his father's and his own ideas known to a larger public.

STRATEGY OF INVESTIGATION

Seventeen years ago I heard of these new ideas thanks to Walter's public relation activities and together with some others interested in the same subject I founded the ''Gruppe der Neuen" (group of the new), which has regularly published the magazine Mensch und Technik - naturgemass ever since.

We are concerned with a holistic under standing of nature and sacrificed a lot of interest to the Schaubergers' statements. We had to recognize, evaluate and describe the essential aspects of the vast quantity of Viktor's observations, statements, and new words he had coined and also of WaIter's quotations, formulae and calculations. This was a difficult task because of the fact that we were confronted with some aspects of nature that are basically unknown. The essential statement everywhere was that conventional technical science was hostile to nature, mainly because movements were wrongly established and modes of movement different from those of nature were employed.

We adopted the following strategy: due to a lack of time and money we had to do without making Viktor's observations of nature and experiments once again; and to our mind there were not enough clear hints for any attempts of practical constructions. Hence we contented ourselves with looking for general fundamental statements about laws of nature and for non-conventional priorities, that is to say: values. You wilt be given one typical example of our procedure when talking about Planetary Movement. W. also compared Viktor's statements with those of other outsiders as to conformity or contradictions of views.


Fig. 1


Fig. 2.1


Fig. 2.2


Fig. 2.3


Fig. 2.4

FIELD STRUCTURES HELPFUL AND HOSTILE TO BID-SYSTEMS

Viktor believed in Cellular Cosmogony (Fig. 1 - Dr. Cyrus R. Teed) and in the theory of ether permeating everything which might be utilized energetically. The latter case shows a certain resemblance of views with those of Dr. T. Henry Moray. Another resemblance of ideas can be seen with those of Wilhelm Reich but not from a technical point of view. Schauberger pointed out the negative effects of wrong machines on biological sytems but seldom spoke of man in that context. Descriptions of symptoms like a decrease of the level of ground-water, derangements of growth, etc., but also inner unrest in human beings are identical to what Wilhelm Reich reports about his Orgone experiments. As long as nothing definite is known I wouldn't like to bother about names and words but just speak of "unknown field structures" in a general way, similar to Ren who had chosen the mathematical symbol X (meaning UNKNOWN) for his rays.

For Viktor Schauberger there is distinctly an interrelation between unknown field structures and dead and living matter, i.e. technical devices and plants, animals, man. I underline this with great emphasis because we more and more make that experience today and people who owing to their education would never think of such an interrelation between abused nature and man's soul can only believe in the effects of some kind of new weapon. It would mean a catastrophe if people didn't notice their home-made time-bomb for searching imaginary weapons of foreign powers. And what is meant by this home-made time bomb? It is our own technical systems and their impact on nature and soul!

Briefly said: Viktor was convinced of the existence or rather generation of unknown field structures either helpful or hostile to life in connection with technical systems. This makes more than clear to what extent we must hold responsible those who are involved in the development of new systems!

THESES OF THE TWO SCHAUBERGERS

Let us start with a check-list of technical details or priorities as derived from Schauberger literature.

5.1. Water, its properties, its role in nature and how to treat it were of prime importance for Viktor. Hence he absolutely claimed "planetary movement" for this matter (see below).

5.1.1. He recommended wood or copper as materials for water containers and tubes; he wouldn't accept iron. He also rejected indirect contact with water as produced by farming-tools when getting worn. This to him was ruinous for the structure of the soil.

5.1.2. Both Schaubergers attribute particular importance for life to the evaporation of water (especially for plants and man's skin) associated with its effect of a decrease in temperature.

5.2. Walter stresses that natural structures are laid out in layers whose density increases the farther we get into the structure. This seems important to him and worth while being imitated in technical realizations.

5.2.1. His conception of the layer-system as the "big-capacitor" - atmosphere/biosphere (plants etc.) /geosphere (earth) - is mentioned here as an exception. In this case the biosphere acts as the dielectric, the insulator. This may be seen as an analogy with the usual electric capacitor.

5.2.2. In general, the notion of a final thin skin on the soil, on the surface of water and at the extreme points of roots is of great importance for Viktor. This skin was - according to him - extremely important for processes of compensation involved and was destroyed in the case of the soil by soil tilling, in the case of the points of roots by artificial fertilizer and in the case of water surfaces by planing by the wind. Viktor may think of the concentration of neighboring fluids at the surfaces of solid bodies, namely adhesion.

5.2.3. In experiments Viktor uses paraffin or marble or lead as isolating or screening layers - as "filters" as he calls them.

5.3. Chemical reactions-complying with the laws of nature (and thus being helpful to life) must take place at low temperatures and low pressure. They should be pulsating suction processes in oval vessels (Viktor) or hyperbolic funnels (Walter) (Fig. 2). Beyond that resonance is an important characteristic of natural processes for Walter. (It is to be assumed that pulsating processes, as postulated by Viktor, carried out at resonance in closed vessels are particularly efficient.

PLANETARY MOVEMENT

Viktor didn't confine himself to stressing again and again eddying processes as the most important form of movement being most helpful to life, but he underlined that he was thinking of one special form which he called "planetary movement". He holds it capable of miracles; with its help propelling and lifting effects could be attained, it lowered the temperature of the material, etc. Furthermore Viktor speaks of a build-up of "life energy" (or: concentrating, developing, regenerating forces) in the fluid itself and by means of "emitting energies" of the fluid moved in the planetary way. Here were possibilities of positive influence on man and nature. Any movement different from the planetary one was wrong in Viktor's eyes! They generated field structures hostile to life.

In order to discover that desired form of flux we analysed his patents, as he had to be more precise there than in his letters. The flux is as shown in Fig. 3. A fixed core that rotates is surrounded by a lot of small flux threads having the shape of a screw whose core (subcore) again rotates in itself. It can be seen that these small subcores can be taken as main cores each again surrounded by screw-shaped flux threads and so on ad infinitum.


Fig. 3


Fig. 4


Fig. 5


Fig. 6

The descriptions of the patents were not our only hint as to the flux shape desired by Viktor; there were other texts, too: Viktor for instance describes his suction turbine as a copy of the natural system of blood vessels with a heart-shaped widening at the lower end. In 1878 the outsider Edwin D. Babbit had published his concept of the atom being heart-shaped and consisting of circulations of ether (Fig. 4). It seems quite probably that Viktor, a well-read man, knew that theory. (He often speaks of his nuclear technology, too). We suppose that he used parts of Babbit's model of the atom which seemed evident to him as a hint for his machine(s).

We found another point somewhere else: When giving his distinct hint concerning the "planetary movement" he writes about himself: "... Forrester, who inverted 'Ressel's pressure screw' according to natural principles and thus discovered the suction screw producing big-magnetism...." He referred to Joseph Ressel (29/6/1793-10/10/18S7) who invented the first usable screw for ships. We analysed documents about that screw (Fig. 5) and imagined its negative. The solid core was hence replaced by Viktor's hollow shaft surrounded by a screw-shaped groove. A flux that can penetrate there complies with the "planetary movement" he postulated.

Hence the experts concerned get a useful base for modern, farther reaching experiments!

NATURE'S PRINCIPLE OF BIPOLARITY

To start with we have shown details from and for the field. Viktor Schauberger worked in the field. The only theoretical principle he always underlined was nature's bipolarity. He understands by that that for all processes two unlike poles must interact. There is plenty of literature on polarity and its impact (Heisenberg for instance called it 'complementarily'); we therefore need not talk about it here in detail.

THE NATURE-SOUND LAW

Owing to his theoretical research Walter Schauberger is convinced that the "nature-sound law" is inherent in all that is physically real ("Elevation and ground plan are hyperbola and hyperbolic spiral"). By saying so he refers to the relation: whose graph in Cartesian co-ordinates will give an equilateral hyperbola (Fig. 6) and in polar coordinates a hyperbolic spiral (Fig. 7). Schauberger's name for this phenomenon is based on the fact that the relation between the length and frequency of a vibrating chord, whose overtones, as we know, form a harmonic sequence as to frequency and wavelength, are described by the above function. His commitment to this relation is so general, that he calls for hyerbolic structures practially everywhere in technical science and engineering. We don't follow him that far, yet the stress on harmonic sequence has proved to be true for the interpretation of the spectrum of hydrogen5.

I hope I have given you a good impression of the width of Schauberger's views and ideas. At the same time some aspects for new research could be pointed out. Nature still disposes of a lot of aspects surprising for us!

I'd like to thank my colleague F. Fiedler for his help in establishing the English version!

FOOTNOTES

1O. Alexandersson
Det levande vattnet
Proprius Forlag, Stockholm 1973

2O. Alexandersson
Living Water
Turnstone Press Ltd. 1982
ISBN 0-85500-1 12-7

3B. Frokjaer-Jensen
Implosion Energy Theory and Scandinavian Research
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology 1981, Toronto, Ontario Canada

4N. Harthun, U. Fischer, D. Neumann, U. Wieseke
Viktor und Walter Schauberger - Zusammenfassumg ihrer
Aussagen zu Natur, Wissenschaft und Technik - naturgemass (1982) H.4 (Sonderausgabe)

5N. Harthun
Attempting a non-conventional Interpretation of Systems and Laws of Nature
This paper


Fig. 7

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexandersson, Olof, Living Water - Victor Schauberger and the Secrets of Natural Energy, Turnstone Press limited, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, 1982.

Arguelles, Jose and Miriam, Mandala, Shambhala, Boulder add London, 1972.

Carhahan, W. G., Gravitation, 3204 Breeze Terrace, Austin, Texas 78722, 1983.

Cater, Joseph H., Awesome Force - The Unifying Principles for All Physical and Occult Phenomena in the Universe, Cadake Industries, P.O. Box 9478, Winter Haven, Florida, 1982.

Liu, Da, Tai Chi Chuan and I Ching - A Choreography of Body and Mind, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, N.Y. 10022.1972.

Musashi, Miyamoto, A Book of Five Rings - The Classic Guide to Strategy, The Overlook Press, Woodstock, New York, 1974.

Nieper, Dr. Hans, # Theory of Energy Shielding as a Cause of Gravitational Effects, A. Keith Brewer Library, Science and Research Dept., Admiral Ruge Archives, Richland Center, Wisconsin 53581.

Sigma, Rho, Ether Technology, P.O. Box 79, Young Harris, GA 30582.

O'Neill, J., Prodigal Genius - the Life of Nikola Tesla, Tesla Book Co., 1580 Magnolia Ave., Millbrae, CA 94030.

Tomas, Andrew, We Are Not the First - Riddles of Ancient Science, Bantam Books, New York, N.Y. 10016, 1973.

Breakthroughs in the technical application of gravity field energy

© By W. F. SOWDER 1983

President of the American Association of Gravity Field Energy
Huntsville, Alabama

The original title for this presentation was "Recent Breakthroughs in the Technical Application of Gravity Field Energy." I have chosen to drop the word "recent" because I am not so sure that it really is appropriate. Many of the ideas, concepts, thinking and application about gravity field energy - or "free" energy - go back many years within this century, hundreds and thousands of years in this era, and perhaps even back to other ages such as Atlantean times where gravitational field energy technology may have flourished.

Well, if this energy is so old, why has it taken so-called "modern" man so long to apply free energy technology, and why are we so slow to utilize its fruits? For if these unusual energy fields exist now (they have been demonstrated and I for one am certainly convinced that they exist), it is likely that they have always existed and always will. That is, we are talking about an unlimited source of energy, but in an unusual, presently unrecognized form. This source can meet our energy needs forever and, best of all, it is free. Well, practically free - all we need are the conversion units to make the unusual energy work for us in more usual physical terms. This conference - and the one that preceded it - are precisely about the progress being made with the various kinds of conversion units needed to utilize this free gravitational field energy in a practical fashion.

We are on the threshold of breakthroughs that will revolutionize the operation of this planet Earth. The emerging technology will make present air travel, electronics, computer, and space technologies seem like kindergarten basics by comparison. But if this emerging technology is so important, why are we so hesitant in applying it?

My feeling is that we are slow to pursue this emerging technology because we (and I mean mankind in general) are not ready for it. Since we cannot fully understand this energy, we treat it as an unknown and we fear the unknown. Because of this fear, there is great resistance to it - and one of our present problems is to achieve enough momentum in free energy research to overcome that resistance. Down through history, significant breakthroughs in science and technology came into being through great adversity, but these breakthroughs into the unknown succeeded because, once sufficient momentum was developed, it could not be stopped.

And that is true of gravity field energy research today. Nikola Tesla discovered practical methods to apply this energy on a grand scale, and was suppressed for his audacity. Even though J. P. Morgan and the financial control interests of the time tried to negate Tesla's ideas, Tesla's concepts have persisted and more and more people want to know about them each day. Since thoughts are energy, they will always remain. No one can take them away. And when an idea's time has come, that energy will be manifested. Free energy is such an idea whose time has come. This syrnposium is positive evidence that progress is indeed being made, and free energy is going to become a reality.

Now what do I mean, after all, by "gravity field energy"? If we are going to discuss these kinds of energy and field concepts, we should have a clear idea of what we are talking about. Does gravity field energy have anything to do with the ordinary gravitational attraction of one object for another? Yes, but it is much more. I call your attention to the fact that no one has the foggiest notion of what gravity or gravitational field is, or what causes it. The mechanism and cause have remained more subtle than our present instruments and experiments can discover. And so I am talking about gravity field energy in precisely this subtle, not yet understood fashion. We are giving a name to a fundamental, causative field or agent which we cannot yet precisely detect and measure, but one which slowly we are discovering how to grasp, accumulate, translate, and use to produce ordinary energy. Gravitational field is just one manifestation of the subtle gravity field energy I am describing. Since gravitational field is ubiquitous and pervades the universe to its deepest reaches, then this more subtle energy pervades the universe.

Through this vast cosmos, which we commonly call space and think of as a vacuum, there is thus a subtle energy field of unknown nature, far beyond our present comprehension. Our presently known phenomena and energies are only a special subset of this all-pervading, subtle energy-rich field. Our external gravitational environments in this universe are just outward manifestations of what happens in this internal, hidden, infinite subtle energy field.

Men have called this field by many names - gravity field, tachyon field, graviton field, free energy field, virtual state, spatial energy, scalar waves, longitudinal waves, zero point energy, ether field, neutrino field, Fermi sea, Dirac sea, orgone energy, eloptic energy, spirit, mind, multiple realities, other worlds, the force, hyperspace energy, etc. The terminology is unimportant. We choose to call it "gravity field energy". The fact that there is an infinite, universal source of subtle energy that we can turn into ordinary energy and utilize to do work is the important factor. We are saying that there is a universal river of energy at every point in the universe - an unusual river, but one into which we can dip a special kind of paddlewheel and extract energy if we are clever.

The potential utility of this universal, subtle energy field is far-reaching. This field seems to cause or generate all other energy fields as special cases. There is thus nothing that this universal energy field does not influence. So, to try to relate all the significant breakthroughs that will emerge - in the broad sense I have just referred to - would be ludicrous and time consuming. However, let me touch on only a few of the breakthroughs that I feel are beginning to emerge at this time, and that will most certainly affect us all in the near future.

I will speak of subtle energy dynamics in the following categories:

· ENERGY CONVERSION
· COMMUNICATIONS
· MEDICINE
· AGRICULTURE
· WEAPONS
· OTHER

ENERGY CONVERSION

The technology of energy conversion - changing gravitational field energy into ordinary, useful energy to do work - has already experienced breakthroughs in the following areas:

· FLUX TRANSFORMERS
· CAPACITOR DISCHARGE MACHINES
· ELECTRO-MAGNETOSTATIC CONVERTERS

An example of the application of a flux transformer is the demonstrated operation of a powered motorcycle in West Germany. A gravity-field generator or tachyon field converter recharges an electrical battery, which in turn supplies ordinary electrical power to run the motorcycle. Tom Bearden provides one possible explanation for the operation of this device.

Experiments began on this unit in West Germany in May, 1982. The converter unit, a cylinder about four inches in diameter and four inches long, produced 2 kw of output power to the battery. In other words, nearly 3 horsepower. The device is capable of converting the flux of massless charged tachyon energy into charged mass particles, accumulating them to produce normal electromagnetic energy. This device is capable of providing about 600% efficiency. That is, you get about six times as much power out as you have to put in to run the device.

The capacitor discharge devices are being explored by the Swiss. The technique used in such a device involves the buildup of a large charge stress in a capacitor, stressing the massless charge of the gravity field. This produces a higher flux of scalar waves (or Tesla waves) which - when accumulated and converted into charged mass Hertzian vector waves - produces electromagnetic energy. Preliminary results indicate that these devices may sometimes be quite sensitive to environmental conditions. Devices that have demonstrated this capacitance technique include Gray's motor and the Hendershot, Hubbard and Moray devices.

The use of electro-magnetostatic potential is being explored in many countries (U.S., West Germany, France, Denmark, Holland, Japan and probably the USSR, to name a few.) A good example of this technique is the Howard Johnson motor, in which the rotational effects of magnets or charged mass particles increase the stress or intensity of the massless charged fields, thus increasing the electrostatic potential. This is then converted into more charged mass which can produce electromagnetic energy. Follow-on developments could produce significant large power plants. Some other devices demonstrating this technique include the N-machine, the Kromrey device and the Alexander dynamotor. Preliminary results with these units seem to indicate that there could be problems in controlling the conversion of massless charge into charged mass.

With continued development, these breakthrough areas will provide propulsion capabilities for automobiles, trucks, tractors, heavy equipment, ships and aircraft. The total cost for the energy generated for these applications may range from 0.1 to 0.4 cents per kilowatt hour. Other important applications will include home power units and general power generating stations. A factory near the town of Oldenburg, West Germany is scheduled to produce gravity-field converters for home power use. These power units may be relatively small in size, possibly about the size of an office waste basket and produce 7 to 15 kilowatts of power.

Because of the world's energy crisis, the field of energy conversion is likely to be the technology most exploited, and it offers the most promising immediate incentives to the inventor or developer.

MEDICINE

The field of medicine affords a fruitful arena for the application of gravity field energy technology. We are on the threshold of the use of neuroelectrical medicine. This will involve the use of electrical devices to convert gravity field and tachyon subtle energies into energies that can be used to heal or prevent diseases in the physical body. Treating and controlling pain and neurological dysfunctions, improving the body's immune and surveillance systems to combat a whole host of degenerative diseases (including cancer, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, etc.), are already being done in the laboratory by electrical means. With these energies, we can think in terms of creating living cells and organs in the laboratory and diagnosing potential diseases years before they will occur if untreated. These energies of which we are speaking are subtle healing energies, but they are still a part of gravitational field energy. Each one of us can use them to improve his or her well-being every second of every day, for all healing is self-healing. It is the way we manage gravity field (biofield) energies which makes us healthy or sick. Managed correctly in the natural sense, we are healthy. If mismanaged, we gradually lose our health and become ill.

It is a shame that so many persons today are suffering with degenerative diseases such as cancer when there are already unorthodox cures available. The medical profession is in for a big change in the next few years. The change to a new consideration of the unorthodox treatments has already begun.

Another area that is not new is beginning to receive much attention. This is an area in which the American Association of Gravity Field Energy (AAFGE) is becoming involved. This is the exploration of geopathogenic zones. A geopathogenic zone is an area on the ground where the production of diseases is enhanced by natural emanations or energies from the natural environment. Some medical doctors are discovering that their patients' illnesses are influenced by these geopathogenic zones, or even caused by them. This is particularly true in Europe, where medical doctors are using dowsers to detect and map these geopathogenic zones.

The art of dowsing has long been practiced througout the world. It has been most often employed to find underground water, using a dowsing or divining rod. However, water is only one of the many things which can be dowsed. For example, geopathogenic zones can be located and detailed by dowsing. Evidence of these geopathogenic zones has been known for centuries, although it has been ignored by conventional western scientists, and few facts can be found in western publicatons concerning the zones. Apparently, there are only a few persons in the west who are actually investigating these noxious zones. For this reason, the art of dowsing for geopathogenic zones can be said to be still in its infancy in the west, and no definite claims can be made at this time. There are, however, strong correlations between geopathogenic zones and the incidence of various forms of cancer. This has been pointed out by Dr. Hans A. Nieper, M.D., of Hanover, West Germany. Dr. Nieper made this fact public during his visit to the United States in May, 1983.

At present no one fully understands these geopathogenic zones. What they are, where they come from, how they got there, and the mechanism causing them remain a mystery. How they can be countered or disposed of also remains a mystery. In West Germany the doctors and dowsers advise one to avoid the zones, even if it means moving. Dowsers also can sometimes dissipate the noxious energy and make it much less dangerous by installing ground rods and conducting wires in certain ways. It is our experience that these geopathogenic zones contain or radiate subtle energy of an unknown nature associated with our physical Earth environment. They are not readily detectable except through dowsing or clairvoyance. We believe that there are four principle types: (1) energy associated with fissures, faults, and fault lines in the earth; (2) energy associated with underground water veins; (3) energy associated with so-called "Ley lines"; and (4) small to large energy pockets which extend above and below the surface of the earth and which do not seem to be associated with any particular indentifiable earth feature.

We may live and/or work in one of these geopathogenic zones without realizing it. When we do, the noxious energy of the zone can significantly affect our mental, emotional and physical faculties. This is especially true if we encounter such a zone over an extended period of time in conjunction with mental and emotional stress. In other words, the energy contained in these zones frequently is not harmonious with a person's health and well-being, and it seems to directly interact with the immune system in a slowly accumulating, negative fashion over a period of time.

There are two basic questions to answer: (1) how do you detect these zones; and (2) what do you do about them once they have been detected?

To detect them, I highly recommend the use of dowsers. Dowsers can readily detect these energy pockets. They can survey a suspected area or building, and map out the extent of any noxious energy zones discovered. Once located, the zones can at least be avoided and in some cases they can be reduced or changed to make the energy less dangerous to those who come into contact with it. There is no guarantee, however, that this removal or clearing out process can be successful in all cases. Some persons have succeeded at nullifying the zones, and others have not. But with further breakthroughs, we all may be better able to avoid many debilitating diseases such as cancer, leukemia, arthritis, etc., or at least alleviate the percentage contributed by geopathogenic zones.

WEAPONS

Another obvious aspect of gravitational field energy is potential weaponization. This energy knows no barriers and it can be used in either an offensive or defensive role. It has been demonstrated that this energy can be manipulated at point A, popped "out of this world" into hyperspace, sent through hyperspace to point B. and emerge at point B with the same magnitude of force generated at A.

The energy can be concentrated and directed so as to make a person sick or even kill him. It can also be used to control or influence a person's mind and emotions. At this very moment we are all being bombarded with such energies being beamed into this country by the Soviet Union's giant woodpecker transmitters, and we are not even aware of it.

For years western scientists have adamantly stated it is not possible to influence the mind at a distance by microwaves. Well, recently national news releases were made on tests of a decades-old Soviet device called Lida. With a complex waveform on 50 megaHertz, the device can put a person - or an animal such as a cat - into a trance-like state at a distance. The Soviet Union has been using this device in medical clinics in Russia since at least 1960 - about the time the mysterious microwave radiation of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow began.

Now the west actually has a Lida device and has tested it. It's real. It works. And it's at least 23 years old in Russia. Western experts have been caught flatfooted in their ignorance. Yet the same experts are adamantly insisting that the Soviet woodpecker signals - operating in the communications band since about 1976 and interfering with communications worldwide - represent nothing but the testing of an over-the-horizon radar. The Lida device proves the Soviet capability exists to beam mind control signals into a target area, affecting the populace. The Soviet woodpecker certainly has the capability to do that, whenever the Soviets wish to utilize it in such a mode.

In the defense role, gravity field energy can be used to shield an area or an object, or to smash a particular target by a spectacular release of ordinary energy. The new weapons can make ineffective any threat, including nuclear warheads. There are strong indications that the Soviets - and one other country not hostile to the U.S. - have extensively developed weapons utilizing this subtle gravity field energy. As Tom Bearden has repeatedly pointed out, Khrushchev spoke of these fantastic weapons as early as 1960, referring to those just in Soviet development as so powerful they could wipe out all life on earth. In 1975, Brezhnev caused to be introduced to the SALT talks a proposal to ban the development of such weapons, "more frightful than the mind of man has ever imagined".

The potential for military applications of gravity field energy are virtually unlimited, yet our government and military in most instances stubbornly refuse to recognize its existence. However, slowly this is changing as evidence of the Soviet weapons inexorably accumulates. Hopefully the official attitude will change shortly and we may yet develop counter defenses in time. A great revolution in warfare has already occurred without our knowledge, and we shall have to run hard to catch up, our national survival may well depend upon it.

COMMUNICATIONS

There are many potential applications of gravity field energy in the communications field. I will mention only one. That is the development of new antennas - especially antennas that can communicate with submarines through the water.

Admiral Gorshkov, chief of the Soviet naval forces, has already stated that the Soviet Union has made the oceans of the world transparent. In the west we have consistently refused to break our preoccupation with ordinary high-powered, extra-low-frequency (ELF) waves which can penetrate the water but have low data rates and significant detrimental biological effects. With the breakthroughs now occuring in North America on the production of scalar waves and scalar beams, underwater communications - and even underwater radars - are sure to emerge in the near future.

AGRICULTURAL

The use of these energies is being applied to agricultural issues primarily in the area of pest control. Devices which can rid whole fields and large areas of undesirable pests have been demonstrated. This could be a big boost to the farmers. Pest control coupled with the use of energies to promote the growth of plants could be the answer to much of the earth's famine conditions.

OTHER

Since tachyon energy can be manipulated, direct engineering of the space-time continuum (massless charge) itself is possible. This involves the engineering of our three-dimensional reality from higher reality sources. Among some miscellaneous applications is the control of weather and changes to the earth's gravitational field.

Have you noticed how strange the weather has been world-wide the past two years? Your news media only tells you part of the story. Most of it goes unnoticed and unreported. The Soviet Union has developed the capability to control weather patterns over large areas and perhaps throughout the planet. The precision of their technology is not known. However, we do know that they appear to have set up a grid of virtual-state transmitters oriented to the continental United States. If so, then they can directly control the flow rate and location of jet streams containing cold arctic air. The potential for this technology is staggering, and the bizarre U.S. weather patterns of early and mid-1983 may well not be accidental at all.

Have you ever wondered why we are still living in the age of so-called "fireplace" technology? Do you realize that putting man on the moon, or for that matter our entire space program, uses the same technology which was used when the Romans heated their buildings by burning wood in a fireplace? There has been no change in the basic technology, until now. I am happy to report that there are several working free energy devices, and at least one anti-gravity device on this continent right now. The anti-gravity device recently developed and demonstrated uses coils to create an inertial field. Anything in the inertial field levitates, thus defying gravity.

All of this, of course, ties directly into the latest experimental findings in quantum electrodynamics. That is just a fancy way of saying the study of tachyon energy, bioenergy or mind/matter interaction. What the quantum physicists have found in the laboratory supports, and, on a small and controlled scale, duplicates all the effects which I have mentioned and then goes on to even strange things. Their findings can conceivably be applied to the whole area of consciousness and perception theory, to explain everything from UFOs to Loch Ness monsters to all of paranormal phenomena. We are truly experiencing the unified field theory. It is an exciting field and one about which very little is publicized in the mass media. The American Association of Gravity Field Energy is devoted, among other things, to publicizing the oft suppressed facts resulting from the many legitimate studies which have been and are being studied.

At the First International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology in Toronto in November of 1981, one working free energy device was on display. At this, the second conference, much progress has been made and much more equipment is available. Next month, West Germany (Hanover) will have their Fourth Congress of Equipment Using Gravity Field Energies, and in April of 1984 several devices will be presented at the Hanover Industrial Fair, the largest in the world.

Thus, today we are on the brink of breakthroughs of a magnitude never before envisioned in the history of mankind. Gravity field energy technology is emerging, and it is an idea whose time has come.

The new technology is far more beneficial and far more detrimental than anything we have ever had before. The power of our tools has just increased by billions and billions of times - for either good or bad.

It's a new age and a new era. And we have a fierce new dragon that is just being released. We have no choice but to proceed; there is no turning back. We shall simply have to tame the dragon as quickly as we can, and that is what this conference is all about.

REFERENCES

Bauer, Dr. William, "Neuroelectric Medicine," 1982

Bird, Christopher, The Divining Hand

Bearden, T.E., "Solutions to Tesla's Secrets and the Soviet Tesla Weapons," Tesla Book Co., 1580 Magnolia Avenue, Millbrae, California 94030, 1981

Bearden, T.E., "Comments on the New Tesla Electromagnetics: Part I: Discrepancies in the Present EM Theory; Part Il: The Secret of Electrical Free Energy," Tesla Book Co., 1982

Bearden, T.E., "Toward a New Electromagnetics: Part III: Clarifying the Vector Concept," 1983

Bearden, T.E., "Toward a New Electromagnetics: Part IV: Vectors and Mechanisms Clarified," Paper presented to 1983 U.S. Psychotronics Association Conference, University of Portland, Oregon

Bearden, T.E., The Execution Briefing, Strawberry Hill Press, San Francisco, California, 1980

Schaffranke, Dr. Rolf, "Overtime to a New Age Technology," Tesla Book Company

Schaffranke, Dr. Rolf, "Review and Outlook - the Development of Post-Relativistic Concepts in Physics and Advanced Technology Abroad," Tesla Book Co.

Rho Sigma (Dr. Rolf Schaffranke), Ether Technology - a Rational Approach to Gravity Control, CSA Printing and Bindery, Lakemont, Georgia 30552, 1977

Johnson, Howard, Article in Science and Mechanics

Adey, Ross, Lida (new release)

Krushchev Statement, article in New York Times, 1960

Brezhnev Statement, during SALT talks, 1975

Private communication with U.S. Navy scientist who wishes to remain anonymous

Sheldrake, Rupert, A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Formative Causation, J. P. Tareher, Inc., Los Angeles, 1981

O'Neill, John J., Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla, Angriff Press, P.O. Box 2726, Hollywood, California 90028, new printing, 1981

Cheney, Margaret, Tesla: Man Out of Time, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1981

Hooper, William J., "All Electric Motional Electric Field Generator," U.S. Patent No. 3,610,971, October 5, 1971

Private communication with Dr. Hans Nieper, Hanover, West Germany, 1983

Nieper, Dr. Hans, Revolution in Technology, Medicine and Society, in German (English version in preparation)

The use of Tesla technology and ball lightning as an approach to controlled fusion

By ROBERT GOLKA

My interest in Tesla and his work started out as a fascination with a phenomenon called BALL LIGHTNING. I had heard that in the back issues of QST magazine devoted to electric experimentation and amateur radio, there was a reference to some gentlemen who had found this phenomenon. So I went to a local university and found that their engineering library was the only library in the state that had all those back issues, so I started out in 1910 and when I got up to December, 19191 found in the back of the magazine there was a letter to the editor from two gentlemen named George and Benjamin Painter, down in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

They had a small Oudin coil, which is something like a Tesla coil, a table top coil they used to produce sparks at county fairs. These were really spark gap men, which means that they were sending messages by Morse code by closing a key to a circuit, which caused a spark gap to fire coupled to an antenna system. This is the way they communicated in the early days of the World War I period, by sending Morse code. During WWI, the government outlawed all communications. They clamped down on all ham radio operators, so these fellows made a core form and made sparks with their transmitter gear and entertained the community that way.

One of the times they were doing this, the man was down hitting the key and this coil produced a small fire ball, about the size of a marble. He didn't understand this, so they wrote to the editor of QST magazine and claimed they produced it a couple of times. Mind you, this was in December, 1919. And one of the closing remarks in that letter to the editor was that if anybody knew of this phenomenon would they please write to them.

Fifty years later, I did call them up and they were still alive. Remember, they were doing this probably when they were 18 or 19, so that would put them up around the 70 year old mark. I called everybody by the name of Painter in Chattanooga and got lots of people, but none were the right party. Apparently these people had unlisted phones. It took me about three months to do this part time. However, I started calling all the electrical businesses, and that's how I located them. Perseverance again won out.

I said, "hold everything; I'll be on an airplane and fly right down; I want to find out how you made ball lightning. You conjure up all the thoughts that you did half a century ago and I'll record this and write it down and I'll make ball lightning." Boy, was I in for a surprise, because it never is that easy in nature, even though you think you have the tiger by the tail. There's a lot of slippery tigers around in nature's treasure chest.

So I go down there thinking this is going to be a piece of cake and spend three days with the gentlemen, learn all I could about Oudin coils. I had never built a Tesla coil or anything like that before this. I was in digital work. I thought I knew a lot, and got one of the greatest educations starting to duplicate this work.

First thing I did, the real professional way, I go to a transformer company and said, "Hey, build me a 25,000 volt, 500 milliamp transformer." They quote $800 or $900 and I said fine. Transformers aren't that complicated. Little did I know that for this type of circuit you have to build a transformer that has magnetic leakage. In other words, like a neon transformer, you short circuit the secondary you don't blow all the fuses. That cost me about $800. We rebuilt the transformer a couple of times, but it was just the wrong type of apparatus for that type of experiment.

About two and a half years later and some hundred coils later, I had never produced any ball lightning, and was getting a little discouraged until I heard of Nikola Tesla. I heard from a historian who had been collecting data on him for about 10 years previously. His name was Leland Anderson, in Colorado Springs.

He suggested, since he figured I had a lot of money, (1 wasn't hurting in those days) that I could fly around the world and pursue this where he wasn't able to do this, so I said that I would go to Yugoslavia if he thought there was a diary over there. He says, "Well, I'm not sure, but there seems to be one over there if you can locate it." So I called Yugoslavia and got hold of the Tesla museum and they said yes, there was a diary there, but they wouldn't let me take it out, but I could come over there and read it.

On that, I decided I'd go over there and spend a little time, so I was in Belgrade, Yugoslavia for about a month and half. I left the latter part of 1969, and the notes were indeed there, but they were all handwritten in English and Tesla's legibility in handwriting was atrocious. It took me a few weeks just to learn how to recognize how he formed his a's and b's. But I got onto it. Fortunately it was in English. Fortunately I had a trade to make with these people, because I could read English and they couldn't and they wanted to decipher the diary as much as I did, so they could publish it in the museum Proceedings.

So we worked along and they would not let me copy anything to take out, however, I did make notes on my hand, on matchbook covers, little slips of paper, and after a month and a half I was able to "smuggle" notes which were the equivalent of about 28 pages of the diary. Yugoslavia is a semicommunist country and if you think people hold on to their high paying jobs here, you arc in for a surprise, because over there it's death. If you make a goof up in a high position, you might end up in a job shoveling coal or something like that, and that's pretty hard to take if you're a full professor. This museum was set up by President Tito, so it was a very high honor to work there. None of these people wanted to jeopardize their positions, so they ail got together and asked me to give all my notes back the day I offered to take them all out for dinner at one of the best restaurants in Belgrade at the time I was getting ready to leave. While we haggled back and forth I bought them some special Yugoslavian vodka, we drank and ate, and after we all got full of vodka and food they just decided they wouldn't push me for the papers.

They could have turned me in if they'd really wanted to. I'm sure my room would have been searched and I would have come back empty handed with a lot of bad memories. But I guess I talked myself out of that, so I got out of the country with the papers, the 28 pages of real centralized, good knowledge of what he was actually doing in Colorado Springs.

There were 500 pages in the diary, so l had to pick and choose very carefully. I had gone through the diary about three times, and it was very slow reading because of the handwriting, and a lot of the concepts were quite foreign to me. In Yugoslavia they do multiplication tables backwards. It took quite a bit of getting used to. So, with the diary in hand and back in the States, I figured I had a chance of building something really unique. The next problem was to try to get funding, which took me about two and a half years.

The summer of 1970 I decided there were still some unanswered questions, so I went over to Yugoslavia again. Most of the academic people take the whole summer off in Yugoslavia, in Belgrade, and the museum was closed. So they told me to take a vacation in Dubrovnik for three or four weeks and maybe they'd let me go into the museum for one or two days. I did that. I drove around the country, anti the upshot was that l got about three and a half or four days use of the diary material again. They told me that was the last time they were going to entertain me or have me over there. So I knew I was on my own at that time

After that, I worked and built models of this coil system and thought I was familiar with it. By May of 1973 I was ready to go out to I Utah to the great Bonneville National Salt Flats. I wanted to pick an area that had good ground conductivity, and that's why I located in Utah. I had no idea there was an Air Force base there at the time, but that really was what saved my skin, because we took a big trailer- truck full of instruments and stuff from Massachusetts, drove out to Utah, got permission from the state to set up equipment. I was out there the year before and obtained two 150,000 watt diesel generators from the Army.

I had a couple of allies in Washington who helped me get some other materials. I had a small grant from the Navy to do a ground conductivity measurement. Everything just to survive on the bare necessities and literally walking around on my financial knees. But that was good enough for me, because I was determined to bring a new and pioneering approach to the forefront, and I realized I'd have to suffer a little hit. We worked in the salt flats. If you think of the salt flats as a big white dish which occasionally filled up with a couple of inches of water when it rained, you'll get a little idea what it was like. You could literally get lost out there because all you had to go by was the mountains about 16 or 17 miles away. It was approximately 20 miles out of town, and every stick and tool, water, gas, fuel, everything had to be brought out from town. [Wendover, Utah - ed.]

I built the first full sized Tesla coil out on the great Bonneville National Salt Flats. The diameter of the coil was 51 feet. I would guess that's probably the largest transformer ever built in the world. It took about two months to get it built, which brought us up nearly to August. It never really worked well. Then the rains started coming in and we had wind storms. All hell broke loose and it was just like nature didn't want me to make this discovery.

By September we were flooded. Some of the equipment had blown down. I still made frantic attempts to restore it and do testing. It was getting to be that for every few hours of testing I'd be down about three days because damage from rain, or drying things out. It got to be a real battle. By November I was beginning to show some signs of fatigue and frustration. I had to choose whether to go back to Massachusetts to my comfortable electronics consulting business, where I still had some accounts, and forget about all this equipment in Wendover. It was a hard choice, but I could just walk out of Wendover and leave the copper and everything out there and abandon it, or I could stick it out for a winter and see what I could come up with.

I chose to stay out there. I wasn't going to take a heating from nature and be pounded into the ground by bad luck, so I started out scurrying around the town and investigating the air base, which was an auxiliary air base. I found there was a big hangar, and through a series of' political maneuvers I was able to act the Air Force to give me that hangar for a dollar a year. That allowed me to have 44,000 square feet of space and security and free electricity to do this experiment and do it right, and get things under way.

When the spring of 1974 came around, I was well on the way to building this coil up, modifying it, using plastic supports instead of wood. I found a lot of misconceptions I had working on the salt flats. I was getting better. My technique in coil design was improving. It was just about July 4, 1974 that I got this coil system working. I was up to about 12,000,000 volts. We were putting in approximately 150,000 watts of power and making approximately 2600 amp, 12,000,000 volt discharges.

I still wanted to perfect it so l kept working and I figured hall lightning should be close at hand. We had big sparks. Then I found I could do other improvements and the voltage would keep creeping up. I was getting longer and longer sparks. About a year later we blew up the capacitor bank and I felt we had to keep the thing rocking along, so I got some different, custom made capacitors, which cost about $9,000, and then we really started getting long sparks. I estimate about 20,000,000 volts or so. I kept perfecting, built new pressurized spark gaps, and eventually we got the voltage up to 25,000,000 volts.

All this was in an effort to create ball lightning. This was a grass root type of experiment. I had about 10 people working in the summer season, then we tapered off towards the fall. We really pioneered a totally new approach to lightning generation and simulation based on Nikola Tesla's original work that was done in 1899. Seventy years had gone by and not one single soul on the planet had ever built a large scale Tesla coil and got it working. I felt that ball lightning production was near at hand. I didn't realize how difficult ball lightning was to recreate.

Every step of this was a problem. Nothing went together easily. That's generally the way it is in most research. If you're going to invent or discover something you're going to have to sweat with it. As Edison used to say, it's one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration, and I sweat many years on this project.

It wasn't until about mid-1978 that we got our first bead lightning or ball lightning, which I published in Radio Electronics. A few years later, I made a ball lightning on the floor, which was more like a yellow one inch diameter sphere that rolled around for just about half a second or so. But I could never get a picture of it. It only happened very rarely. That convinced me that this avenue of research was very important.

I also worked with some people at Brigham Young University, Dr. Robert Bass and Dr. Briner. While I was experimenting with the lightning equipment, I was working very diligently with them to perfect a mathematical model of this fireball and how we could mathematically demonstrate how to bring this up to high temperature for fusion applications. My big question was whether fire balls could be made with lasers, whether they could be scaled up to thermonuclear temperatures. If that could happen, this whole idea would be the greatest invention of the century. There's no guarantee of that, but it's a good gamble to take if you have the time in your life. I felt that to pursue this was probably one of the most interesting things I could do, whether as a man of poor or medium means or rich, to me this was more exciting than sex or having castles in Europe or anything else because it was dealing directly with nature. Working with this kind of equipment, with a somewhat unique technology, really gave me a lot of satisfaction.

In nature when you have a lightning stroke coming down to the ground you usually just dissipate a lot of energy in the ground. Occasionally you will get kind of a flaming effect that will form a sphere and it will float around for many seconds. It has the capability of coming through a glass window without breaking it. There's charge transfer mechanism which I don't really fully understand.

Anything this new is going to have a lot of unanswered questions. There will be a lot of people in the scientific community that won't really understand it. They'll say it can't be done. One of the things I'll always remember about the people up at M.I.T. is that they say, "well, every experiment we do here, we usually have it figured out on paper, and we know just how it's going to come out". To me, that's not pioneering a new approach for research in fusion or any other area. If you can figure it out on paper, that's engineering. If you can't figure it out on paper but you think and you still do it, that's new science. That's what I really wanted to pursue in this area.

Ball lightning has all these characteristics. It has come into airplanes. Peter Kapitsa, who did a lot of work in low temperature physics as well as high temperature physics, the study of plasma, won the Nobel prize in 1978, and he talked about ball lightning all through his Nobel Laureate speech. He talked very little about what he won the prize on, but spoke mostly about ball lightning, which I thought was very interesting. Here's a man who has spent more time than I have in ball lightning. He has pursued a couple of approaches which turned out to be erroneous, but here's a guy who won the Nobel Prize and he wanted to talk about nothing else but ball lightning.

Of course, all of this was published in Science back in 1978, and he did bring up some pretty good conjectures and he made ball lightning an acceptable phenomenon. In the middle 1960s, 1 can remember people talking about ball lightning as something people hallucinate. Peter Kapitsa and some people down at Oak Ridge, eg. MacNally did a study of all the 10,000 employees at Oak Ridge, and he found that 3 percent of all the scientists that work at Oak Ridge National Laboratories had seen ball lightning at one time or another. These people made ball lightning research credible.

I was able to get a few Air Force grants to do lightning studies. Some military planes, ea. F16, tend to be very prone to having computer guidance systems fail in the presence of near strikes or lightning storms. We all know what happens if guidance systems fail with airplanes. They were concerned about electrically hardening the computer systems to prevent this. The equipment I had developed at Wendover served as a good tool for doing this kind of study. Basically, I was ekeing out an existence with a few small grants. I put over $100,000 of my own money into this work over a period of 10 years. I financed most of it.

President Ford later decided to get rid of some of the extra bases which were not being used. He didn't care about my work. They ended up turning the base over to the town, and the town of Wendover decided to charge me quite a bit of rent, so I started looking around for another place to house my equipment. Eventually I closed the project, went to California, and pursued getting funding for the fusion applications of spherical confinement of gases. That's presently what I'm doing.

Insights into the proprietary syndrome

By KEN MacNEILL

Cadake Industries Winter Haven, Florida

PART I

To give you some background on myself. I have been interested in the energy situation since I can remember. I have built all kinds of devices, solar energy panels, windmills, photovoltaic arrays, flywheel devices, and also carburetors of which I will talk on Sunday. In my background I am an accomplished tool and diemaker, moldmaker, been involved in Design Engineering for the past 12 years, primarily in the automation area.

My first real involvement with other people in this alternate energy area was at the Toronto Symposium in 1981 where I met George Hathaway as well as over 100 other people that believe in the impossible according to orthodox science. Since that time I have made myself aware of just about everything that is happening in this field, and believe me there are some really fantastic things going on. The rediscovery of some of the technology that was lost in the past is finally coming to realization, for instance the Tesla technology, the Hubbard device, the Moray approach to tapping into the free energy supply that we're sitting in without even knowing it.

A friend of mine gave me a real insight possibly without even knowing it. He said the problem could be solved by just considering the problem of weighing a glass of water at 500 feet under water. Here you are under water with a glass of water; how do you weigh it???

The analogy is the same for us. Here we sit in the vastness of the cosmos on top of one of the biggest magnets known to us and we are like the glass of water. We are in the vast ocean of energy. Look around us and watch just the weather for instance, the next thunderstorm, think of all the electrical potential being wasted. That energy is there; it is very real.

Tom Bearden, one of our upcoming speakers, may have illustrated it quite well by the bird sitting on top of the wire with 13,000 volts going through it. We all know that it could kill him but it doesn't. I am positive that within this group will be the ways and means for making the energy situation of the future change.

Now to the other side of the coin. Why has not this technology been allowed to become established? We have to look at the profit motive involved. If we have free energy, how will they charge us for it? What will happen to the billions of dollars that the utilities and the oil companies and the governments backing these establishments do if we can give the people independence from the chains of having to pay for energy?

One question that has been uppermost in my mind for the last year has been the rhetoric given by our elected representatives about the energy situation and the amount of money given to small researchers who could possibly give us a viable approach to becoming energy independent. Who gets the government money?? Let me get a little audience participation in the question. How marry of you have all the money you need for research in the energy area? Everyone who has please stand!!! !! Now let me mention a few of the names of the companies that get the money. See if you recognize them: Exxon, Gulf Oil, General Electric, Westinghouse, TRW, Exide Storage Battery, all manufacturers or producers of fossil fuel products. We need to get away from the fossil fuels for the future and get into something that can indeed give us a future because we are rapidly depleting not only our natural resources but our air and water. All because of burning fossil fuels. We fund our universities and colleges in the most directed of ways. If you want to explore the possibilities in some of the more esoteric areas, for instance the ones you will be hearing about in the next three days, there is no money for that. WHY??? Because of the possibility that we might succeed. What would our government do if all the American people could go back and forth to work, heat their homes, run their businesses without paying taxes on gas and oil? Consider the fact that all of the gas stations would go out of business or would have to find other ways of making money. Many complimentary business would also fold. But alas this is America. What are we here for??? To perpetuate Big Business, Big Government, or to advance toward the future not expending all of our natural resources but to save them to make the goods of the future. Coal and oil both can be used for making all kinds of things besides fuels; the list is endless.

It is my feeling that the technology may be already here and may have been shown to the government. It even may have been introduced to our patent office and been turned down. Because as you know there is no such thing as a perpetual motion device. And I agree with the premise because forever is a long time. But there are surely some of the devices or parts thereof that have been introduced to the government or to big business in the past which have been shelved. Tesla's transmission device is a classic illustration probably best known to this group. What happened is that they removed the money from him to do his research and effectively stifled this remarkable man. How many other times has it happened to someone not so well known? At this moment there are over 3000 devices or applications in the patent office that have been branded as security or put under wraps by the secrecy order, Title 35, U.S. Code (1952) Sections 181-188. What is security? How is it defined?! I have had many inventors or other scientists tell me that they did not want to discuss their invention with me or others because they might lose it to us or we might tell someone else before they got it onto the market. Believe me it won't get there by going through the patent process. It is my feeling that if such a device were introduced at this level then it would be put under the Secrecy Act. I don't know that I am correct in this assumption. But I cannot imagine a government like ours wanting to commit financial suicide. So what better way than to brand something as a secret? I would like to read the secrecy order so that you may better understand my concern. Please pay close attention. I think it is very important. To you or anyone!!! Consider your receiving this:

SECRECY ORDER
(Title 35, United States Code (1952), sections 181-188)

NOTICE: To the applicant above named, his heirs, and any and all his assignees, attorneys and agents, hereinafter designated principals.

You are hereby notified that your application as above identified has been found to contain subject matter, the unauthorized disclosure of which might be detrimental to the national security, and you are ordered in nowise to publish or disclose the invention or any material information with respect thereto, including hitherto unpublished details of the subject matter of said application, in any way to any person not cognizant of the invention prior to the date of the order, including any employee of the principals, but to keep the same secret except by written consent first obtained of the Commissioner of Patents, under the penalties of 35 U.S.C. (1952) 182, 186.

Any other application already filed or hereafter filed which contains any significant part of the subject matter of the above identified application falls within the scope of this order. If such other application does not stand under a secrecy order, it and the common subject matter should be brought to the attention of the Security Group, Licensing and Review, Patent Office.

If, prior to the issuance of the secrecy order, any significant part of the subject matter has been revealed to any person, the principals shall promptly inform such person of the secrecy order and the penalties for improper disclosure. However, if such part of the subject matter was disclosed to any person in a foreign country or foreign national in the U.S., the principals shall not inform such person of the secrecy order, but instead shall promptly furnish to the Commissioner of Patents the following information to the extent not already furnished: date of disclosure; name and address of the disclosure; identification of such part; and any authorization by a U.S. Government agency to export such part. If the subject matter is included in any foreign patent application, or patent this should be identified. The principals shall comply with any related instructions of the Commissioner.

This order should not be construed in any way to mean that the Government has adopted or contemplates adoption of the alleged invention disclosed in this application; nor is it any indication of the value of such invention.

It is my feeling that something on the order of a so-called free energy device would receive this treatment. My only approach would be to go to the public domain. That is, get the information or the device out there to enough people that they could not stop you. This group looks like the best group to give this information to. Hopefully it will be forthcoming in the next three days.

The homopolar generator

By TOM VALONE

There was an article in USA Today just yesterday and I thought I'd read it to you as a brief introduction to the problems that even Einstein experienced. We've heard stories about how different inventors have been hassled by the government, gone through different problems with their relationships with the government, and it's interesting that even as famous a person as Einstein had his troubles in his day.

The FBI's J. Edgar Hoover's files on Albert Einstein "would make a wonderful absurdist drama", the researcher who uncovered them said Thursday. The plot, taken from accusations in his file, claiming that Einstein (1) was the brains behind the Communist plot to take over Hollywood, (2) framed the man convicted of the Lindberg baby kidnapping, (3) invented a robot that could read the mind. The FBI followed Einstein's activities for 23 years. All the accusations were found to be groundless. Researcher Richard Allen Schwartz published his findings in the current Nation magazine.

So we're happy that Einstein did survive that harassment and went on with his work in spite of it. I think that's a word to the wise for all of us, that we do have problems and difficulties in any type of development which is new. In fact, it reminds me of a book that talks about scientific revolutions. Reading that, you can see how the nature consciousness of our society has to be changed when any new paradigm is presented to the world consciousness.

What I'll try to present to you briefly is actually a picture of Michael Faraday. I'll be speaking about him and about his theories and ideas. I came across an article that was published in the New York Times newspaper on June 20, 1931. The article is entitled "Mind of Faraday Revealed to the World". A couple of brief quotations from his diary, which was just published at that time, a hundred years from his discovery in 1831 of the homopolar generator. This diary, by the way, is available in public libraries. I've found several copies, and it is very interesting reading.

What I present to you is a couple of quotes that show his pursuit as far as relating electricity and magnetism to gravity, and actually finding the first discoveries of each of these field effects. The quote from the article talks about the fact that he was so far in advance of his time that many of his ideas are still the fuel for speculation of some of the greatest minds. He thought, for example, that gravity must be connected with light, heat and electricity. He experimented to prove it and failed. It was not until Einstein proved that a ray of light bent when it came into the gravitation field of the sun that this vision of Faraday was realized as a fact. All through his diary there are passages in which he states his ideas that there must be an interrelation between gravitation, electrodynamics and other forms of energy. That is the very thing that Einstein was working to prove.

A couple of the quotes that are actually directly from Faraday's diary are grounds for inspiration for us today. For example, it took him days and weeks of experiments to find the action, if any, of magnetism on light. Page after page we find him writing, "No result. No experiment." Then the diary continues, "A piece of heavy glass was experimented with. It gave no effect with the same magnetic poles or contrary poles on opposite sides, nor with the same poles on the same side, either when constant or intermitting current were applied. However, [not] until the contrary magnetic poles were applied on the same side, was an effect produced on polarized light, and thus magnetic force and light were proved to have a relation to each other. This fact most likely will prove exceedingly fertile and of great value in the investigation of conditions of natural force." So we see with simple tools, Faraday was able to prove this relationship that later on took millions of dollars and experiments to show. The last quote, which I think is the most interesting, is his thoughts on gravity. Here's a quote from Faraday himself. "Gravity. Surely this force must be capable of an experimental relation to electricity, magnetism and other forces, so as to bind it up with them in the reciprocal action and equivalent effect. Consider for a moment how to set about touching this matter by facts and trial. Atmospheric phenomena favor the idea of convertability of gravitational force into electricity and back again, or perhaps into heat."

I've found, as many other people have found, that Faraday is certainly a unique person and a pioneer in this field. What he developed was basically the first experiments, back in 1831, of what is called the unipolar, homopolar, or acyclic generator. In fact, as an article that was just handed to me today points out, this is the only generator that's able to develop DC current without any type of rectifiers.

This is a cylindrical magnet that's usually vertical, although it can be horizontal, and its unique properties are that all you have to do is have a conducting magnet and attach leads to the outer rim as well as the shaft, and a voltage is developed as soon as the entire device rotates. What is usually done in these cases is to leave the magnet stationary and simply rotate a conducting disc somewhere in the middle where it would be in the maximum field strength.

What I've experimented with, as other people have, even in this room, is the idea of connecting the magnet to the disc and making a one piece Faraday generator, the entire generator rotating together, with no stator at all. The equation that predicts the output voltage is Bwr2, where B = magnetic field, w = rotational speed (in revolutions per second), and r = radius of the device. ;

Another interesting development of this theory is the ideas that Tesla had. Nikola Tesla had an idea which is probably still a very viable suggestion as far as eliminating the problem of current collection around the rim of the device. Instead, what he designed was a double homopolar generator that had a conducting beryllium belt around the outer edge. So you can have opposing magnetic fields here, the device running as one generator, and therefore the current collection could come simply from the shaft itself, which is a very small area, usually, and much easier to collect the current. Also, a lot less friction is developed at that point.

A few other ideas include the idea of using a spool generator and also a drum generator, that also works on the similar idea of putting two in series so that a higher voltage is developed and a more uniform field is used. What I found is that Dr. Marshall at the University of Texas has developed a generator with which, also, a fellow in this room has experimented. This is at the University of Texas at Austin. Basically, this is a one piece homopolar generator. They were supplying, a few years back, most of the publications of his researches. I'm not sure what the condition is today, although an article that was just handed to me points out that it is commercially available at this point.

The unique property of this is that, instead of having just a cylinder with the magnetic field contained in a vertical area, we now have a soft iron part that extends beyond the brushes so that the advantage is the 90 percent enclosed magnetic field. The stronger field also seems to point to higher efficiency, as Adam Trombly will hopefully refer to in his experiments. The latest results of these experiments, which they've applied to military use, is that this device has now been producing 100 megawatts. It can be used in applications of steel manufacturing, welding, and also heating plasma for nuclear research. It also develops 50 to 100 volts, which is a pretty high voltage, and 1,000,000 amperes. This is available from a company now that's called OIME, an engineering and manufacturing company based in Odessa, Texas, which has licensed the compact pulsed homopolar generator from the University of Texas which will retain the ownership. Basically, what they're doing is rotating this at a very high speed, stopping it, and then pulling all the power out of it.

As we have heard, the military does look into these devices and funds their applications if they're interesting, and it turns out rail guns is the application for this high powered portable device that produces tremendous amounts of energy in a short period of time. This is an article taken from Science News, Volume 119, a couple of years back. Also, we see a description of this concept of rail guns in Time magazine, the science section, back in 1980, December 1. The simple idea of a rail gun is that once the powerful current is injected into two rails that are parallel, then an explosive detonator drives these two conductors together, forcing the current in the field into a secondary area that a plasma has developed, heated to very high temperature, driving the projectile to very high speeds. In fact, the estimates are 10km/sec, and they expect up to 150km/sec.

Now to give you some history of how I got involved with the homopolar generator, I travelled to Germany back in 1980 for Dr. Nieper's first conference on gravity field energy. At that time, since Bruce DePalma was not able to go to that conference, I decided to present my ideas of working on this device and actually building one of my own, mainly to investigate it, but also to receive a master's degree in physics at the University of Buffalo. I was lucky enough to interest a professor in helping me work on the project. An article from the Santa Barbara News Press of March 30, 1980 talks about Bruce DePalma, describing his homopolar generator in terms of a conducting gyroscope - a magnetized gyroscope. He's talking about the machine gathering energy from space and working as a free energy source.

At that time, I actually travelled to California to visit a community that was working on this generator, funding his project, actually to a cost of about $25,000. I found out about it originally from an interesting book that the community had put out, called Sunburst: The Return of the Ancients, by Norm Paulson. Just briefly, it turns out there was a small paragraph in there that described Norman Paulson's trip on a UFO, a space craft. What he described as the propulsion and energy source were two rotating discs of very large size having twelve magnets on the outer edge, rotating in opposite directions. I remembered that idea as I visited the community, found out about Bruce, and proceeded to contact him and pursue his ideas.

His generator is called the N-effect. He spoke at the First International Symposium in Toronto. The generator is basically a Faraday rotating magnet. There's not too much modification of the device, although today he puts iron keepers on either end to enclose the field. He's calling it an N-generator, by the way, or an N-machine, mainly because he thinks there are infinite possibilities, the letter N corresponding to "any number".

One of Paulson's actual visions or pictures in his experience was something similar to the idea of the two rotating discs and, I think, the idea of opposite polarities extending as you go around the disc. This, I feel, is a viable procedure, possibly an improvement on the technology that we're faced with in terms of a simple cylindrical magnet, with which I've been experimenting for two years now. Also, this might relate to John Searl's work in England, which is published and described in Ether Technology, by Rolf Schaffranke.

Bruce DePalma's device, basically, was a very large AC motor attached to the generator, with a very elaborate control that I was able to see the last day before I left the community. The motor was driven at 400 volts AC, so it was a very large amount of AC power. Actually, this related to the problem that was then occuring every time he made a demonstration of this device. What l experienced was, once I found out about Bruce and went to Germany and so forth, the interest from people I knew, namely George Ainsworth Land, the author of Grow or Die, who is now a consultant in Minneapolis. He found that no one else was working on this to the extent of having the facilities and the knowledge that Bruce DePalma seemed to have. So Ed Mitchell, the sixth person on the moon, became involved as well, and both of them travelled to Bruce's setup and viewed his experiments and proposed funding his further development at a large degree.

The main problem with his device is that he's using the homopolar generator and the homopolar motor in connection to each other without any type of control or regulating device, mainly as a perpetual motion machine, which hopefully would be a free energy device. It turns out that there have been some experiments that seem to show that through a modification more like the Marshall device, that this could be possible. In other words, efficiencies over 100 percent have been achieved. However, this particular device, especially when you're using AC motors to power it, becomes very difficult to analyze.

There's another type of description that Bruce just came up with a few months back, in December, 1982. He's attaching an iron disc to the generator portion and proposing this as also a self-running N-machine. However, the conclusion to the story is that Professor D. C. White from M.I.T. was hired as a consultant in the case, visited him and found fault with his AC power measurements, which George Hathaway has alluded to and described in detail. When the power factor is not taken into account and specifically measured, there's doubt as far as how much power is actually being used to power the motor and therefore generate the electricity.

My own system I'm funding myself. After the collapse of the funding from Captain Mitchell and other people that were involved, Bruce DePalma was led in different directions that still have not materialized into a workable system. So my system was a wooden box with several cylindrical ceramic disc magnets stacked vertically with a copper disc. What I proposed in the beginning was attaching a cylinder to it, so that I could have the current collection near the bottom. It's interesting that, after a year of experimentation with this, finally developing and spending a whole summer working with it, I found that this was unworkable. This was mainly because the voltage that was developed at the disc periphery itself was 90 percent higher than the voltage that was finally collected near the bottom [of the cylinder -ed.].

This property, which is very strange, having a conductor which you'd think would have no voltage drop, actually caused the generation of the voltage to continually drop, mainly because of the magnetic field strength. This is a very unique property that, when you have something rotating, all of a sudden the conductor no longer behaves as a normal conductor in a stationary frame of reference. So that I was collecting maybe 10 millivolts near the bottom, whereas I was developing maybe 100 millivolts at the disc itself. So I had to abandon that design, detach the entire cylinder, have the technicians at the machine shop at the university, who were very cooperative, redesign a brush that was only about an inch long, collecting the current right near the disc.

The liquid brushes are a different design that hadn't been used before, consisting of solder. I started with Woods metal, which is a low temperature solder, however then I found that the heat from AC heater coils around the outer edge was sufficient [to melt the solder - ed.] and so I'm using regular Kester solder, bar solder that I'd melt into a trough. However, instead of using two collecting troughs, I decided to take a little bit of sacrifice and connect one trough directly on the disc, using the suggestion of Tim Wilhelm, who also built a very large homopolar generator. Mercury, which Bruce DePalma was very eager to use, had it splashing all over his work place, is very toxic, and once I looked into the parts per million that rest in your lungs and never get removed, I found that I would rather experiment with something ease. Indium possibly would work. There are a number of compounds that would be an improvement on Kester solder. I found I was using $30 bars pretty easily, and some of the problems were oxidation and so forth, and also my limited funds, this being the first area of pursuit that I got into.

An earlier version simply had two magnets and regular copper impregnated graphite brushes on the edge and also the center. A sizeable voltage was developed. As we got into actually putting this together, with which Erie Community College was very cooperative, I purchased a General Electric shunt that developed 15 millivolts at 2500 amps. The current shunt was mainly the load on the circuit, which I could connect and disconnect. Also, I used a simple photocell attached to a small metal arm, that actually works as a tachometer, measuring the RPMs directly. Actually, it measures revolutions per second, in terms of the frequency counter. The DC motor was attached to the outer edge of the one side. It's interesting that in many cases AC power has been used to power the motor, and I've avoided that with the help of Dan Winter and his electric company supplying a DC motor, for which I've just got a battery bank, essentially, so I can easily measure the voltage and current and get power directly from that. Strip chart recorders were also helpful in making records of the entire experiment.

Some of the problems that were developed were that when the solder is heated up it tends to oxidize, especially when it's heated too hot. I've carbon powdered the solder many times and had an unusable nonconducting mess afterwards, and had to replace the liquid metal several times. But it seemed to work; even with the small amount of money I've put in I am getting power out and I am able to make back torque measurements on a preliminary scale, which I feel could lead into more perfected experiments in the future.

One of the experimental problems that have developed and are described in some articles is that you've got a principle called magnetohydrodynamic instability of liquid metal brushes. This has been eliminated in some cases by designing the metal brush very well in dose tolerances so that no leakage can occur. However, there is pumping that occurs and all kinds of instabilities that can eliminate the good conduction through the liquid metal and the low resistance that is normally present there. My system is developing about 230 microohms at this point, which is a small amount, but it's still in the order of milliohm, whereas the Texas device is developing just a couple of microohms, and that seems to be a desirable direction.

Bruce DePalma, by the way, actually prescribes very low internal resistances being the secret to success, and I am still working toward that. One experiment which 1 thought was very interesting and Dan Winter and I both worked on was to use the concept of what is happening to the magnetic field as you're rotating a magnet itself. The current problem that many professors face when they actually see this is that you're rotating the magnet and the conductor, therefore there's no relative motion and no voltage can come out. It turns out it's very interesting that even directors of homopolar projects, when faced with the one piece homopolar generator, will still say it can't work. Amazingly enough, even the earth itself is now developing, if you're in a stationary frame outside the space, a voltage between the north pole and the equator.

What we proposed as an interesting experiment was to rotate two discs, one where we had just attached a magnet to a wooden disc, therefore it's simply a magnet that's rotating, and the other one was the homopolar generator with the conducting disc, and therefore developing a voltage between the center and the outer edge. What we were very curious about is whether or not when you rotate these two devices in opposite directions the voltage on the homopolar generator would increase, thinking that the magnet that was in the homopolar generator would take the other one as a reference, being the stationary frame. As it turned out, just the presence of the magnet itself increased the voltage output from 25 to 35 millivolts. However, rotating that magnet in either direction did not seem to increase beyond the 35 millivolt area. I think for future experiments this apparatus can be used for oppositely rotating discs.

As I reported at the First International Symposium in Toronto, one experiment that was performed developed a very interesting paradox. The two ways of measuring the output of a generator are, first, to have a voltmeter in the lab where you're attaching the two brushes to the center and the outer edge, and the voltage is normally measured from the stationary frame. However, the paradox that's developed is when you actually change that to putting the voltmeter directly on the disc. The question is that even if you know that voltage is being developed and you know that current is actually being developed out of that system, will any voltage will be detected on the rotating frame? The picture that I had at the time was that if you are on a rotating disc, rotating with it, the world itself would seem to be rotating and you would be stationary. So it seemed to make sense that there would be no voltage drop, even though the puzzle in my mind, and the mind of everyone else who has seen this, is that you do have a charge separation there, and the charge separation would definitely exist, because the voltage is there and the charges are developing that type of EMF.

So what I did was to make a small LED voltmeter, using an op-amp and a voltage reference, and it has the property that the LED turns off when the generator develops IS millivolts. So I was way over that and the LED would turn off very reliably when I was on the stationary frame. However, when I attached the small device, which is a little tiny battery powered thing, right on the disc, nothing happened. The LED stayed lit while it was rotating and I could tell that no voltage was being developed in the rotating frame. I was developing 90 millivolts, 500 amp output. Even though current was being pushed out of the generator, still I could measure no voltage drop there. One question that has come up, and even my professor has argued with me, is that this circuit may act as a generator itself, so that all the charge could be pushed to one side, and the circuit would no longer be operable, since it's rotating in what is effectively an electromotive force that's pushing all the charge in one direction and keeping it there. What I propose instead is simply to use a small light bulb. I'm going to go back to that idea and actually try it out. Still, the theory doesn't predict that you'll actually come up with a voltage, and the rotating frame is a very unique situation and a system that's a relativistic framework.

To complete this one topic, the idea of being on this rotating frame, which is the earth itself, actually relates to the earth as a unipolar generator.

Michael Faraday visited fields, streams and rivers, trying to measure voltage drop because he knew the earth was a homopolar generator. However, in an article called "The Earth as a Unipolar Generator", published in 1978, Journal of Physics D, the author concludes after going through the theoretical discussion that Djuric first proposed and erroneously developed, he concludes, "So the earth's rotation (the axially symmetric part of it) its dipole magnet will have little if any effect on the trajectories of individual particles in most of the magnetosphere". There was a question whether or not the charged particles of our atmosphere are being pumped from the equator to the poles by this effect. So the whole idea is, once you are in the rotating frame, you can forget about getting power unless you have some special little generator set up on its own.

One of the theoretical pictures that I've seen that explains, at least to some satisfaction, what is happening in this generator itself, is discussed here. First of all, when you have a rotating disc and a magnetic field, the magnetic field seems to stay stationary even though you're rotating the magnet, and so the effective electric field is set up by a simple equation described as . In other words, the velocity of rotation times the magnetic field, which is called the cross product, so you include the direction, which in this case is 90°, so it's just multiplication, develops the voltage output. What's interesting is that once you have that development this results in a charge displacement, and that causes an external electrostatic field in the opposite direction. The positive charges are on the outer edge, and therefore internally there's an electrostatic field pointing back toward the center. So, effectively, on the disc itself you have these two opposing, equal and opposite fields that result in no net field in the rotating frame itself. So equilibrium is established. Even if you have high current, that voltage drop is established only in reference to the stationary frame.

One experiment that has been found in other journals besides this is the famous Das Gupta experiment. In this case he used a homopolar motor and simply suspended a magnet applying current to the disc and looking for some reaction on the magnet. It's very curious that the effect of putting a current through a disc and developing torque on the disc, which is an angular momentum, results in no opposite and equal angular momentum on the magnet. In other words, the magnet itself does not seem to be attached to the magnetic field, but instead the magnetic field is somehow locked into space as a stationary effect.

One theoretical description of this in the American Journal of Physics just this past year describes the effect of having this torque being developed as actually an angular momentum that's developed in the field itself. Once that is developed, it turns out that the torque itself is a property of the field, and so when angular momentum is developed in any static electric field, there does not have to be a consequent opposite and equal angular momentum. Theoretically, it seems to be explained, but still this paradox is very unique.

Also, Cramp and Norgrove, the famous pair of authors, experimented with the same phenomenon and found the same effect. What I thought was the end result of this whole theoretical discussion, was trying to apply relativity to a noninertial rotating reference frame. I've found three authors so far that have used relativity, one using Schiff's charges that were developed in a separate journal, and coming up with equations that modify Maxwell's equations to describe what is happening in a rotating frame. This author, Webster, in the American Journal of Physics, in 1963, developed the final equations which have static charge and also current densities that are both fictitious, what he calls fictitious charges and fictitious currents. That's what we experience in the laboratory itself. It's interesting that he still comes up with as well as this other author, which I thought was even more interesting, American Journal of Physics, "Vacuum Electrodynamics on a Merry-Go-Round". And he develops the same equation.

For a long while, I kept thinking that maybe Einstein was the real source of information and maybe general relativity will give me something different, and I went through this very extensively, spending a couple of months on understanding general relativity, going through all the tensor type derivations, and still coming up with the same equation. So I have to report that the theoretical treatment did not yield any new developments according to standard physics.

In former experiments, at high speeds (1500 RPM) the instability of the liquid metal brush causes very intermittent conduction problems. The peak current output is about 590 amps and the amperage output varied quite considerably as the experiment proceeded. As I lowered the RPM down to about 1200, there were still some conduction problems. However, at this point I was actually able to make back torque measurements, and that's a big question. When you have this generator rotating and current coming out of it, is this thing going to slow down in the opposite direction when you're pulling power from it? If so, what is it actually pushing against? From the Das Gupta experiment we see that it really pushes against the space itself, which is the magnetic field established in that area. The equation is simply current times the magnetic field, which is very direct.

I have to report that dealing with this experiment as well as a few others qualitatively I've measured back torque in terms of simply the slowing down time. First of all, when voltage is developed, you have about 100 millivolts, and it takes about .52 minutes to slow down. In this case, when current is developed, and I'm drawing power from the generator, I have a slow down time of .35 minutes. So, a considerably shorter slow down time, which qualitatively shows there's some drag effect that is causing it to stop a lot quicker. However, the wattage difference seemed to be very in triguing in terms of the DC motor wattage that was used. The motor demand difference was actually 2 watts, which is about 0, because my experimental error was about 2 watts. However, my generator output was about 46 watts. So I was getting 46 watts without seeing any sizeable difference in the motor. That could be a condition of the 10 percent efficiency that I experienced with the motor itself.

When I slowed it down even further, I was able to develop a little more stable output at about 600 RPM. At this point, I've still been developing about a small 11 watt difference in the motor demand [between load and no load -ed.], and here it turns out that I've got about 10 watts output on the generator. So at this point the wattages seem to account for each other and we don't seem to see too much of an unusual effect. However, again we do see that the slow down time is slightly different and in this case is a little bit shorter when current is drawn.

The last experiment, which I found the most stable, was done at 1,000 RPM. In this case, I had a difference in motor demand of about 17 watts, and my generator put out about 25 watts. So I'm still getting more power output than the difference in the motor demand. However, the slow down time for the amperage output in this case was .57 and .64 [sec. - ed.]. So it's a little bit less again in terms of the qualitative measurement of back torque.

So in the future, I'm trying to modify this device, maybe producing the counterrotating discs as a possible improvement in investigation of the more unusual designs that have been developed.

The last experiment was performed a couple of days ago, before I came to the conference. In this particular experiment right now I was able to produce about 10 or 20 watts and it turned out the difference in the motor was sizeably more than that. So I was not really showing any unusual effect as I had seen before in terms of power output of the generator and power input difference in the motor.

Electroliner device

By ALEXANDER PETERSON

This device is called an Electroliner, or a Kilowatt Reducer or a Line Balancer. I found out about this about three months ago when visiting a friend in California. Another gentleman came in from another state and brought these units, and I stayed four extra days to get in on this thing. I've made my own analysis and theory and all this sort of thing, but I actually tested these things for ten days. They require a breaking-in period. What these things do is that you put them in the fuse box on your side of the breakers; you put a small unit on the hot side and a large one on the neutral, and then a large one on the ground, paralleled on the ground wire to your house. Take the meter reading - how many seconds it takes to make ten meter revolutions, before you install these. After they're installed, you wait a week or a month or so, and take a reading again. You do this [in each case - ed.] with one appliance on, say an air conditioner, or electric heat or electric stove. Use the same item on line each time you make a test with the meter. They have got reductions between 30 and 60 percent of the current coming from the line.

What is this thing and what does it do? It has a patent pending on it, and I'm acting as a representative for the man that's doing this. He does not want his name given out right at this time. I took one of these apart, and the way this is constructed basically is that there's a number ten wire (the gauge of wire can vary), a tube to which the wire is soldered on the inside. Then it's filled with a crystalline powder. Over that is another cylinder. The crystal powder inside vibrates when the current is going through this. It is thought that it is possibly aligning the wire some way. I cannot prove this, as there have been no tests on this, but the phenomenon exists of the current dropping from the line. In other words, if we have a load that's drawing 10 amps at 120 volts, with all 10 amps coming from the line, then over a period of two or three or four months (at the very longest) this device can start kicking out 5 amps, and then the other 5 amps will come from the line on that same 10 amp load.

The way I see this, and its construction, is that when the current is flowing through the wire you have an expanding magnetic field, expanding away from the wire and also coming into contact with the outer cylinder. So you get an opposite polarity. In other words, you've got a polarity across the length of the wire - negative and positive, positive and negative, reversing with AC. You also get a polarity between the inner and the outer cylinder, too, but it's weaker. In other words, the voltage gradient there is very nominal. So what does this do? This tries to snap the electrons in line so they're ready to flow right out.

It is legal, as far as I know, to put a generator on the line to feed the energy back to the utility company. I mean, they will pay you for that. I'm sure most of you are aware of that. They put a meter on there, and then pay you back for what the meter reads in Kilowatt hours. This, of course, is not a driven generator, but it is in essence doing something like this. It needs the applied voltage of the line to operate because the electric field is going to take the shorter path between the inner and outer cylinder. As a result, you're going to get some kind of a charge buildup there when these pulses go back and forth through the wire.

What I would like to do on testing this is use a pulse generator. There are all kinds of these. They have the ones used in lasers that are in the terawatts; they have umpteen different kinds. I'd like to see if I can "break in" a greater volume of this wire by pulsing it this way. If I normally had one amp flowing, maybe I can have ten amps flowing for several nanoseconds. In other words, this triggered pulse effect is something with which I have yet to experiment, but I would like to try. There may be others of you who would also like to do so.

If this is doing that - if, I say, it is aligning the atomic structure in some coherent or ordered way, then we've got another possibly partial room temperature superconductor, but here again I cannot verify this. But whatever is happening, it is starting to produce its own electron flow. Now the tests that I have run on this have shown a 5.8 reduction in the current from the line, and this was making up for the rest of it, going only ten days, using two 300 watt lights, going through a regular electric meter in my apartment where I live. In order to get the greater reduction, you have to put it in the breaker box, because this will align so many feet, maybe a hundred feet or so in one direction and also in the other direction through the breakers to the lines going to the transformer. This is quite a thing to say, but it's doing something and, whatever that something is, the people are very happy with it. What I've done in St. Louis is to go to a school there and they want to test this there, where they teach electricians, linemen, air conditioning repairmen, and so on. This will give it the greatest exposure there.

The cost of something like this, for anybody that would buy this, depending upon how many you put in, would be anywhere from $300 to $500. If you have a total electric home, your payback should be within one or two years. If you have gas and electric, naturally you're only going to pay about half on your electric. These are guaranteed. These have product insurance with, I believe, Fireman's Fund, for half a million dollars. They are not UL listed; however, they have been experimented with for about seven years in various parts of the country. In some areas they have been putting these in and there have been no problems; in some areas the electricians don't want to handle them unless they have a UL approval on them. However, you can put these in your home - or have an electrician do it. They come with a complete set of instructions.

The breaking in period is the thing on this. There is a time factor, anywhere from two to three months as an average, for the pulsing to begin going back and through. This crystalline structure as I could see it, when it becomes magnetized, impresses its own nature on that wire, and it becomes a positive field. So therefore the more positive this field becomes, the more electrons are going to want to get into the flow to counterbalance that excess positive charge that's been existing there.

Howard Johnson even mentioned that in the permanent magnet there is a circulation of possibly another particle there. I don't know if it would be considered electron or what it is, but some subatomic particle gets trapped in that field.

The instructions include how to install these. There are three lengths of these. You have a little short one, which goes on the breaker, that is the closest line to it. The next size is on the lines of the house a little farther, then the largest one is the one that's the farthest from your house. They recommend having a clock or two running all the time, as that helps to keep the line primed, so to speak, because if you don't have any current flow at all it will take a lot longer to break these in. The gentleman who's getting the patent pending on it has about 46-47% reduction in the current from the line. Another gentleman who is responsible for telling me about this has, I believe, somewhere around 60% reduction. I believe his was around 400 or 800 watts; I don't recall exactly what it was, but it was a pure resistive load. It does not make any difference what the load is, if it's resistive, inductive, if it's a combination of the two, whether it's single phase, two phase, three phase, polyphase, or whatever it is. It still works.

When this was originally tried out, the gentleman had got some crystal powder to use, but he got it from some other country, and they only gave him a limited amount of it. When he installed this thing, he said that the meter, after I don't know how long a period of time, actually stopped dead! You couldn't even see it move. So if there is a way, and I'm looking at another design of this thing, to align more volume of this wire, and also the cable, that opens up another area of experimentation - aligning cable and wire to wind generators with. You could do the same thing. This was in this one man's home for six months, on his air conditioner, two of these. He took these out, connected the cable back, ran the air conditioner, and the meter was still at that 46-47% reduction. That tells me something, and it must probably tell you something too.

Earth power spectrum and its potential as a usable energy source

E.E. Richards

Earth's magnetic halo is generated in its core of molten nickel-iron alloy. Currents driven by Earth's rotation, like a dynamo, spread the magnetic field far into the surrounding space. Billions of cosmic rays bombard Earth every second; they are guided by the magnetic field and pulled into tightening spirals toward the polar regions. The highly energetic charged plasma flowing out from the Sun and charging past the Earth's magnetic field act as a gigantic natural generator whose power continually drives the auroral currents. Sometimes the enormous energy pump runs in low gear (quiet aurora); sometimes it will rev up with heightened solar activity, thereby increasing the flow of plasma out of the plasmasheet and driving the auroral discharge more powerfully.

The aurora is a natural, visible manifestation of a large electrical-current system that is continually pumping millions of megawatts of electromagnetic power into the upper polar atmospheres, exceeding the total electrical generating capacity of the United States. Auroras begin on the sun, where the energy spirals away into interplanetary space at hundreds of miles per second; four days after it leaves the sun, this high speed stream of solar wind reaches the vicinity of the earth where the plasma collides with and moves around the planet's magnetic field. The high-speed solar wind reshapes the field into a comet-shaped cavity called the magnetosphere. The sunward shock front extends some 10-15 earth radii into space, while the night-side magnetotail stretches out beyond 60 earth radii (Re), reaching beyond the Moon's orbit.

As the solar wind blows downstream along the edges of this magnetic cavity, the energies leak in and become part of an immense reservoir called the plasmasheet, which runs down the length of the magnetotail. The plasma that leaks in is carried back toward the Earth by the flow of the plasmasheet and down the funnels over the two polar regions, causing a constant ring-shaped glow. The path of the auroral energy streaming in along the Earth's magnetic field lines appears as a thin, glowing curtain hanging from 60 to hundreds of miles above the Earth. The magnetosphere is a big container of energy storage.

Highly energetic Cosmic Rays pervade our inner solar system and constitute the Earth's radiation environment. Energies from about 100 keV and up to over 1000 GeV can penetrate deep into the Earth's atmosphere. Many of the Cosmic Rays are isotropic (they bombard the Earth from all directions) bathing the Earth in a cosmic flux of extreme high intensity. Examples being a high frequency electromagnetic radiation of 19 GHz in which the Earth is immersed;1 and a still higher background flux of 33 GHz moving past the Earth at a velocity of 320 km/sec.2 More recent observations are of a Soft X-ray background of less than 1 keV, highly isotropic and predominantly of extragalactic origin;3 and a spectrum of Microwave isotropic background signals at less than 3 millimeters, with a large peak at 1 mm.4 Additional cosmic ray energies in which the Earth swims include numerous X-ray signals from Binary Stars, Pulsars, Nebulae, and other Globular clusters and Galaxies;5 and extremely energetic Gamma-ray emissions of Galactic and Extragalactic source.6 These varied cosmic rays not only influence the vibrant solar wind but stream into the Earth magnetosphere and are often accelerated to even higher energies; these energies filter down through the magnetosphere and the other radiation belts strengthening and flowing toward the Earth's atmospheric cavity, there helping to build the charges which we observe as lightning.

Now that we are aware of this tremendous energy sea in which our stellar home floats, what are the possibilities of tapping some of its energies for our immediate use for everyday convenience?

First let us look at some history of inventors and discoverers of this suspected available energy source. During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, John Ernst Worrell Keely, a student of music and vibration phenomena, was rotating spheres, disassociating water and levitating rather heavy objects via his acquired knowledge of vibratory harmonics. Because Keely wrote of his discoveries and experiments using the language of music, and also a somewhat original manner, he was often seen in disfavor among his science contemporaries; therefore seldom taken seriously. It has taken four years of music study for this author to begin to understand the brilliance of Keely's performance. He understood the Laws of Harmonic multiplication and interaction, so as to attune with the energies of the Earth and the Cosmos; he specifically mentions 42.8KHz as being a significant frequency for some of his experiments. Keely's work needs to be rediscovered in the light of today's science of vibratory knowledge.7

Nikola Tesla, the giant of all science discoverers and inventors of the late nineteenth century, constructed a large experimental workshop just east of Colorado Springs, Colorado, under the shadow of Pike's Peak. Here he planned in 1899 to continue his research into the nature of the electrical phenomena of the Earth. Much has been written and discussed about his eight months of experimenting with large resonant coils, high voltage charges, power transmission, earth standing waves, lightning discharges, earth currents and long distance communications. I wish to point out a few specifics. His transmissions were mostly within the frequency range of from 40 to 200 KHz. He went to great lengths to eliminate the tremendous spark discharge, and his oscillator was constructed in order to utilize the Earth/atmospheric cavity. Tesla's mathematics was not complex and he went to great lengths to clearly explain his processes to other engineers. He claimed to have tapped a source of hundreds of horsepower from his constructed oscillator and utilized it through other resonant coils at remote locations. In addition, this system offered him a communications fink of great distance, using the Earth's waveguide cavity. The drawback was that, once it was all constructed, it was all Free.8

T. Henry Moray in 1909, using a radioactive/semiconductor device, tuned circuits, an antenna and a ground connection, was able to tap what he called cosmic energy. Through later years of refinement, reaching as much as 60,000 watts drawn from a small table top box, he could power lights and heating elements, even doing away with the external connections. His frequencies of operation were never divulged, to the knowledge of this authors.9

In Seattle, Washington, about 1919, Alfred Hubbard constructed and installed a boat on a nearby lake. The boat was equipped with a 35 horsepower motor and transducer, which were used in exact electrical resonance with a specially constructed transformer, which was placed on the nearby land and connected to an underground aerial array of 18 inch tubes filled with mercury at each end of 1200 foot lines. The four aerials were oriented to the cardinal points of the compass. Again the frequency of operation is unknown.

Hans Coler, in 1933 in Germany, constructed a circuit using magnets, coils, and capacitors, with a resonance which would tap an unknown source to light lamps. He stated that his research into the nature of magnetism had lead him to conclude that ferro-magnetism was an oscillating phenomena with a frequency of about 180 KHz. This oscillation took place in the magnetic circuit of the apparatus and induced in the electrical circuit oscillations, the frequency of which of course depended on the values of the components used. These two phenomena interacted, and gradually built up a tension.

In the 1920's, Lester Hendershot constructed a free energy device, using two basket weave coils, with cylindrical capacitors built in the center of the coils. He expressed that his device was tapping a magnetic force field. A test of the coil design with a radio frequency resonance bridge revealed that the coil out of the circuit was self-resonant in the low end of the radio (AM) broadcast band, around 500KHz. Its construction is described in the Spring, 1983 issue of Energy Unlimited. In the last paragraph of the article, the author suggests using a harmonic of 14.3KHz.10

As can be seen, we have a number of precedents for the possibility of utilizing the energy of the Earth and its fields; however, none have yet gained much popularity for public use.

In the past century, certain inspired and creative scientists and engineers felt their thoughts and intuition flowing toward an energy source formed of the workings of the Universe itself - but what of now; what do scientists of today see? Are there new clues to guide this free energy path? First, from Stanford University, researchers beamed very low frequency (VLF) radio waves to the magnetosphere, the outer region where belts of charged particles stream toward the Earth's magnetic poles. The signals followed the curves of the magnetic field back to Earth and were detected halfway around the world - amplifyed a thousand times in some cases. The radio signals were strengthened by gathering energy from electrons within the Van Allen radiation belts. Each time one of the world's 50 or so VLF (3-30KHz) transmitters emits its signal, streams of excited particles cascade into the Earth's atmosphere from the outermost regions of the magnetosphere. Even low frequency (LF) radio waves leak into the upper layers, causing this same phenomenon. (Low Frequency: 30-300KHz.) The injection of small signals into the energy belts creates something like a super-transistor effect, altering the motion of free electrons thousands of miles out from the Earth's surface. This Tesla Magnifying Resonance effect can control enormous energies by miniscule triggering signals. The Stanford Physicists state, "We can amplify waves in the magnetosphere for a Global Communications at lower frequencies.(11,12)

Plasma wave electric field measurements with the solar orbiting Helios spacecraft have shown that intense electron plasma oscillations occur in association with type 111 solar radio bursts. These radio bursts are produced by particles ejected from a solar flare and are characterized by an emission frequency which decreases with increasing time; this is attributed to the decreasing electron plasma frequency, fp, encountered by the solar flare particles as they move outward through the solar corona. The measured frequency range is between 30kHz and 200KHz, with the highest amplitude signals from about 40-100KHz. These bursts seem to show both the fundamental and second harmonic structure at kilometric wavelength.

The magnetosphere exhibits a number of important resonances at lower frequencies; such oscillations are thought to be associated with periodic phenomena such as transverse oscillations of individual field lines loaded with plasma and compressional oscillations of the entire magnetospheric cavity. The surface waves generated at the magnetopause by solar-wind pressure variations, or like the wind over the water phenomenon, can propagate deep within the magnetosphere and therefore local field line resonances.14

The term plasma waves characterizes all those waves that can propagate in a plasma or that have their wave characteristics significantly modified by the presence of a plasma. Plasma waves can be predominantly electromagnetic (having both electrical and magnet produced fields of current fluctuations) or electrostatic (having only an electric field produced by fluctuations of electric charge). Regions with significant plasma-wave activity in the Earth's magnetosphere are observed VLF emissions (10Hz to 30KHz) which have been attributed to amplification through the inter action between coherent particle beams and plasma waves. Particle dynamics of the trapped radiation belts are determined by some of these waves. Kilometric radiations (50-500KHz) observed above the auroras appear to relate to the auroral particle acceleration and may be comparable to the radio emmissions from other planets. Recent evidence suggests that strong electrical coupling exists between the ionosphere and the lower atmosphere. Large-scale horizontal electric fields of magnetospheric and ionospheric origin map down, with little attenuation, to an altitude of about 10 km. The total potential voltage drop across regions like the polar caps and the auroral ionosphere can be a significant fraction of the average ionospheric potential with respect to the Earth (240,000V).15

A publication by the Center for Academic Publications in Tokyo, Japan, Magnetospheric Plasma Physics, edited by Atsuhiro Nishida, brings together some prominent world physicists for a very clear picture of the Earth energy structure, along with some rather complex mathematics for those wishing to follow their modeling.16

The conducting ionosphere can affect the instability by shortcircuiting the electrostatic part of the Earth electric field, thus requiring less energy to release charge from the upper layers. These auroral arcs result in an acceleration process called ring currents, processing along the magnetic field lines that connect the magnetotail with the ionosphere. This is the primary supply of energy for the auroras, setting up an oscillating field aligned acceleration of aurora particles; therefore forming the aurora arcs. This process releases a radiation called auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from 50 to 500KHz. These arcs are generated by convection currents formed in the plasmapause of the magnetotail. These arcs curve toward the Earth on the night side and enter or create the aurora field at around 68 degrees latitude between 22 and 24 hours local time.

The Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) has a frequency spectrum of from 30 to 500KHz, with a peak power at around 200KHz. The total power is about 109 Watts or 1000 MegaWatts, and the radiation is right-handed polarized. It originates at a low altitude, less than three Earth radii, with a radiation power of about one per cent of the energy dissipation of the auroral particles.

It appears that the electrostatic waves stimulate the ionosphere, thus allowing the influx of the powerful AKR energies. Very strong electrostatic waves have been monitored, between 17.8 and 100KHz, with the greatest amplitude at around 31.1KHz. Some of these same effects and frequencies have been observed by the Voyager 2 flyby of Jupiter and Saturn, within their magnetospheres.

With the latest observations from Earth and from remote-sensing (satellite), we are gaining a confirmation of Tesla's Colorado Springs experiments. With his oscillator he was able to stimulate the ionosphere through high voltage, and then allow the cascading of the upper layer currents, thereby simulating the natural action of the aurora and also of lightning. Which brings us to the observations of this author.

At 8000 feet above sea level, in central-west New Mexico, where the air is clean and clear, and the atmosphere is electromagnetically quiet, exists the ideal location for observing the electrical nature of the Earth. Lightning activity may be watched at all times of day and all seasons on oscilloscopes connected to various antenna arrays. The Earth/Atmosphere wave cavity is seen to go into a damped oscillation of around 86KHz, with the discharge of lightning upon the planet. There are observed variations of about plus or minus 5KHz. Interestingly enough, this is about the first harmonic of the Keely frequency, and on the first day of observation of this frequency it was exactly like that harmonic of 42.8KHz. On a number of occasions, as a non-lightning storm passed through the area, extremely large oscillations were monitored on the above ground array at 82KHz. These oscillations were capable of charging capacitors to a rather high level of voltage. It appears as if the local atmosphere likes to vibrate at that rate.

One quiet March day, while monitoring the Russian and USA Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) transmissions, it was decided to try an antenna array on the ground. So one mile of twisted-pair steel wire was run directly west, lying on the ground surface. There were surprising results. First of all the signals received were unexpectedly strong, the first observation gave a frequency component of 42.8KHz. These signals were a composite of lightning pulses being received from the Earth, except now the damped oscillation was for the range around 40KHz. Some of the lightning discharges are the same as are seen on the aerial array, but there were many others not observed from that source, and also the signals were stronger and more continuous. Here, quite clearly, were vibrations suggested by Keely over one hundred years ago, detectable from the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere. Keely claimed that he was utilizing vibrations of the Earth and the Celestial vibrations to perform his experiments with motors and levitation. Since this discovery, the workings of Keely's harmonic manipulations have been vindicated and undoubtedly clarified for this author's understanding.

With longer term monitoring, the signals have been found to vary with frequency and amplitude throughout the day, with noticeable changes at sunrise and sunset. The prominent components are observed at 37.255KHz, 42.8KHz, and 48.5KHz. When this was discussed with Michael Heleus of Astrosonics, who has extensive computer-generated information for the harmonic interrelationships of the planetary movements, we discovered direct correlations with the planetary harmonic interactions. This goes to confirm the sightings of the Voyager spacecraft as to the electrical activity of the outer planets, which could mean an existing communications link between the magnetospheres of the planets.

To summarize: We see abundant possibility for the storage of energies within the Earth's magnetosphere. We have a mechanism, confirming Tesla, for drawing this energy into the lower atmospheric cavity. We are able now to see how nature handles this influx of energy towards the Earth's surface through the aurora oscillations. The Earth/Atmosphere vibrations are harmonically related, and therefore desirous of self-oscillation, as given by Keely. In the article referred to about the Hendershot device, the frequency of 14.3KHz, if multiplied by 3, equals the frequency of 42.9KHz, if multiplied by 6 equals 86KHz, and by 9 equals 128KHz. Another observed frequency, or multipled by 12, equals almost the suggested frequency of Hans Coler. These inventors were clearly on the path to utilization of this abundant energy source, which surrounds us each minute. Humanity lives at the lower reaches of a vast ocean within the cosmicly stimulated bubble of the magnetosphere, and upon the twirling spherical generator of the Earth. What a masterpiece of Creation!

A final quote from Nikola Tesla: "Throughout space there is energy, it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of Nature. . . The knowledge that there is throbbing through the Earth, energy available everywhere, would exert a strong stimulus on students, mechanics 'end inventors of all countries. This would be productive of infinite good. Conditions such as never existed before would be brought about. It would enable Man to dispense with the necessity of mining, pumping, transporting, and burning of fuels, and so do away with innumerable causes of waste! New Frontiers might be opened, unlimited power for all the world, inexpensive power for the farmer to light and heat his home, to drive his tractor, to harvest his grain, to increase his food output, electric power for millions of homes, so economical that every appliance could be operated electrically. The real beginning of a 'Colder Age of Civilization."

REFERENCES

1. Smoot, Gorenstein, and Muller, cited in Science News, July 16, 1976, pg. 44.
2. Corey and Wilkenson, Science News, July 3, 1976, pg. 10.
3. J.A.M. Bleeker, "Features of the Soft X-Ray Background" from The Galactic X-Ray Sources, John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
4. Rowen, Robinson and Tarbet, "Population 111 and the Microwave Background" from Progress in Cosmology, Reidel Pub. Co., London, 1981.
5. Galactic X-Ray Sources, John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
6. Gamma Ray Astronomy, The Royal Society of London, 1981.
7. Moore, Clara Bloomfield, Keely and His Discoveries, University Books, Inc., Secaucus NJ 07094.
8. Cheney, Margaret, Tesla, Man Out of Time, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs NJ 07632.
9. Moray, T. Henry, The Sea of Energy, Cosray Research Inst., Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 841 15.
10. Energy Unlimited Number 13, "A Story of Free Energy, Hendershot's Fuelless Generator, Energy Unlimited magazine, P.O. Box 356617 Sta. D, Albuquerque, NM 87176.
11. "VLF: Getting Particles Excited, Science News, December 18 and 25, 1982, pg. 392.
12. "Nature's Amplifier", Science 83, July, August, 1983, pg. 7.
13. Gurnett, D.A., R.R. Anderson and R.L. Tokar, "Plasma Oscillations and the Emissivity of Type 111 Radio Bursts", Radio Physics of the Sun, D. Reidel Pub. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, 1980.
14. Burch, James, "The Magnetosphere" from The Upper Atmosphere and Magnetosphere, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.
15. Solar-Terrestrial Research for the 1980's, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1981.
16. Atsuhiro Nishida, ed. Magnetospheric Plasma Physics, D. Reidel Pub. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, 1982. (Also: Kluwer Boston Inc., Lincoln Building, 160 Old Derby St., Hingham, MA 02043.


Fig. 25.1


Fig. 25.2


Fig. 25.3


Fig. 25.4 Power flux versus frequency diagram of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) observed by IMP I [GURNETT, 1974].

Philosophical overview of free energy

By ADAM TROMBLY

In November of 1980, there was the first conference on novel energy technology, although it was called Tachyon Field Energy, in Hanover, Germany. This conference was a surprise to me, because I'd been working in the field of free energy for about a year at that time, and was very surprised that any respectable group of people in the established sciences would put on such a conference. I was surprised not because of our own work and our own research and what it had shown, but because somebody was willing to stick their neck out far enough to even possibly threaten their own reputation by putting on a conference that dealt with a subject that it is at least, or at best, on the borderlands of science. At least if you're a conventional physicist.

I came from a conventional physics background. I came from a family of scientific rigor. We learned scientific method as children, and were crippled to some degree by the idea that knowledge and information are what is of primary importance in life. What I saw in Germany was remarkable. There were scientists from all over the world, there were diplomats from all over Europe, and there was Hans Nieper, who is a doctor of medicine. He has made remarkable strides in the area of cancer research, and has, by the way, one of the highest success rates of any physician in the world, and uses methods which are largely against the law in this country to achieve those ends. Ironically, the research through which he developed those means was largely funded by the United States government.

Dr. Nieper and I spoke recently in Los Angeles. He gave a speech and I spoke to him afterwards. He was telling me about a cancer victim, a woman who'd had an extraordinarily bad case of bone cancer, lesions - the worst X-rays I'd ever personally seen, and I've seen a lot of them because our family is involved in cancer research. And this woman was obviously terminal within weeks. Dr. Nieper said that through his investigation of tachyon field energy, through his investigation of the phenomena of the conductivity of the body, of what I would term the current of life and what he calls the tachyon current, this woman was healed without medication. That was a pretty remarkable thing for a medical doctor to say. He said, "I don't know why, Adam, but I took this woman aside, I put her on a purifying diet, I gave her magnesium orotate (that's the only thing he did give her) and within a month she had gone into complete remission and the X-rays were immaculate". And he said, "This proved to me that the human body not only exists and arrives in this tachyon field, but is actually comprised of this energy, and can be spontaneously healed by a realignment of this energy".

Now, if you were to have told a Christian in the time of Christ (or right after) that this was possible, they wouldn't have been surprised at all. They had something called laying on of hands, where they conducted the life energy of the body to and from other bodies. Tell that to the A.M.A.

The life current which passes through these bodies, our bodies in this moment, not only contributes life, but is free energy itself, is the source and substance of everything that appears. In my work in free energy technologies, I have applied the rigorous scientific method to the construction of a few devices at the expense of over $200,000. I have seen remarkable things, one of which is that, if you're going to do research into a field that might threaten a certain power structure, you'd best be prepared for what happens. Now, I'm not saying anything against the United States government, please understand me. I've been all over the world. I've seen children standing knee deep in cow dung with flies all over their faces, and I appreciate what we have here, and I want to make sure we can preserve and magnify what is left of it.

I wanted to comment briefly, for the sake of anyone who wants to get involved in this research, or who is involved, who has developed devices, on certain practical considerations for our mutual service. My experience has shown me very clearly that you can develop free energy. You've seen and heard lecturers here who have spoken of this, and it's really not anything new at this remarkable conference.

Free energy isn't the surprise. It may be a surprise from the conventional point of view of Victorian physics. It may be a surprise to people who have become precatatonic because of the calcification of their synapses through overeducation in false theory. But the reality of the situation, as we have discussed in every conference from Hanover through Toronto to this one now, is that we are living examples of free energy, and, because of our miseducation, we have forgotten our birthright. Not that this birthright has ever been collectively been enjoyed by the mass of the human race, but there have been examples throughout history of men who have realized their own form of superconductivity at room temperature and at body temperature; who have become superconductors of life; who have become loving, if you will indulge that word at a scientific conference, to the extreme; who have conducted the force of life in relationships.

We are in an extremely critical moment, an extremely important moment in the history of the world and in the history of culture, of science, of humanity. Science must become participatory. It must be set free of the shackles of abstraction and analysis only.

We've heard some lecturers at this conference who demonstrate the Western left brain bias towards analysis, who have gone through years of exhaustive discipline, and that's good. We've heard other lecturers here who have spoken at the Eastern cultures and the right brain, holographic perception of things, and that's good. But what I'm here to propose and to encourage is a whole bodied approach to research. Feel the body; listen to the body. Listen to your intuition. The intuitions, which come out of the field of free energy, which are completely available to anyone who will tech into that, will give rise to remarkable technology. All the technologies that we see here, you see, without this intuition, without the people having had some intuition of this, would never have appeared here. So we shouldn't just be left brained and analytical, or right brained and holistic, but balanced, whole-bodied.

The whole body thinks. The brain is the greatest concentration of nerves, and we think it's just for thinking. Try feeling with it some time. Talk about superconductivity! Remarkable things happen. In our research, conceptual barrier were broken over time. First the barrier to free energy. "This can happen! " But after that conceptual barrier is broken, you begin to feel a different bodily orientation to life. If you don't feel into that bodily orientation to life, and beyond the conventional, exploitable position of the enthusiastic kid, you might as well just go and sign up today for your duty for the D.O.D. Which is fine, if that's what you want to do. I grew up, part of my life, at Camp Dietrich, so I know what it's about.

We can take great technologies and make peace and make a world that is better to live in, or we can become the marionettes of power politicians. Little do most people in this room realize that a lot of the technologies which have been talking about here, and many that haven't been, have already been patented on projects to the United States government, to the Army, the Navy, and are covered by those patents. I can tell you from my own experience, if you try to patent something that might threaten one of those projects: forget it! (After $75,000 of patent prosecution expense. I can tell you this, and even after bona fides coming from physicists at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Labs).

I'm not trying to be a prophet of doom here; I'm just telling you about reality. It isn't a reality that we should remain naive about. It is a reality that we need to take into account. Tom Bearden got up yesterday and talked about weapons that already exist, and I can tell you this is true. I consult with foreign governments who are benign to our country. There is one country I know of that uses weapons that would invoke images of Star Wars, and has used them in battle within the last year. And you've heard about it on the news. They've gone over 20 miles of mine fields without losing a tank. They've shot down 37 enemy jets without losing a jet. You think about it. How did it happen? How come the surface-to-air missiles couldn't hit the jets? How come they couldn't get them off the ground in many cases ? 1 11 tell you what: the Russians sure scratched their heads about it. I don't know if that's good or bad. It's hard for me to judge.

The world is so full of this ancient, tribal, primitive provincialism that we can't seem to go a week without having something else to reinforce our hate of three hundred million other people because some idiot pulls a trigger somewhere and reinforces that hate. I don't want to moralize for the entire time I'm speaking, but we have responsibilities, and this the second year where I'm having a kind of a windup type of presentation.

We've seen some remarkable people here. There's a lot of talent in this room. There are a lot of good things that have happened here. We need to bring these things skillfully into the flow of free enterprise in this country, without necessarily applying for patents. This is because in the first six weeks your patent application is in the patent office the patent examiners don't even see it, it goes to a separate little area - this is true, because I've talked to people at the patent office about this - and it's examined for strategic value, If you want to go to the government and say, "Hey, I've got this; this is of strategic value," do that, and you might get a patent. That's what I learned. But don't go not thinking that they won't use it for that, because they will. And maybe, as one person said the other night, it's either "them" or "them", and we prefer for it to be them here and not them there.

Well, I Want to consider the possibility that the world can move beyond 1984, and I think that that's why everybody's here. 1984, whether Orwell knew it or not, is a nexus point; 1984, not 1983, because many of the things you've seen here will come into fruition in 1984. It's a point where good engineering, good application of analytical ability to technology, good application of right brain visionary, intuitive work will lead us into the possibility of a world that isn't dependent on Exxon, for whom I did used to work. And isn't dependent upon centralized knots of power, which obstruct the flow of life, who don't facilitate the flow of life in general . . . the flow of intelligence.

If anybody wants to talk to me about homopolar generators after my speech, I'll be happy to talk to you, within bounds that a little letter I got in the mail will let me. But, if you want to talk about some really interesting research, we can go beyond that, and beyond the Gray motor, which I also have current consulting interest in, which works, by the way. This enigmatic, mythological figure that we've all been hearing about for years is a very real person. He's a little bit reclusive, shall we say, he likes to hide out because he's been through the wringer. He has a technology which was played with and monkeyed with and done some improvements on and it works. It just sits there and hums away big load on it, proper RMS meters, the whole business. And it works. Do you know that he can't do anything with are in this country? Nothing! You know why? Ask me about it after the presentation.

These are very real matters. There are people here who could probably, through their influence, encourage people who are in power to move aside a little, to get out of the way a little bit, so that we could help them - not them to get more power, but so that there is a world in which to have power. It's time that we focus clearly in on these matters.

There's another area I'd like to address relative to engineering naivete. Engineering is rough work. It's real hard work. It is rigorous. You can't casually go and make a homopolar generator, for example. I really admire Tom Valone for the work he's done, believe me, because that man has worked with a budget that I would never even have considered for six months. But let me tell you, engineering properly done will achieve great things, when applied to these technologies. You have to get down to the 1/27,000 of an inch tolerance on the bearing on a shaft sometimes, and you have to get down to 2 mils circumferential gaps around electrical conducting brushes with 2 mils of microturbulently suspended NAK [sodium-potassium amalgam - ed.] in order to achieve less than 10 microohms resistance [for use in homopolar brushes -ed.]. But it's worth doing. It's worth really engineering these things.

You can remain private. I've heard some people talk about, "well, let's remain private". Well, I'm standing here telling you that I have the best alarm system on my laboratory that you can buy in this country. If anyone breaks in people are supposed to listen in and call the police. Well, we've been broken into three times and their computers seem to fail every time, and I have the printouts of their computer being down for 45 minutes one time, 25 minutes the next time, IS minutes the last time. Whoever it was good because they reconstructed the lock every time so you could not lock the door. And this is true; I'm not just saying this. This is a reality. This really happened. If you want to do it as a private business, find somebody who has a lot of money who can tuck you away in a little corner of Nebraska or somewhere, and remain completely anonymous maybe, or else remain completely public. There are two different approaches. Bruce DePalma suggested to me years ago the Purloined Letter approach. Tell everybody what you're doing, especially if you don't know what your equations are. Tell everybody what you're doing and then nobody will get at you because you aren't keeping any secrets. That's pretty smart in some ways. The other side is don't tell anybody what you're doing, and that's more Ed Gray's point of view, after having told everybody what he was doing and being obstructed in the process of science, shall we say. Whatever you do, be careful. It's a real world out there.

I'd like to move into a little different area, and that is this matter of knowledge. When I was a 13-year-old boy I was writing a paper on quasistellar objects, which were pretty new phenomena at the time. In fact, they were brand new phenomena. I was arrogant - or whatever it is they call little kids who try to write an article on quasistellar objects at thirteen - and I was going to submit it to a teacher of mine at the University of Chicago lab school. I thought it was hot. I'd become very impressed with what I'd written and picked up the dialogue of Plato and read it to myself, and there's this very funny line that stood out and that's "The first step on the path of wisdom is the confession of ignorance". Not knowledge. Now, we can know how things work, but in 1976 somebody confronted me with the reality of the fact that I didn't know what a single thing was. In 1963, Plato's Dialogues confronted me with that same fact. And it set my mind free to think beyond what had been thought before, to allow the thought to arise, to allow the intuition to come into the body mind. If you think you know how something works absolutely, I have several medications we can prescribe! Nobody absolutely knows what anything is. What it is. Not what it looks like or what it does, but what it IS. In essence, what it is. I can tell you it's made up of tachyon particles, but what in God's green creation is a tachyon particle, when you really get down to it? What is it? What IS it? It's a wonderful thing to suddenly realize that you don't know, and that you're still here. That's a remarkable mystery. It is the mystery that stimulated original science altogether; it stimulated what science was originally.

Science and art were not originally these divergent paths where we had one poor creative guy over there starving and another poor guy who was doing science and under house arrest. Science was a creative, Renaissance effort. Look at what Tesla did; look at the prolific nature of a nut, from a conventional point of view. But he was a man who felt into infinity. We idolize people who feel into infinity because we feel they're different from what we can be. Somebody hasn't told us when we were three or four that what came to Nikola Tesla was through the medium of the consciousness, which our good friend and colleague Nelli was speaking about yesterday: that this background energy just may be consciousness. Consciousness! It starts sounding like religion. It starts sounding like a nonanthropomorphic God that pervades everything.

I've studied the Shroud of Turin personally and done considerable research and there was evidence of some capillary action, but I'm not meaning to offend anybody, please. When Jesus Christ was killed, so called, it was a most offensive thing to me that he was crucified. He was crucified for saying that the source of free energy and I are one, and you be perfect. Not look at me and my great sacrifice, but you be perfect; be like the source; be like Abba, which, by the way, is not just a gender-biased "father", it is the source of all. You be like that; you be expansive to infinity; you realize the great thing that is occurring here; you realize it.

The holders of the key of knowledge, which they wouldn't give to anybody, neither would they use - remember those people? They're still around. Let's face it; they're around in drag and they're around in force. They're around right now, all over the place, and they're just like you and me, because they haven't been told either that it's OK. We've got to learn to forgive each other for the baloney that we lay on each other sometimes, because we've all been misinformed. It's Sunday, so maybe this is a good time to talk about this. We've all been blatantly misinformed about life. Life is a miracle; it's a wonderful thing. All we get is bad news; we get stress chemistry; we get the neurons of the body curling in; we get Alzheimer's disease; we get all kinds of degenerative diseases, because we aren't feeling into this current moment to moment, because we don't even know it exists. What the hell is the current of life? What's this tachyon energy current? What is it? Feel it. How many people in this room have walked through a field, or sat in a chair, or wherever you were, and suddenly felt like you were not separate from infinity? Almost everybody in this room - I'll bet you everybody in this room at some time in their life has felt that. We're human beings. It's not something that's an isolated phenomenon, a mystical phenomenon that's to be kept secret to a few.

When Jesus Christ impressed his image on the Shroud of Turin, he was demonstrating the ultimate principle of free energy. I was talking with some people from JPL [Jet Propulsion Labs in California - ed.], atheists, very sceptical people, and this guy comes up to me and says, "How in God's green creation did this happen?" There are some people who think that somebody painted it. If they did, they knew about the separation of blood plasma and blood before it was ever known about. Radiant energy manifested through that form ... and I'm not here, by the way, just to point back 2,000 years and say "that's it, folks"... Radiant energy was manifested through that body. FREE ENERGY, in which we can consciously participate in this moment.

We can make great technologies; Darth Vader has them all. George Lucas is from my home town, and I can tell you we had long conversations about the great technologies which are always intuited by science fiction writers first, and then brought into the realm of real science. It's a psychophysical realm when you anticipate great technologies. Great technologies alone are not going to save this planet. Great humanity is. So let's keep being human. Let's do honor to this free energy; let's do honor to this great consciousness.

I've become really tired of not sharing information. I'm under contract not to say this and not to say that, and the government sends you a letter saying you'd better not talk about this. It's hard to make progress that way. Let's form our own communication network, completely independent of any great corporations. Let's form our own community of research, sharing and magnifying this process. I'm not suggesting that we be naive.

I wanted to close with a reading from a remarkable book which has altered my attitude toward existence to some degree. When I started realizing that this free energy might not be just an abstract principle, and that it might actually have something to do with me, I had a kind of conversion experience. I don't mean I saw Jesus twelve feet tall and he told me to build a hospital. I mean I felt what he was talking about. "We must enter into the presumption of that condition via our native transcendence of the conventions of psychophysical experience." The conventions of psychophysical experience will tell you that I stop here and you start wherever you start. The conventions of superficial perception will tell you that we're all separate little mechanisms. Radical science won't tell you that. Present physics won't tell you that. But the conventions of psychophysical experience will. "Then that same light [which we're describing as free energy here] will transfigure and transform us in every part until there is not the slightest difference between us and that uninterrupted glory." That's not a scientific statement in the old sense, but I think that if you really look at what has to happen in humanity, that's what we are about. We're about transcending an old condition and realizing a new one.

On magnetics

By LES ADAM

We at AZ Industries are mechanics, not engineers; we make things work. We are getting involved in some of the non-conventional energy technology simply because we're working with magnets. AZ Industries makes nothing it can't sell: it is a commercial endeavor.

We started in a garage making pieces of magnets for a lot of people who used them in their products. For example, if you bought an electric guitar or mainframe computer, you would have our magnets - very highly thought of in OEM supply companies throughout the world. Not many commercial products have been made under the AZ Industries name, however. This was just started in the last year or so.

Let me first explain a little bit about magnetics. There are currently three major families of magnetic materials:

ALNICO

with which most of you are familiar (Aluminum, Nickel, Cobalt).

Ceramic

developed in the late '40s by Philips, replacing ALNICO in most uses; usually Barium or Strontium Ferrite.

Rare Earth

Samarium and Cobalt with other "rare earths" added sometimes.

Magnetic strengths have gone from 5 million B/H maximum to samarium cobalts running in the 30 millions now. A few days ago in the Wall Street Journal was an article announcing the Niobium-Iron magnets. These are already in the 40 million B/H area. We are approaching magnetic powers never before available. Although we've always been told that magnets cannot do work by themselves, we are approaching the kind of powers that make that hard to believe any more.

We have put together a small demonstration of two magnets with handles on each, the total weighing just 3 lb. 2 oz. These require upwards of 800 lb. to pull apart. We put a $100 bill between them and ask people to pull them apart for the bill. We have to do this to convince people that magnets are not toys.

Over the years we have we have been involved in many fields. Most of them came to us; we didn't go looking for them. For example, we have been involved in flying saucer motors and health applications of magnets. One of the latter that's been used by the medical groups in the U.S. is the way of keeping chemotherapy fluids in one part of the body. This is done by putting an iron-type material in the chemical itself and placing a magnet on the area in which they wish the material to congregate. This will keep a lot of the damage down that may otherwise occur at other areas of the body. Magnets are also used for scrubbing cancer from bone marrow using magnetic particles.

We are also involved in energy systems. I'm sure everybody here is familiar with the Johnson design*. So many people have wanted us to design magnets for that type of system. However, we have heard of no success with those magnets - nobody ever came back for a second set. There have been many motor assemblies that we have built for defense applications, for example the Cruise Missile, the M- 1 tank and many you have probably never heard of as well as the Space Shuttle.

*The Howard Johnson magnetic motor - Science & Mechanics, 1977.

So we are involved with most of the generally accepted fields of science in this country. What is causing us more problems than anything else is the area that is not generally accepted. One of the old ideas is magnetic treatment of water. Our involvement started a little less than 2 years ago and a solar heater installer asked us for a treatment device that would be used in the solar heating system. According to the installer, it cuts down corrosion in the system and thus extends their warranties from 2 years to 5 years. They had previously been buying a magnetic system from Norway but it was too expensive. So we built our first water conditioners solely for solar use for about a year. Here is a small unit I've brought to show you.

The units are no longer used just for solar applications, but wherever water is. Our company in Texas, for instance, installs cooling towers and uses these devices. A company from France called recently and wanted to buy a quarter million of these per year. At that point we decided to find out just what a magnetic water treatment system is, so we hired a young man from college to dig up all the information and find out. He came up with a report, which is available free from us, showing that this has existed since 1800.

The first commercial installation was done in 1889. The U.S. government took a company to court in 1954. In 1956 they dismissed the case because of "overwhelming evidence that it worked". I don't know whose side the government is on! Apparently the plumbers! I do want to read you one statement, probably the most important the government has ever said about anything in the field of magnetics. These are the comments of the examiner at the close of the case:

"From the record as a whole, it appears that we may be confronted with a device operating upon a principle unknown or recognized by present-day science. In the presence of such a possibility, and that the burden of proof has not been sustained, we must not take the risk of interfering with the development of the device which may prove to be the first practical application of a scientific principle heretofore undiscovered. "

That's what we're talking about when we're talking about magnetics. I know of nobody that can explain to me why a magnet will hang onto a piece of steel, outside of using the term - that it has a magnetic attraction. I think what we have here is a power we don't understand and we tend to ignore it because we are afraid of it - we can't explain it away. We have statements by the government that if we can't explain scientifically how these devices work, we can't sell them. We keep telling them that we can prove the results and they keep saying they arc not interested in results - we have to put it in scientific explanations they can understand.

I do teach magnetics because the doctors of physics do not understand magnetics. Colleges ask me to teach magnetics, but when I run up against the Federal Government, I'm not considered to be an expert in any field. I'm mad enough and we're stubborn enough that we're going to prove that these systems work even if we can't explain how they work. I don't know what magnetism is.

We build about 200,000 magnets a day for companies all over the world. AZ Industries is the largest precision magnet manufacturer in the Western U.S. and we'll be the largest in the world in five years if trends continue. So we understand how to use magnets.

Other applications we are getting involved in are the fields of promoting energy conservation, efficient energy use and maybe harnessing magnetism and making magnetism give us some kind of energy. One of the things that we have developed over the years was a magnetic gasoline saving device which we call an energy efficiency booster. It was developed with California State University who had a grant to test the effects of magnetic fields on hydrocarbon fuels. We worked with them for about 6 months. We built one device for them and they reported a changed efficiency immediately. Another 3 to 4 months was spent refining this prototype eventually to result in a commercial product.

This was back in '79/'80. Since then we've been trying to prove to the world that it works. We decided that since nobody would listen to what AZ Industries results were, we went to the experts in the automotive industry to test it according to the very best system. We went to Transportational Testing in Texas - the largest vehicular testing lab in the world - to USAC at the Indianapolis Speedway and before the Society of Automotive Engineers, American Trucking Association, etc. When we completed all of these, the government said "These aren't tests; they're testimonials".

We went to the California Resources Board and ran a test in April of 1983. The results came back saying that their test in their lab - primarily a test for pollution output - showed an 11% overall reduction in pollution in two 1982 cars which had very extensive anti-smog devices on them. This was a dynometer test equivalent to 15 miles and both cars went up approximately 2% in gas mileage. But 15 miles is not a mileage test. At the end of the test they said that they couldn't give us the exemption because they couldn't believe it works. We replied, "But we passed the tes!" to which they responded, "There must be something wrong with the test".

We finally had to get a couple of senators together and, after a lot of pressure, we got our exemption to sell in the state of California. That was mid-end of July, 1983. Less than one week later, the state attorney was on us asking us to prove it again. We are now in the last stage of what we believe will be the definitive test of the gas-saving device, which is the EPA gas mileage test. This is an extremely bad gas mileage test, since they do not use gas, but an ultra-pure fuel, which probably explains why you are never going to get the gas mileage they say you'll get. We forced them to change the test to use standard gasoline and 1000 miles as a basis versus previously using about 7½ minutes of dynometer testing. In this test, you have to get a specific gas mileage increase before they will accept it as a valid gas-saving device.

Tests with Mustangs ran at 18-18% fuel efficiency improvement. Let me read you a statement of the testing group itself:

"... We shall continue to utilize the unit device on all four test vehicles as a means of reducing our current operating expenses".

They wouldn't even give them back to us!

I can't tell you how the magnetic gas saver works. One theory going with the existing laws of physics says it we are, in a completely negative polarity chamber (positive on the outside periphery), possibly bumping the positive ions into negative polarity and thus have primarily negative polarity when it hits the firing chamber. Negatives will push against each other and spread apart and thus promote a finer mist and better burn. Another theory is that of "tachyon" energy, "soft" particles or what have you. This states that magnets are concentrators of so-called soft particles and these have an affinity for moving fluids. The gasoline thus picks up this additional energy as it passes by the magnets and delivers more energy to the firing chamber.

The units come in various sizes and are simply spliced into the gasoline itself - no maintenance required.

While I'm up here I'll throw in two stories about magnets which make it hard to believe some conventional physics concerning them, particularly the conservation of energy situation. One is that if you measure the strength of a magnet at room temperature, for instance 600 gauss, and you then heat it up to 300° (F) that magnet will read perhaps around 200 - 300 gauss. This is understandable so far.

But if you take that same magnet back out again and set it to cool down to room temperature, it will reach 600 gauss again. Where is that additional energy coming from?

The second situation involves one of our companies in California called Bennett Respirator, which makes breathing equipment for hospitals. About four to five years ago, they were pretty concerned with the magnets that we shipped them because the magnets are a signalling device and if the person stops breathing, the magnet activates a switch that warns a nurse. They wanted to magnetize the magnets themselves just before assembly. We said: Fine; do you want an electromagnet magnetizer or a permanent magnet magnetizer? They asked us what the difference was and we told them that a permanent magnet magnetizer didn't need any electricity. So we built them a 25 lb. horn magnet, a horseshoe-shaped affair, and they magnetized their smaller magnets by placing them between the poles of this magnet. In the four to five years that they've been operating, we've shipped them perhaps 80 Ibs. of small magnets, all of which have been magnetized with the 25 lb. horseshoe magnet, which is as strong today as five years ago. Where did this extra energy come from?

That is the end of my formal presentation. Thank you.

Q: What happens when you cool a magnet?

A: We have no experience at cooling or freezing permanent magnets, so I really can't answer that.

Q: Regarding the Howard Johnson "permanent magnet motor", what is the real story regarding this?

A: Johnson has a mass driver, not a closed loop system. This means that you can move things in one direction and accelerate them with magnets. The problem is closing that loop and getting the moving mass (i.e. an armature - Ed.) to continue. We have had such mass drivers for 11-12 years already.

Q: Have you had any similar experience with your magnet fuel efficiency increases on diesel engines?

A: We are working on a diesel system now, as well as preliminary test on propane. Some of our diesel tests have run as high as 23% increased efficiency, but it's too early still to tell completely.

Q: Have you ever thought of using these on aircraft engines in jets and the like?

A: Yes. The FAA came to us and asked us to develop them, not so much for the big jet engines, but for small aircraft, but not to save fuel, but to increase general engine performance.

Topics relating to the design of alternate energy devices

By CURTIS WALLACE

I am going to give an overview. I am not here to address any specific corner of information. It's going to sound a little rambling, and I mean it that way, because I'm going to cover a subject and move, then cover another subject and move. Basically, I am not at all interested in what is going on in any of the mechanics, but in 1965 I had a vision as to what is going to come in the future, and I was given the choice of whether I live or die by spirits. I elected to live; I went through a death, and I'm here today. I had lots of cooperation upstairs. I'm not speaking from a completely mechanistic point of view. I used some of this with the DuPont company as senior scientist. They gave me an office and let me close the door. I didn't use computers or slide rules. It worked. I took an early retirement to go on with this work, and until very recently there hasn't been a concrete "Now is the time; do something!". Ladies and gentlemen, now is the time to do something because 80 percent of the people on the face of this earth face death by 1998. I have seen this. I personally am convinced. I don't care where you sit. Just keep an open mind and start studying.

A curve showing the increase in CO2 in the atmosphere from a station in the Hawaiian Islands tells a very strong story, because it shows the degradation of our atmosphere. If you extrapolate the curve, it points out doomsday. What the curve represents is the normal increase in CO2 that cyclically happens on about a 100,000 year basis. The proof of this is cores taken in the deep glaciers of Iceland and Antarctica. We are in the throes of passing the last point of recovery. We're into the point of no return.

CO2 is built up as a natural process. Man has added to this CO2 and advanced the process an estimated 500 years. I give Don Weaver and his coworkers credit for assimilating a tremendous amount of data and, to me, statistically proving this thing. Then, what happens is that the atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect, which means that the equatorial waters get heated, the equator area gets hot, moisture is evaporated, and we have a travel of moisture north and south and clouds screening the sun north and south. We have a drop in temperature; we get irregular weather patterns; we get irregular rainfall; growing seasons get progressively shorter and we go into starvation. This started to be positively visible in about 1975.

The point I'm bringing up is that if we develop electrical free energy and it's plentiful in its use, we can artificially grow all the food we need, and in the areas where this is in process we can reduce the loss of life very greatly. We can't stop it, but we can greatly reduce it. The reason we can't stop it, there's always some hardheads that would rather stay with the given situation than change, and they're going to die. That's a cruel prediction, but there it is.

The next area I want to go into is that I had a vision, and I didn't understand the vision for IS years, and I finally have. We are souls. Our consciousness has been shifted. I don't want to get into religious background of where or consciousness is, but it's not soul-oriented. The person who has a soul-oriented consciousness is probably not going to waste time sitting in this room. I wish they would.

The trick is that our body is the center point of this consciousness. Our soul intermixes with our body. Our body/brain function is the mechanical device of consciousness. We can work consciousness into the body and body to the soul. So we can go soul, body, consciousness, or consciousness, body, soul. Hopefully, we all someday can accomplish the mission of merging this into a single unit of consciousness.

The interesting thing is that the body, being a pure device in function, can't lie. It only tells the truth. If we get the right soul connections, we can only get the truth from soul. Consciousness is where we go wrong, and we go wrong because of emotion. So I talked to Tom Bearden here a couple of years ago and said, "Wouldn't it be nice if we could connect through soul to the universal mind? It's all there; all we do is pick it up." Well, this past year we found out you could do that. Not directly, but indirectly. And we find out that the whole human race has evolved to the point that everybody can do it, so I expect everybody in this room to go home and start doing this. You don't need to calculate things; it's all there done for you. You just need to be able to grab it out of the cosmos. This is a very important start.

What I'm going to do is to demonstrate a little of this, and then I'm going to get on with some of the things that we've involved this with in our interdimensional science fellowship. This technique is one that is not a mediumship type of thing, because it's strictly soul-related. If you have people of the right polarity and of the right vibratory mode, two things happen. One is that you can get direct answers: Yes, No, Maybe, and, if you're sensitive, pictures and data will begin to come in and you take it down. So what we do is we have a team of people, a couple recording, hopefully taking a tape recording, we go through an altered state of consciousness and then we proceed with this.

The first thing you do is you ask the question, "Do you have permission to do this?". You're relating to the souls of the individuals that are involved. We're not relating to your souls; we're relating to ours. So the question is, do we have permission to do this? The answer is yes. When the body is strong it's affirmative. When the body is weak it's negative. Maybe is in between somewhere. [At this point, the speaker is joined by an assistant, Dianah. She holds up her arm while the speaker attempts to push the arm down to her side. - ed.]

Now the question is, are we working soul to universal soul and back to soul? This is the way we must operate. If you don't set up this regime, then you're working with spirit. You're getting into spirit guides and all that mediumistic garbage that is no good because it's not accurate. So the question is, are we working soul to soul to soul? The answer is yes. She's strong and the answer is yes.

Now I'm going to put some questions to the universal mind about magnetism. The question was: Was the magnetic charge that spreads the molecules of gasoline, a weakening of magnetic bonds, or was it tachyon addition to energy? Now we're going to find the answer, which of these it is, or a combination of these. Is this an addition of charge effect? The answer is no, so it's not addition of charge. Is this the loosening up the bonding of the gasoline molecules? The answer is yes. I'm getting the answers to these things myself, so this is a confirmation. It's good to have double confirmation. You can work with radionics and other things and double and double and be surer and surer. The third thing is, was a magnetic addition of energy? The answer is no. So now, if you're doing research, you have one direction to go in.

I believe in science. I made my living by science for a number of years. If I were in charge of a project, I would then initiate a project to pick up the changing in bonding. I have a friend who's done this with water, and we know that the infrared spectrum of water changes under certain magnetic conditions. You can see the light I-R change effect of water, so let's say, in the water case was this loosening up the magnetic bonding in water? The answer is maybe. Now, when you get a maybe, you have to ask questions to satisfy the maybe. The first question you ask, ask the same question over again of the reverse question. Let's reverse it. Let's say this is not loosening up of the magnetic bonds of water. The answer is yes. So we've put that one to bed. Now the question is, what is it? Is this changing the charge orientation of the water molecules? Yes. But it's a weak yes. A weak yes says, well, maybe we can ask another question. Is there some preferential space geometry relationship of the water molecule in addition to the charge on the thing? The answer is yes. See, I got that answer through in the interval and I'm just confirming it. If you just try to sit there and read these things out of the cosmos, you can get emotionally involved and get screwy answers. So you need confirmation. Now, Dianah is not technically trained, so she's very neutral with respect to these things. So, she is not ping to pick and choose. Her body is only reacting to the universal soul, which is making her either strong or weak and reversing so that we are out of phase to strengthen its effect.

About this magnet bit. One of our group is very sold on caduceus coils. He remembers back in ancient Egypt when caduceus was used for certain specific purposes and he wants to repeat that and bring it up now because very good things can be done with caduceus coils. He believes in mythology. He says it's all in the right mythology. All we have to do is decode it Only he couldn't. So we've decoded it. We've designed caduceus coils and what we find is that the stronger the magnet the greater the effect. You use a magnetic core, and these things have to be very precisely built.

Incidentally, George Hathaway has brought one here and I'm sure he's ready to talk to people about it. It's a multi-wound one and we find from the universal mind that there's two or three ways of multiwinding them for some uses, but if they have to be absolutely specific you can't do it. You can do some. This is a spiral wound coil system, and George will be very happy to talk more about it, and these are not cored in the sense of what I'm talking about.

If you core a caduceus you can generate fantastic powers with them which can be very destructive. There is a body frequency of 43.5½ megahertz. At that body frequency a samarium magnet system in the right iron combination is good. Is this true? The answer is yes. And we sit there and we've picked up the geometry for the samarium magnet system and we ask the question, is there anybody around that knows how to fabricate these things? The answer came out yes. So can we guess the name? No. I'm not good at words; I don't see and hear words. Will we run into somebody that knows about samarium systems? The answer came out yes. Have we met the gentleman today, Adams? And the answer is yes.

Where there's a synergism, if you get into the flow all these things seem to fit together, and it's beautiful. We've got this right brain, left brain, middle brain bit that they all have to work together. You've got to get soul-related and everything in the cosmos is open to you. It doesn't take long to know how to do these. I've run a number of workshops on doing it. I'm very happy to participate with anybody that is interested. I don't have time to do it one at a time. In groups, yes. What we propose is that if there are any questions that people have in here about their devices that they want to pinpoint information or direct it, Dianah and I will be glad to work with you on that. Thank you, Dianah.

Let's go on to some other things. Mobius coils can be wound in a number of different kinds of ways. I think I can list 20 different ways of making Mobius coils. There are different effects from all of them. Just wrapping some wire together isn't the answer. The proportions of the coil, the length over diameter ratio, the wire gauge, whether it's bifiliar, trifiliar, quadrifiliar wound are all important (we've wound them up to twelve). Here we have a level-wound Mobius coil. You notice it comes up and around underneath the twist. Our heart is Mobius-organized muscles. Our brains are Mobius-organized neurons. The cosmos is a Mobius system; that's why you'll never find the end of it, because you go around in a Mobius system the outside becomes the inside and the inside becomes the outside. And so the cosmos is just chock full of Mobius systems. I became fascinated some years ago with Mobius, and I thought we should build some and look at them.

So I started asking people, how do you make these things? And I got answers that I considered to be pretty silly. You wrap a piece of sticky tape and then stick the wire to it and wrap it that way. There's one way of goings insane. Another way is to wrap a solenoid coil, cut it, reverse the wires, strip the insulation, twist the wires together and solder them. And I started that, and that's guaranteed insanity. So I figured, well, if the universal mind knows about Mobius coils, they know how to make them. So consult; find out. Then the answer came through, and here is the answer.

This a scheme for making Mobius. You start with wire that you have measured and wind it on toilet paper rols when they get done; that's pretty convenient. You make a fixture up that is adjustable and this fixture consists of two pieces. One is adjustable. These pieces are formed and coated with a silicon rubber material: silicon rubber cement silicon marine cement, any of these work. I don't use bathtub caulk. And you wrap the wire on a shuttle and you literally weave the Mobius coil. Having wrapped the measured amount of wire on the spindle, you put the spindle through, always in the same direction, always levo (left-hand) wound - ed.], because if it's dextro (right-hand) would no matter how you use it, it's going to start screwing your brain up and doing other things. For a lot of people the effects are so faint that they don't realize it, but they're getting screwed up, and we're screwed up enough to start with; we don't need more. Again I repeat, at this point the wire goes under, out and around, then over and around There's a Mobius.

Generally speaking, this would not be an ideal geometry for a Mobius, but one of our gals is a little bit of an artist and a writer and someday we're going to publish a book and there's going to be a lot of this good stuff in it, and we're starting to put material together for it. Here's a little baby Mobius right here. For a lot of purposes, you have to be careful what kind of composition and material you're going to expose yourself to in Mobius systems. But this is levo again and you get the idea of the size. It's about an inch.

There is a considerable interest in Mobius developing in several quarters in jewelry, because the tachyon pattern is affected by the space geometry, which is set up by a Mobius system. So without even energizing smaller size Mobius and even if they're not insulated you get some affect, if they're insulated it can be a very strong effect. And if you power them they can be overpowering. This is the collection of different kinds of Mobius. This is a l8 gauge. This is 38 gauge. This is a 28 quadrifiliar wound power Mobius for research purposes. These Mobius are dextro and if we had more time I would have Dianah come up and out of those pictures there's radiation of energy which is negative which is negatively affecting everybody in this room, and the Mobius aren't even here.

You can make paper Mobius and they'll affect you. Space geometry - you set up the pattern for the tachyon flow and it propagates. The only way you can convince some people is to knock them over, so you take a dextro and you expose them to it, upset their apple cart, then reverse it, go levo and bring them out of it again. I won't do that kind of experience; the FDA may have a man in here. We can check, incidentally, and find out. But I feel that there isn't any baddie in this room at the present time. We could do it, but I won't.

Magnetics, with respect to Mobius: there is in effect, it becomes a somewhat better tachyon pump. This is a quadrifiliar wound Mobius with a magnet and you can't see it but there's a little dip oscillator system with this and what we're trying to do is to find out whether there is a power source here. There isn't, but what you can do is generate a higher voltage effect than you put into this thing, but the amps aren't there, and so we've given up on Mobius as a power source at the moment, simply because the universal mind says there are a lot better ways of doing it. So we're doing those, which I'll show you later.

This is another system. These are three banks of diodes. If you set up an electrical flow in a double, bifilar Mobius, what is in effect the secondary appears to have no current moving in it. But if you put three sets of diodes in the secondary and then you take the wires off the center one, you now get a high voltage flow of current, and this is frequency sensitive. I don't know whether we're setting the resonance pattern or whether it's inherent. But around 5200 Hz and below you get an affect out of this thing. Again, it's not a power source, but it's a very interesting curiosity that you can grab something . . . you can touch either side here and you get no potential across it, and yet in the center here you do get a potential. A very interesting effect. Maybe somebody will find a good use for it some day.

This is a pair of Mobius that fit inside of each other. They're wound to the maximum effect that on. can carry, not the minimum like Pat Flanagan, of Tucson, Arizona. This is a maximum effect, driven by a thing we call a "Mighty Midget Pulsar", which I will go into a little bit further. At the present time, l am stabilizing the vibration in this wheels hotel, including all you people, entraining you and your brains somewhat in the direction of meditation and better thought process. I don't want to be overbearing. I don't want anybody to really realize what's going on. But it is a point.

This is a compound Mobius. The crossover of the Mobius is here. You get no magnetic effect out of this. It's a tachyon pump system. The tachyons are pumped through the gap and out the other side.

This is a "Mighty Midget Pulsar". This is a 3909 dip. This is the auxiliary circuitry that goes around it. If any of you people are more interested in this I have a little mockup system that you can look at. It's tunable. We has a couple of potentiometers in there that we can tune. Incidentally, these are the Mobius out here and there are several ways of putting Mobius on this system. One way is to connect this directly end put the Mobius in the input and the input and tie it together. You can't put Mobius two different places because they're out of phase. The Mobius all have to be in phase. The maximum effect is putting twelve Mobius in this system as external plug ins, and putting the two Mobius inherent in the machine and have them operating, and sensitive people can feel the effects about two miles away. This will counter the Russian negative ELF system.

Here's the assembly without the plug-in for an auxiliary battery charging system without the auxiliary Mobius. Here's a picture. As you can see, it's about two inches; it's about half the size of an old fashioned cigarette pack. It's half the size or smaller than the other 50 or 60 earth-resonant generators that are being built around the world. It will run on that battery about a month. It's rechargeable. It's wiser to charge it more often because there is a frequency drift as the battery runs down. I plug in a backup battery and run it.

Here's the whole system. This is the auxiliary power Mobius. This is the backup battery. This is the little Mighty Midget. This gives you an idea of the whole thing. You can almost take the whole package in your pocket. I have one of these assemblies along; I have some of these other coils and other things along.

This is a Radioclast. Borderland Sciences Journal published this, republished it, gave copies of it away. We have built a number of these; we're in our about third generation of these things. What this thing does is oscillate at 43.5 Hz, plus or minus. It has side bands which we have been able to eliminate some of. It vibrates at all the body cell organ frequencies, and tunes you. Your DNA and RNA ages, it unwinds, and when it gets to a certain point you're old and you're on your way to dying. With this, you can sort of tighten up a bit and I'm personally using it. We've seen a number of miraculous things happen with it. Of course, one can't sell these things. One can't merchandise them. You can barely talk about this kind of thing because there's an organization called the FDA that doesn't believe in any of this nonsense. If you're to die, you're to die, and you're not to cure people. It's just a shame that our government is the way it is. I think you're going to hear a lot about our government the way it is before you get done today.

This is the description of the antenna loop copper wire that is built for it. We have found that we can build a lot better antennas using quarter wave antennas. We are compound winding them. We are spacing the winding with thread so that we lose the capacitance effect. We open the power up. We build larger coils. This is a body coil. I sleep in one of these, and at an interesting rate I'm getting younger. It has a very good effect if carried on a regular basis.

One of our gals has only one kidney. This kidney is affected with a form of cystitis. The doctor told her husband it's only a matter of time and she has to be on a kidney machine or she dies. With proper health maneuvering and the use of one of these body coils she is apparently just about recovered. Other problems she had have disappeared, and she's almost a brand new girl. One of these is a Mobius wound system. I have it here. It pumps tachyons. It doesn't affect the physical; we think it affects the etheric. I haven't really checked it out. There are so many things to do we don't have time to do it.

The other unit is a small unit which I like to sit on and put a wave right up through my body. It's been corrective of some of my conditions. If I bang up a knee, I run in and put this around my knee and I give myself a treatment. I pulled a muscle in my left hip. In three days time it was healed. Healing is very much accelerated.

I want to talk about Tesla, electrical free energy, resonance. We put this to the universal mind and Tesla was right and Einstein was wrong. I don't care about any of your mathematics. It just works that way, and the universal mind is right. What Tesla was saying was, if this is the universal resonance curve, that by designing the coil right from resonance of 0 to 10, let's say, that you can take it from 0 to IS, which simply means that you're going superluminal. You're going l ½ times the speed of light. When you go 1½ times the speed of light in the physical world, you're out of the physical world. In going out of the physical world, you dilate the physical world. When you come back into the physical world, you bring a little of the etheric world back with you. This is the story of free energy.

Fundamental AC energy and power measurement techniques in non-conventional energy

By GEORGE HATHAWAY

I'm going to divide my presentation into two parts. The first is a brief outline of some of the areas of theoretical and experimental physics in the more conventional domain that might have a bearing on some of the activities that we are talking about today. The second is a short presentation of fundamental AC energy and power measurement techniques required for accurate characterization of these non-conventional energy technologies we are discussing.

I'd like to begin by introducing a gentleman who got me started in this entire field. His name is Rolf Sehaffranke, whom some of you may know under his pseudonym, Rho Sigma, author of the book Ether Technology: A Rational Approach to Gravity Control*. I owe a great debt of gratitude to Rolf for introducing me and many others to this field.

*Through CSA Bindery, Lakemont GA.

To continue, I'd like to give a brief overview of some of the work relating to the non-conventional field that you may not have been aware of.

As is well known, Einstein's fondest hope was. to develop a unified field theory incorporating gravity into electrodynamics. Many theorists since have considered extensions of relativity theory which may approach this goal, for instance the work of Moffatt at the University of Toronto, who has claimed some success in the area. While searching for the "Grand Unification", several relativity theories have postulated actual mechanisms whereby such things as anti-gravity may be possible. Appendix B contains a short bibliography on some of the more important contributions in this area. Penrose, for example, postulates a different kind (shape) of the Einstein space-time continuum which leads him to speculate about the possibility of interaction with the gravitational field. Forward, in his series on antigravity, discusses construction of huge stationary or rotating masses near the earth to provide the necessary effects. Holt invokes high energy interacting electric and magnetic fields to alter the local space-time fabric so as to create tremendous propulsion. Kooy's gravitons, created in the Big Bang, may be absorbed by alterations in atomic structure so that force may be obtained directly from space. Vallee's extension of Maxwell's equations led him to deduce a precise and verifiable relationship between EM fields and gravitational potential. This allows him to theorize that EM-induced gravitational interaction is possible. Zel'dovich arrives at a similar conclusion using neutral field interaction.

All of these hypotheses rely on super-large masses, extremely high EM field strengths or high speed rotating systems to pinch, fold or alter the local space-time fabric. However, under laboratory conditions, Graham and Lahoz have observed free EM angular momentum in vacuo, implying space has a "structure" which has mechanical properties as postulated by Maxwell. It also implies the physical reality of the Poynting vector.

Work of similar nature was theorized by Cullwick which was, in turn, the basis for experimental work by W.J. Hooper, late Professor of Physics Emeritus, Principia College, 111. By demonstrating that there were, in reality, three distinct electric fields (and three magnetic) he was able to fabricate a device which generated one of these fields, the Motional Electric field. This field had properties sufficiently similar to gravity (attractive to matter, impossible to shield, etc.) to allow him to hypothesize that the local gravitational field may be altered so as to permit anti gravitational propulsion as well as energy extraction from it.

Crasser has developed an experimental device which uses coupled EM fields to produce local gravitational field anisotropy.

These EM fields simply act as "triggers" to induce a long-duration-propulsive effect which, Zinsser calculates, comes directly from the surrounding gravitational field.

While the foregoing techniques may seem quite divorced from current technical capability, the production of matter and, indeed, energy from the vacuum seems to be undergoing much more scientific scrutiny (see also App. B). Articles abound in respected journals with such titles as "Something for Nothing", "Search for the Sparking of the Vacuum", "Decay of the Vacuum", etc. Most develop the general theme that in the presence of extremely high electrical fields, such as in the vicinity of a super heavy nucleus (z = 150 = 400), particle pairs (e.g. electron-positron) will be spontaneously produced from the vacuum. Application of a constant magnetic field would tent to cause this current to flow in a wire, creating energy. Zero-point or random electro-dynamic theory (Boyer), which uses classical electron theory of Lorentz and field theory of Maxwell, is the starting point for examining whether electrical energy may be tapped directly using high frequency spectral diodes, for example (King). Most of these techniques require either extremely high EM fields or extremely low-noise, high frequency rectification and resonant circuitry. However, the work of Prigogine, King and Rauscher has shown that there may be areas of self-imposed stability and/or frequency windows (e.g. subharmonics) through which potentially prodigious amounts of energy may be obtained and converted for use. Vallee postulates a high-frequency energized medium from which tremendous amounts of energy may be obtained, as does LeBon.

Bearden, developing the earlier work of Tesla, Nisbet and Whittaker, shows how every vector EM wave can be decomposed into two or more simpler, scalar components. These "scalar waves", as he calls them, are able to penetrate matter and travel with limitless velocity due to the fact that, arising from scalar, or potential fields only, they can carry no energy. However, it takes energy to create them and upon their coupling back into vector EM waves, energy can be produced, effectively "at a distance". The sun is a powerful scalar wave generator, for example, as are parts of the earth. Indeed, Bearden believes that gravity itself is a scalar wave-related phenomenon. This being the case, large amounts of useful energy may be able to be obtained from all these sources by the use of a small, "trigger" energy, much as Zinsser uses.

Now I'd like to discuss the second part of my talk, that of AC power measurement.

In the investigations and researches of a number of people, there have often been quoted more or less mythological versions of devices and techniques that have been developed from the time of John W. Keeley (latter part of the 19th century) up to Herdershot, Hubbard, etc., to name a few. It's consistent in all of these devices that the people who have developed and invented them know little of electrical circuitry and electrical measurement techniques. There's no doubt that there are several inventions which have produced prodigious amounts of power from apparent nothingness - variously called tachyon, gravitational field energy, zero point energy, etc.

Most inventions have been of a static nature (i.e. Coler MAGNETSTROMAPPARAT device). They have no moving parts. More recently devices are being investigated that do have moving, usually rotating, parts. Most rotating devices, such as the variable reluctance device of Paul Brown, produce alternating current and the measurement of the power and the efficiency of such devices is, of course, critical to having these inventions accepted by the scientific and engineering community. My aim is to make sure that if people are trying to promulgate a technology with which they a) want to make a bit of money and b) want to convince people it is a useful technology, they have to be able to show why that technology is better than existing technology. Since most of us are competing with our mentor, Nikola Tesla, there is a long way to go before achieving the kind of efficiency he obtained from his generators. That's not to say it hasn't been done, but it is to say we need precise power measuring techniques.

What I have brought may be considered a black box - a free energy device developed by Coler in Germany in the 1930s. I'm simply going to use this as a demo to show how things are and are not put together to measure electrical AC power. There 4 major points to keep in mind when you are talking about the efficiency of a generator, whether it be static or moving. These are:

1) Proper load
2) Proper meter
3) Phase angle
4) Harmonic content

These are four of the most important. People who quote power efficiency figures have often not taken these four things into account.

Proper Load means the ability to load a system in such a way that it will mimic the kinds of loads it's going to find in the real world. This implies connecting the load in such a way so that you can take proper power measurements. Most inventors have equipped themselves with lovely meters - e.g. digital multi-meters which can be switched to read between current (AMPS) and voltage (VOLTS). What many experimentors will do is to switch to the AC Volts scale and will attach the clip leads to the output of their device, thereby placing the meter across the output terminals. Thus they will measure the voltage but they, without touching the clip leads, switch from voltage to AC amps and they will multiply the two AC measurements together to get the watts. You can't do that!

If you have a two terminal device which is producing some kind of power and your meter has a switch on it from AC AMPS to AC VOLTS and you connect that across a generator, you will certainly get an incorrect current reading. This is an improperly loaded device. There is in fact no load apart from the meter. Nowadays meters have such high impedance internally they hardly load your device at all so you're cheating yourself, fooling yourself into thinking you've got a large amount of AC power. What to do about it? Introduce a load. You should put an inductive or resistive load across the output terminals, i.e., a light bulb of known resistance. Or, if it's a low power unit, one of these precision resistors (1-2%); it doesn't matter as long as you know what the resistance is beforehand. You can certainly measure resistance with great accuracy. The proper method is to put a load on and measure the voltage across the generator and measure the current through the load. Only by loading the system properly can you start to make proper measurements.

Proper Meter: Even though you have a good, expensive meter you must look at it carefully and see that somewhere on the bottom of the spec. sheet that comes with it, it says "Peak Reading Only" or "Average Responding". Very rarely, unless you get a very expensive instrument, do you get a true RMS ("root mean square") reading meter. The reason you have to have RMS is that if you want to convince an electrical engineer that you have a device that is capable of producing a certain amount of power he'll want to know that the power is measured with RMS reading instruments or has been converted to an RMS value. So you have to make sure that you either have an RMS meter capable of reading both current and voltage or that you know how to convert the readings from one meter to RMS. With new high-impedence meters with digital readout, e.g. from Radio Shack, you have to do some multiplication. I'll not go into the details here but refer you to the reference at the end of my talk.

One of the best meters is manufactured by Guy Obolensky. It is about the most accurate and best RMS instrument in the USA. Therefore you must know the type of meter with which you are measuring output.

Phase Angle: You also have to know in measuring AC power what the phase angle between the current and voltage is. If we have a voltage waveform and a current waveform both of which are "in phase", at each of the time periods the current and voltage amplitudes can be multiplied together to get a true reading of instantaneous power. But, as most of us know, if you're dealing with any inductive load or capacitive load, we have a shift in the phase of either the current or voltage waveform. If this is the case, we can't simply multiply the resultant current and voltage values on the meter together. The best method is to take a look at the picture on a 'scope of both the voltage and current or calculate/measure the phase angle in some other way. The effective power = voltage measurement ´ current measurement ´ COSINE of the of the angle between these two waveforms. In any circuit that is producing AC power into a non-resistive load you must know the phase angle between the current and the voltage and that is best done by means of an oscilloscope.

Harmonic Content: probably the least important but that which gives a lot of trouble in measurement is the harmonic content of the wave. If you have a wave shape, say a current waveform that has a high 3rd harmonic, the additional harmonic content, which will not be picked up on your meter (only by 'scope) can detract from 10-12% from your power measurement. I have brought a mock-up, or prototype of Coler's device, to demonstrate these effects for those who have asked to see it. This was apparently a successful attempt by him to extract usable power from permanent magnets. Using that, I will demonstrate how to hook up a resistor in the proper circuit to take proper power measurements if you don't have an oscilloscope.

As a final note, I'd like to remind all of you that it is quite easy for anyone to produce up to 3 watts of power from simple 60 Hz resonant circuits. Unless your device can produce an apparent excess of output to input greater than this, you may not have a case.

Now Guy Obolensky will talk on meter systems and power measuring instruments:

The oldest method of measuring electrical energy was a thermal method because obviously heat is a true measure of energy. If you can convert electricity to heat and then measure the heat accurately, you make an accurate measurement of the energy. Of course, you won't be concerned about any of the above factors. There's only one small problem. The instruments were extremely sensitive and would burn out at the slightest overload. They were quite costly because basically they were a heated thermocouple. You pass current through a heating wire and the thermocouple measures the temperature of that wire and you can relate that directly by scale factor to voltage or current, etc. Now, the instruments lost favor because they were so easily burnt out. Then along came semiconductors and a little company called BROMION that combined semiconductors with thermocouples to make an overload-free measuring system. This system will take an overload of 10,000% and not be damaged. That opened up the whole possibility of precision electrical measurement. We have a small device on the table which has a band width of 40 cycles 20 kilo cycles which is basically the audio spectrum. It measures from 125 amp down to I amp and it has a probe so that you can look at the waveform on an oscilloscope.

One other problem that's not at all that obvious. If you want to measure phase angle or power factor, it's not a simple thing. This is because the harmonics change the zero-crossing level. Most devices that measure phase angle today measure the angle between zero-crossings, but that doesn't necessarily correspond to the phase angle of the energy. One of the best ways to do it is to measure power directly. This can be done.

We at BROMION make an instrument called an Electro-Thermic watt meter which measures true power. Then you take a volt meter and ammeter and you compare them and from that comparison you derive the phase angle. Now that will be a true angle, and you can then tract that to your oscilloscope reading and calibrate your oscilloscope.

Reference: The Significance of RMS, Average and Peak Responses
Endel Uiga, Reprinted from April 1964; EKE The Magazine of Circuit Design.

Q: Can you describe your results with the Coler device more fully?

A: Yes. Information on the Coler device may be obtained from Mr. Nelson of Rex Research in California. Coler invented two devices in Germany in the 1920s called MAGNETSTROMAPPARAT and STROMERZEUGER, the first of which I have here. I have had the device produce several tens of milliwatts DC. But recall my closing remarks concerning the 3 watt threshold. I can't say whether the power is coming from the magnets as Coler suggested or else from 60 Hz induction. Since I had a fair amount of difficulty deciphering exactly what Coler said, I strongly suspect that my device isn't working as it should.

New advances in Tesla technology

By JAMES F. MURRAY, III

OPENING REMARKS

Ladies and Gentlemen, it is both a pleasure and an honor to address you today.

It is a pleasure because I will be speaking on a topic which has passionately occupied my life for nearly 20 years, which I consider to be of vital importance to the advancement of mankind.

It is an honor because the subject to be discussed has also been the motivating force in the lives of two men whom I most admire, the late Nikola Tesla, father of modern Electrical Physics, and Guy Obolensky, my teacher for the last seven years and one of my dearest friends.

INTRODUCTION

It is 19 years before the turn of the century in the city of Budapest, in Hungary. A tall, lean and gaunt young man from Serbia struggles to regain his health. For months he has been in the grip of a strange and violent malady which has threatened to take his life.

His convalescence is slow, but his will to live is indomitable. He is the youngest man ever to hold the position of Chief Engineer at the Telephone Exchange in Budapest. His name is Nikola Tesla.

As his strength returns, Tesla's thoughts turn with eagerness toward the resumption of his professional duties, and more so to the solution of a problem which has vexed his mind since his second year of engineering school, the harnessing of alternating currents.

Always having found great fortification of spirit in nature, the weakened Tesla now retreats to the City Park to enjoy the magnificence of sunset. He is in the company of a former class mate, Szigeti. It is a late afternoon in February in the year of 1881.

The dazzling interplay of color and the prismatic sky which signals the dying of another day infuses life into Tesla's troubled soul. His very being is seized by the contrast between this intense display of cosmic wholeness and the integrated essence which he perceives as himself. The mysteries of the objective and the subjective realities seem to merge; a greet truth seems evident and available. He is deeply moved. His sense of the aesthetic escalates to the point of spontaneous expression, and he begins to recite an appropriate verse from Faust:

The glow retreats, done is the day of Toil;
It yonder hastens, new fields of life exploring;
Oh, that no wing can lift me from the soil,
Upon its track to follow, follow soaring....

Suddenly, Tesla is silent, and staring rigidly at the orb of the setting sun. Szigeti is alarmed, and tries to arouse him, but without success.

Then, as if from a dream, Tesla speaks. His voice is charged with emotion: "Watch me!" - "Now watch me reverse it!"

In a moment of unparalleled lucidity, the mind of a noble man has merged with the mental fabric of a Higher Consciousness and captured a grain of truth to share with mankind. During these few seconds of inspiration, Nikola Tesla has discovered the principle of the rotating magnetic field, and, thus, bequeathed to us the alternating current motor, the very foundation from which our entire polyphase electrical technology has evolved. Tesla is just 25 years of age.

These events mark the beginning of a career unsurpassed to this day by any single individual in the electrical field.

In the remaining 62 years of his life, Tesla was awarded 36 patents for inventions pertaining to motors and generators, nine major patents involving the transmission of electrical power, six patents concerning lighting, seventeen patents on the design of high frequency apparatus, twelve patents on radio, seven patents on turbines and similar apparatus, and hundreds of others far too numerous to mention. Additionally, he authored thousands of lectures and articles, all on his beloved subject of electricity.

This much is history, but what rare gift allowed Nikola Tesla to stand as a giant among men? How was his thinking different? What secret allowed him to discover so many truths?

Perhaps it can be summed up this way: Tesla saw that all of nature was dynamic. Thus, to understand nature, he trained himself to think dynamically. His thought processes always included time as an active component, not a static one. Nikola Tesla possessed a parametric mind!

POWER: DISSIPATIVE AND CONSERVATIVE

A great deal of confusion seems to arise among professionals and laymen alike when mention is made of the high efficiencies associated with the constant power systems of the Parametric variety. In conventional Power Systems, the number of independent variables is kept to an absolute minimum. An example of this can be found in modern Electrical Transmission networks, in which the only effective variable is the current. In sharp contrast to this situation, there can be many related variables in a parametric power system, each of which is phase locked one to the other, and all of which are synchronized to a common time base.

The word "parametric" apparently has no impact on the average mind, for immediately vehement arguments are advanced supporting the dissipative nature of all power systems and their limitations in accordance with the well established laws of entropy. Additionally, the traditional defender will almost always be pleased to inform any inquiring novice that all known power systems have long ago been developed to their highest permissible levels of efficiency, and any notable improvement would represent a violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

In rebuttal to such rigid attitudes, it is most important to realize that two types of work systems are known to the physicist. There is the non-conservative, or the dissipative, work function, which is responsible for the evolution of heat or any other nonrecoverable energy form. And there is the conservative, or recoverable work function, which makes itself known by effecting a useful change in some other form of energy, such as kinetic, gravitational potential, or chemical, to itemize only a few.

Accordingly, then, there are also two types of power to consider: the dissipative form and the conservative form. It is the second type of power to which we must ultimately address our attention if we wish to gain an insight into the complexities of Parametric Physics. However, for the sake of ensuring continuity in the development of this theme, the dissipative power system shall be explained first.

Imagine a mass sliding down an inclined plane. The slope of this plane, and the frictional coefficient of its surface are such that the mass (m) shall descend with a constant velocity (v)

Under these conditions, the force of gravity, acting upon the descending mass, shall develop a constant power over the entire course of the mass movement. This power shall represent the time rate of work done by the force of friction over the surface of the incline traversed by m.

The question now arises, however, what work can the force of friction do? Unfortunately, it can only generate heat, and heat is a dissipative agent. Therefore, although this hypothetical system can indeed produce a constant power over a designated interval, the type of power delivered is non-recoverable, and therefore, can serve no further use.

What then of the other form of power? How can its meaning be approached? Of what use is it, and under what conditions is it constant?

Consider the familiar expression for Kinetic Energy:

Differentiating this equation with respect to time yields

But, ;

Now, if v and a are transposed, a common relationship for the instantaneous power is arrived at:

and, recalling that if and , and substituting, an expression for power involving force, distance and time is evolved, namely,

It is most certainly known that the work done in any system must be equal to the available energy, and it is further known that the power produced is indeed the rate of change of the work done. Why then should the energy derivative be related only to the dissipative power function?

Reconsider the previously obtained energy derivative in its original form:

Note that, as derived, this statement reads: "The rate of change of Kinetic Energy with respect to the change in time is equal to the momentum times the rate of change of the velocity with respect to the change in time." The expression "dv/dt" is, of course, an acceleration, so bearing this in mind, an equivalent statement for the above equation can be written

And now the question can be asked: "Does any circumstance exist in which some form of constant power can manifest in a system undergoing an acceleration?"

The search for such a condition must undoubtedly begin with an examination of the energy and power characteristics associated with some common source of acceleration. Naturally, the most obvious example available is that provided by the force of gravity.

This acceleration, when undiluted by vector resolution, and when considered in near proximity to the earth's surface, has a value of approximately 32 feet/sec/sec, and may be represented by the constant (g). Hence,

and from this basic relationship, expressions governing the velocity and displacement resulting from the action of the gravitational force acting upon any mass may be derived.

For the velocity:

For the displacement:

Provided now with this information, an examination of the behavior of a point mass acting under the influence of the earth's gravitational field becomes completely academic.

Consider at this point the originally proposed inclined plane. Any mass supported by its surface will experience a coplanar force of magnitude mg sin O. Hence, since , the coplanar acceleration vector will have a magnitude of:

For the case in question, suppose the slope of the plane to be 30°. The specific values for the expression may be substituted into the equation as follows:

This resulting acceleration value may now be utilized in each of the general equations of motion, yielding new expressions particular to the plane in question:

For the acceleration,
For the velocity,
For the displacement,

Using these relationships, the standard expression for Kinetic Energy, (K.E. = ½mv2), and the instantaneous power formula relevant to this particular situation, (P = (mv) g sin ), graphs of all significant parameters could be plotted.

Examining the first of these graphs, it will immediately be seen that the acceleration is constant over the period under examination. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the coplanar force, , is a constant over the entire length of the inclined plane.

The velocity, as would be seen in a second graph, increases linearly. Once having observed the system's acceleration to be a constant, this fact could easily have been anticipated by recalling the basic definition of an acceleration, namely, dv/dt; only the differentiation of a linear equation can yield an expression which is a constant.

An examination of the values in a third graph, which would represent the displacement, would reveal an interesting fact that they increase in proportions of 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, etc. This is an indication of the fact that the displacement curve is an equation of the second order, such is y = x2. A study of the graphs for the vertical velocity component and the kinetic energy would also reveal them to be square functions. This is most significant, and serves to direct the attention to the relationship which exists between the vertical displacement and the energy.

Because the Potential Energy, (mgh), is a function of the height above some reference plane, it stands to reason that the vertical component of the displacement should be directly related to the Kinetic Energy. This relationship is borne out in the Conservation of Energy Theorem:

P.E. = K.E.

Accordingly, then, it should also stand to reason that some important relationship must also exist between the rate of change of energy and the rate of change in the height. Following this line of reasoning to its logical conclusion, both the Potential and the Kinetic components of the preceding mathematical sentences are now differentiated with respect to time.

These resulting relationships are both expressions of power. P2 represents the rate of change of energy in the accelerating mass m, or the instantaneous work done upon that body per increment of time dt. P1 represents the rate of change in the gravitational potential energy, or the corresponding instantaneous change in the earth's "restorative work function", which is surrendered to the accelerating body per increment of time aft.

P1 may now be equated to P2, yielding:

and, if
Then,

where v is understood to actually be the vertical velocity component (vy) of the overall velocity. Hence:

This premise is the most important presented thus far, for though it may be obvious that dh/dt must be a velocity, far deeper implications are suggested.

Consider again the following Power formula:

Note that mg may be replaced by its equivalent value, W, Hence:

Because the weight, W. is a constant, the power developed by the system is directly proportional to dh/dt, or vy. This, then, explains why the profile of the velocity curve matches the profile of the system's power curve.

Contemplation upon these results suggests an interpretation that may well lead to a general law long overlooked, or at least only partially understood:

"The conservative power developed in any system may be made to conform to the profile of any equation whatsoever, so long as that component of the developed velocity which is parallel to the natural line of action produced by the gradient in question is properly manipulated by the imposition of an appropriately distributed impedance."

Or, more simply stated, "The time structure of the Kinetic Energy developed in any system will be a function of the manner in which the gradient is deployed with respect to the displacement, and the power evolved will be the rate of change of this function."

In accordance with this postulate just advanced, an answer to the question posed earlier may now be ventured: "The circumstance in which constant power can manifest in a system undergoing an acceleration will be found in any arrangement which provides for the development of a constant velocity component by the body traversing the gradient, such that the mass will drop through portions of the gradient having equivalent potentials in equal periods of time."

LINEAR ENERGY AND ENERGY RESONANCE

Dwelling on the realization that the instantaneous power is a derivative of the Energy Function in any system, it becomes clear that, if the conservative power is constant in a given application, then the energy which gives rise to it must, of necessity, be represented by a linear equation. And if the energy is represented by a linear equation, then its amplitude must build in discreet steps which increase according to even integer proportions such as 1, 2, 3, 4, S. 6, etc. Here, then, resides the most important qualification for describing a Parametric Energy System; the energy must be structured in time; it must be quantified!

No one should be surprised at this statement, for there is no reason why certain of the principles inherent in quantum mechanics of particles should not be applicable to macroscopic systems as well. However, because total parity has not yet been proven between these two systems, hereinafter the term Linear Energy rather than Quantized Energy, will be used to further descriptions of the energy in Parametric Systems.

Before proceeding with the development of further concepts associated with Linear Energy Systems, it is imperative that one basic precept be well understood.

What is perhaps most crucial, and most confusing, is the notion of a constant velocity component in an accelerating system.

A little reflection on this situation will yield the fact that the motion in question here cannot be rectilinear, but must obviously be a compound form of motion, having components on at least two axis systems.

It can be hypothesized, then, that the motion under study must, of necessity, represent some form of angular velocity, one component of which remains constant in magnitude. If the vertical velocity component, vy, is assigned this fixed character, then vyt will represent the vertical displacement over the elapsed time, or the height dropped through. Accordingly, then, the product of the vertical velocity component and the time defines the relationship between a "quantum" of Potential Energy and a "quantum" of Kinetic Energy in a Linear Energy System. This is demonstrated in the following derivation:

Following through by substituting this evolved value of v into the classical formula for Kinetic Energy yields an expression for linear Kinetic Energy:

This equation is obviously of the first order, which conforms completely to the theory here under development, and rigorously supports the concept of a Linear Energy structure.

In order to develop an expression for the acceleration, the velocity formula is now differentiated with respect to time, yielding:

In accordance with these developments, the instantaneous power may now be represented by the differentiation of and substitution into the classical Kinetic Energy formula K.E. = ½mv2, which produces:

Note that the power must be a constant as it is the product of two other constants.

It should be obvious at this point that in order to ensure the production of constant power over the entire range available in the gradient, two requirements must be met and upheld. First of all, the body in question must drop through equal segments of potential in equal periods of time. This ensures that the change in Potential Energy with respect to time is linear. Secondly, the applied force must decrease while the displacement increases as a function of the acquired velocity. These conditions ensure that the change in the Kinetic Energy with respect to time is also linear.

In order to fulfill these requirements, the gradient must be "structured" in a very specific manner. An "impedance" therefore must be "imposed" upon the gradient to distribute its effects in space and time, such that the acquired energy will be linear and the developed power constant.

In the realm of simple mechanics, an inclined plane represents an impedence imposed on the gravitational gradient. However, the effects of such an impedence upon the acquired energy were discussed previously, and the results were certainly not linear.

In order to design an adequate impedence for linearizing the energy extracted from the gravitational gradient, it is only necessary to compute the x and y coordinates traced out by a particle moving according to such a law that the square of each instantaneous value of its velocity is made to yield a line of constant slope when plotted with respect to time. Such is the case for the expression .

Hence, the first step which must be taken in producing an "impedance structure" for the case under study is an examination of the component displacements produced by a particle moving in accordance with the equation, .

The vertical velocity component, vy, is constant by definition. Therefore, the y coordinate, or the vertical displacement, is simply vy t. Obtaining the x coordinate, however, shall prove to be somewhat more difficult.

The first step will obviously be to represent the horizontal velocity component, vx, by an algebraic statement. Because the velocity vectors vy and vx are orthagonally situated, this can easily be accomplished by the use of the Pythagorean Theorem. Hence:

If the function vx were plotted it would be found to be nonlinear. The exact displacement experienced by a particle during any time interval can only be found by computing the area under this curve, which is bounded by the time intervals question. This is achieved by the implementation of integral calculus. First, a general expression is evolved for the displacement x by solving for the indefinite integral of dx/dt:

The differential values for X can then be obtained by solving the definite integral

where t0 and t represent actual values of time. However, this type of solution requires definite numerical values, not mercy algebraic variables, therefore it now becomes necessary to develop a specific problem from which data can be derived.

Assume that it is desirable to induce constant power in a point mass m which is falling through the gravitational gradient. Assume further that it is necessary for this mass to acquire the equivalent energy contained in 5-foot intervals of the gradient in equal intervals of time. If the mass m is assigned a value of 2 slugs, then the energy acquired per potential drop differential must be:

P.E. = mgh
P.E. = (2) (32) (.5)
P.E. = 32 ft lbs.

Because the time interval is critical, but of arbitrary duration in this case, the time unit chosen shall be defined as that interval required for a mass, starting from rest, to fall .5 feet in a standard gravitational field, while neglecting the effects of friction. Hence, the time interval shall be obtained as follows:

where:

Now, recalling that the vertical distance h has been defined as vy t, the magnitude of the necessary vertical velocity component can also be found:

vy = h/t
vy = .5/.1767767
vy = 2.8284271 ft/sec

Inserting this velocity value into a formula for constant power yields:

P = mg vy
P = (2) (32) (2.8284271)
P = 181.01934

Hence, a constant power of 181.01934 ft lbs./sec shall be developed by this hypothetical system, and the time flow shall be in intervals of .1767767 seconds.

Returning with this information to the definite integral

numerical solutions may now be commenced utilizing the defined parameters and the following time intervals:

t1 = .1767767 sec

t6 = 1.0606602 sec

t2 = .3535534 sec

t7 = 1.2374369 sec

t3 = .5303301 sec

t8 = 1.4142136 sec

t4 = .7071068 sec

t9 = 1.5909903 sec

t5 = .8838835 sec

t10 = 1.767767 sec

Standard calculations using the just described integration formula and the supplied data have given rise to a series of X coordinates.

x1 = .4290447
x2 = 1.5393868
x3 = 3.0362714
x4 = 4.8372606
x5 = 6.8976224
x6 = 9.1990406
x7 = 11.687376
x8 = 14.379324
x9 = 17.251264
x10 = 20.290076

And the y coordinates are:

y1 = - .5 ft

y6 = -3.0 ft

y2 = - 1.0 ft

y7 = -3.5 ft

y3 = - 1.5 ft

y8 = -4.0 ft

y4 = - 2.0 ft

y9 = -4.5 ft

y5 = - 2.5 ft

y10 = -5.0 ft

The plot of this data is the displacement curve traced out by the mass m during its descent, and its geometric profile is the necessary "impedance structure" to promote the linearizing of the energy extracted from the gradient.

This displacement curve could be plotted by laying off the appropriate x and y coordinate values with respect to a central system origin, , and as such, it represents a graphic expression in the rectangular coordinate system. However, because the displacement obviously represents the path of an angular motion, the acquired energy characteristics should actually be studied in a polar format. This can be achieved if new calculations are made upon the existing curve with respect to some second origin , such that each point (x,y) is associated with some radius vector emanating from , and some angular displacement beneath the zero plane indicated by .

Let the second origin, , be located an arbitrary distance of 24 units from 0 along the positive x axis. This done, it will immediately become obvious that any x coordinate whose magnitude is expressed with respect to the origin, 0 can now be re-expressed in terms of the second origin, , by designating its value as the difference between 24 and x, or 24-x.

Accordingly, then, by additional use of the Pythagorean Theorem, an expression of x and y in r is quickly developed:

Substitution of this relationship into the classical formula for Angular Kinetic Energy now allows the evolution of an expression which defines the angular velocity () for this particular system: his particular system:

Having obtained a means for delivering the angular velocity, a statement representing the magnitude of the radius vector may now be obtained as follows:

The utilization of these formulas and the classical relationship describing angular motion give rise, now, to a considerable volume of new information after a few simple calculations. If these results were charted, a study of the graphs would quickly reveal the fact that all of the plots except for those exhibiting the angular work, and the angular power, are nonlinear. This gives rise to a thought worthy of consideration. Apparently, linear parameters develop non-linear energy curves, while non-linear parameters seem to be responsible for the evolution of linear energy curves. This suggests the development of interesting, but complicated, scaling problems in the engineering of Linear Energy Systems. It may also explain why effects of this kind have never been stumbled upon; the designer must know exactly what he is doing!

If it were possible for you to mentally observe the behavior of the moment of inertia in this system, you would notice the steady and continual change in the length of the radius vector over each interval. The rate of change of (r) with respect to (t) must be precisely determined and controlled, such that the dynamic change in the moment of inertia first retards the acceleration, and then, when required, assists it, but in a such a manner as to insure that the product of the instantaneous torque and the instantaneous angular velocity are always equal to some predetermined constant, and the time interval between each event is the same.

Because each separate interval is equal in time, the total time is a cyclic constant Here, then, lies the true meaning of the elusive concept of the dynamic constant, otherwise known as the phenomenon of constant period!

Further reflection on these concepts will disclose facts even more incredible! The angular velocity may be represented in terms of a frequency (f):

Hence, the frequency is simply

Because is a constant, the frequency is seen to be in direct proportion to the angular velocity. However, this presents an information conflict in terms of classical theory. How can the period be constant if the frequency is changing in time and phase?

The answer to this apparent contradiction lies in the fact that the combined energies contained in each instantaneous frequency sum together in quantum increments with the passage of time. In this way, each frequency involved contributes to the total volume of energy in the system and, theoretically, the total of quantity of the available energy can increase linearly without bound! Thus, the energy has been made to resonate! This is the true meaning of Linearized Energy! And it is now understood that the constant period is the reciprocal of the overage frequency.

It is important to understand that this process is diametrically opposite to Frequency Resonance. For when a particular frequency is made resonant, the system parameters are adjusted so as to maximize the amplitude of the fundamental wave in question and suppress all other frequencies and harmonies to some ineffective level. In doing this, however, more than 36.4% of the energy which could have been made available for use is discarded!

The correct integration of all this data is essential to gaining insight into the unusual operation of Resonant Energy Systems. It must be understood that the incoming power flow is made to become constant in time, thus the energy simply continues to accumulate linearly. Here, then, lies the mechanism which provides the efficiency advantage associated with Resonant Energy: the primary source never delivers energy directly to a dissipative load, but rather to an energy storage system which then, over the second half cycle, delivers its accumulated energy to the load at hand.

Having set forth these foundations with relatively basic mechanical analogies, it will now be a rather simple matter to introduce the concept of FASER.

FASER

The "Force Amplification Stimulated Energy Resonance" in FASER systems makes use of parametric limit cycles such that maximum work is done with minimum energy. Synergy is achieved because all the energy is cohered. With the energy resonance, characterized by FASER, all frequencies become Doppler shifted into harmonics which are thus amplified, so that when the energy structure periodically transforms, discord cannot increase. This is true simplification.

With frequency resonance, characterized by MASER and LASER, the use of harmonics must be eliminated since no attention is paid to the possibility of Doppler shifting the frequencies. By attrition of these harmonics, the fundamental frequency is all that remains to be used. Contrary to popular belief, this is not real amplification. By way of exampIe, with perfect transmission, only 50% of the total energy can be accessed. Here, according to the maximum energy transfer theorem, it can be shown that to maintain the necessary working gradient, at least 50% of the energy must be wasted.

THE FASER BALLAST

An immediate demonstration of the principles of FASER can be seen in their application to the design of ballasts for gaseous discharge lamps. Ballasts serve to allow this kind of lamp to function without exploding. They provide a smooth and efficient transmission of energy from the source of electrical potential to the load represented by the confined discharge.

The ballast required for High Intensity Discharge lamps must manage its energy in such a way as to create a high voltage impulse to turn the gas into a plasma, and then to provide the proper impedence factor (e.g. to choke down the current to a value that can be supported by the particular electrodes of the lamp.) In the case of the HID lamp and the fluorescent lighting, the ballast needs to manage the cold striking voltage and to provide the proper impedence factor.

Conventional ballasts cannot optimize the current loading of the electrodes because of dynamical problems with the gas itself. The FASER ballast is unique in that it has momentum compensating circuits, and if the circuit is alternating, FASER further refines the use of the current so that the energy normally lost as heat can be recycled and turned back to useful work.

The resulting benefits of a FASER ballast over present day ballasts are the following:

(1) It provides a flicker-free light.

(2) The bulbs will not heat as much because the electrodes are actually optimally cooled by electron evaporation. (The implications for television and film production are obvious.) This, in turn, allows the lamps to function at least four times longer.

(3) It provides a wider dynamic range, so that manufacturing variations in the lamp itself will not affect the efficacy.

(4) It provides a better quality of light: colors are clearer, brighter and more natural, as in sunlight.

(5) It uses less material and therefore can be less expensive and lighter than conventional ballasts.

(6) Finally, the FASER ballast is highly efficacious. It provides twenty percent more light for the same amount of electrical energy than any other known technique, when measured at the bulb itself. Furthermore, when combined with an optimized HID lamp, the synergy of the system enables the same amount of light as a color corrected standard tungsten light to be produced with ninety-five percent less electricity.

Now, without any further ado, I'd like to introduce a very special person, Mr. Guy Obolensky.

THE FORCE IS FASTER THAN ITS RADIATIONS!

SECTION I

By GUY OBOLENSKY

I have been invited by this Non-Conventional Energy Conference to demonstrate faster-than-light signaling. Bell's theorem has proven that quantum mechanics is correct where relativity gives wrong answers.1 Today's faster-than-light demonstration suggests an explanation. Relativity's hypothesis of "separation by light speed" fails to consider the space-independent and, therefore, timeless magnetic-charge quantizing-effect.2

I was searching for a way to make my faster-than-light technology public, without giving away the shop, when the following appeared in the New York Times, on December 20, 1978:

Four Celestial Objects Believed Exceeding Speed of Light . . . A very distant galaxy known as 3C120 has been observed apparently ejecting two such objects in succession, the first at 5 times light speed and the second at 8 times that speed . . . The conference here was organized by the Max Plank Institute.

Heinrich Hertz was the first to confirm that electricity travels at the speed of light. I will demonstrate the "tachyon structure" in the Hertz "luminal" signal with the off-shelf equipment that you see on the dais. Today's demonstration is a fundamental test of the electrification's speed. The faster-than-light or tachyon-signal component is unmistakable. I will address its interpretation, implementation and measurement.

The "principle of interferences" and "Madelung's hydrodynamical interpretation"3 take on new meaning when pilot signals are seen traveling faster than light and are shown to trigger materialization in a system far from thermo-dynamic equilibrium.4 In this light, de Broglie's "theory of the pilot wave", which received the Nobel prize in 1929, provides new insight into the missing-mass associated with spin-quantization.

An example of "Force Amplification by Stimulated Energy Resonance" (FASER®) in the domain of mechanics was discussed in the previous session by my student, and fellow inventor, James F. Murray. Jim has shown, with a gravitational analogy, how Faser® energy-resonance can be interpreted as the storing of orthogonal (ortho-) momentum extracted from the gradient of a force in order to preserve uniform motion in that force's "time-field".5

I will introduce the relativistic Faser® by describing its Phase Conjugate Resonator (PCR)6 and the "zero-mode" or "monopole" soliton it creates.7 Commercialized application to impulse arc-welding and plasma-arc stabilization are reviewed to show how Faser® creates the "probability pilot-waves". The invisible sea of energy, bound by our planet's time-field8, will be explained in relation to the DC to 200 Mhz "Magnetic Bottle" invented by Dr. Nikola Tesla. We will show how this Tesla-type PCR can cohere the antimatter-electron-couple, called ortho-positronium,9 which subsequently annihilates coherently and amplifies the monopole's energy-resonance. Finally, to confirm Tesla's faster-than-light claim, we show how quantum electronics can cohere the ambient's excited-states to condense charge, which is then accumulated in a capacitor to do independent work. At the same time, faster-than-light communication is possible between the monopole-force-transmitter and its receivers, unaffected by orientation, distance, or electrical noise!

In Section II of this paper, the mathematical principles of relativistic acceleration by modulating the shock discharge line's impedence is introduced by my late associate, Dr. R. P. Shaw, in an unpublished paper titled, "Theory of Shock Discharge Lines". The original faster-than-light demonstration, its construction and implementation are described by my patent attorney, Daniel H. Kane, and excerpted in Section III. Continuity in this 45-year long quest to understand the Tesla-coil is illustrated biographically.

In 1939, experimental radio was in its heyday. I was ten and had just acquired a Tesla-designed triple-circuit tuna. Years later, after my mother's death, I came across the circuit and my description among her papers. This description suggests a phase-conjugate-resonance force magnifying transformer:

Dear Mother, I bought some parts for a radio, a triple circuit tuner and a diode . . . Something told me that the tuner that I had bought might help me . . . First I soldered the secondary coil to the primary coil . . . then I used the tickler coil . . . took off the crystal and it still was going so l rigged it up in a set . . . I will draw a picture of it . . .

In classical theory, the crystal detector could not be eliminated because air-core inductors are "linear" and incapable of multiplication. Nevertheless, by 1941, I was able to replicate the self-magnifying Tesla-coil for a super-regenerative receiver. Having mastered the basket weaving technique for low parasitic capacity (which determines the gain of a PCR), the "efficiency" of my Tesla-coil was extreme. With only a few milliwatts of stimulation, it band-shifted all the superheterodyne radios in the neighborhood, interchanging stations WOR and WEAF! After I was caught by the FCC inspectors, I was forced to take the set apart. For the moment, this ended my interest in radio.

In the late forties, my mentor was Dr. Robert P. Shaw, a mathematical genius. He was working at the NYU Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, on the United States' jet propulsion research program, "Project Squid". He discovered that macrosonic vortex-toroids carry a virtual shock-wave in their central-hole. Under Shaw's instruction, I built the apparatus to reproduce these "ortho-spin" solitons and conducted many of Shaw's original experiments.

By the late fifties, I had my own consulting business and was privately working to perfect an electrical process utilizing energy-resonance to machine metal by crystal-lattice disintegration. Linear analysis of nonlinear relationships required building analog computers to correct for relativistic-scale distortion. This lead to the frequency-chords that stimulate the soliton's energy-resonance.

In my first experiment with soliton energy-resonance, the magnetic "wigglers" and dielectric "mirrors" were optimally tuned. Upon firing the gaps to initiate what was expected to be a normal 7-joule ring-down, the energy-resonance did not decay; instead, it self-amplified, breaking down the dielectric. Mode-doubling materialized lightning-like floating sparks that bounced gently on the work table before "evaporating". FIGURE 1 is an enlarged section of the wave-guide; it revealed a vaporized dendritic-structure, featuring well-defined round holes at half-wave intervals. This periodic structure in the quarter-wave thick pure-aluminum wave-guide suggested that the ejected plasma would be coherent. The economic implications of using a relativistic Faser® to produce "critical energy-density" can be cleaned from the following fact: the missing aluminum's mass, using exploding wire technology, would have required several hundred thousand joules to have effected incoherent, normal vaporization!

Dr. Shaw's official shock-wave study during the Eniwetok hydrogen bomb test program gave him the opportunity to research a well-instrumented macrosonic shock-field. My neg-entropy demonstration convinced him that such a relativistic field could be easily reproduced and, once understood, controlled. I remember his characterization of "punching a hole in the fabric of time with a near-instantaneous magnetic field". He said that "there should be coherent triple-convergence in the wake of its shock-waves".

To raise capital and continue the basic research, I formed an instrument manufacturing company, Bromion Incorporated. Shaw formed the macrosonic Process Corporation. In 1964, based on our 2-joule, 1-microsecond prototype, Shaw completed the "Theory of Shock Discharge Lines". The wave-chord formations, which produce the near-instantaneous magnetic-spin force, are shown in FIGURE 2. When this soliton wave-packet drives its field-forming solenoid, the resulting "vector-potential effect"10 ruined my Minerva chronograph. By chance, a remote "receiver" recorded quantitative information. A double-coiled stack of 29-inch long clip leads lying in the next room and only dipped together were found to have been spot-welded by the neg-entropic effect of the shock-stimulated vector-potential. It is believed the spin-waves, which are the collective variations of the magnetization vector, cohered noise to bring into being a self-organizing energy-resonance or soliton. This could explain the enormous power gain that would have been necessary for the spot-welds.

The unique wading process that arose from our collaboration should be of particular interest to this Non-Conventional Energy Conference. A soliton driven welding-arc is magnetically stabilized and condenses "globally" when the correctly timed pulse kicks the plasma through the energy barrier to a condensed state. The welding-arc's plasma is already "far from thermodynamic equilibrium"; the reduced entropy arises from cohering the "excess entropy production". This demonstrates the loophole in the Second-Law of Thermodynamics pointed out by Dr. Ilya Prigogine, who received the Nobel Prize in 1977. Dr. Prigogine showed how "excess entropy production" can organize "far from thermodynamic equilibrium" states of matter and energy, reducing total entropy.

A hydrodynamic analogy may be observed by filling a washtub with cold water. Take an eye dropper filled with hot, dyed water and release a drop so that it strikes the center of the tub. A similar hot, colored drop rematerializes later and is clearly seen jumping back to retrace the path of its origin. this occurs before the water settles down to its dispersive, matter-wave, radiations. The dyed drop's initial impact produces a holographic shock-field whose "pilot waves of probability" determine the future "critical laminar flow". In effect, the genesis history is stored in "the last shall be first" time-reversed holograms of the probability-pilot-waves. What Bacon called the "collective instance" demon strafes the materialization of mathematical law with the "arrow of time" reversed.11

OSCILLOGRAPHS OF FASER WAVE CONVERGENCE

545 Tek. scope, Horizontal cal. 100 ns/cm Vertical cal. 1000 v/cm.


FIGURE 2.1


FIGURE 2.2

Line input is across the capacitor of an impulse excited lank circuit. Trigger circuits are synchronised with the hydrogen thyrotron impulse modulator. Multiple exposures were obtained by moving the film pack after successive impulses. Exposures # 1-3 show that lower order harmonics are already converging. If can be seen that by the 11th mesh detrimental reflections are beginning to form, but this energy does not substantially degrade coherence. As the probe advances down the line additional harmonics are seen 10 converge forming the coherent energy wave. Double frequency energy modulation, a characteristic of the input potential has been eliminated. Exposure # 18 shows the output of the transmission line, terminated in a 10 ohm water cooled carbon resistor. The Guilleman rise time parameter, with an 18 mesh network, is faster than our measurement capability.

In 1978, the IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics published a review paper titled "Phase Conjugate Optics and Real-Time Holography". The relative simplicity of the optical modeling of Phase Conjugate Resonance (PCR) gave me a formality in which to describe FASER® and the force-magnifying Tesla coil. A PCR can amplify the multi-frequency chords of a soliton wave-particle because, after any number of round trips, the accumulated phase error is zero. The PCR is a parametric cavity resonator, bounded by a normal and conjugate mirror, whose atoms are modulated to serve as a moving half-wave array. The phase error that is "accumulated" on its way from a normal to the conjugate mirror is "subtracted" by exactly the same amount on its way back to the normal mirror.

Three remarkable PCR properties make Faser® possible. First, the PCR does not possess longitudinal modes that depend on cavity length. Second, unlike conventional reflectors, the PCR allows for reflectivities in excess of unity Third, unlike conventional wave-particle-accelerators, the PCR does not impose a theoretical limit to the relativistic energydensity. It is a very effective "magnetic bottle".

With sufficient attention devoted to dielectric-stress, the energy density can be raised to the "critical point" for the spontaneous production of charge. The higher the voltage, the greater the percentage of gain. When approaching the critical point, the gain increases so rapidly that it is imperative to provide an emergency current drain to prevent midcircuit flashover. Tesla's patents warned that such a dielectric breakdown would materialize potentially lethal discharges. As demonstrated by my first experiment with the relativistic Faser®, the entire energy-resonance is dissipated in the formation of ball-lightning.

A soliton's conjugate energy-resonance couples spin-momentum like the response of a gyroscope to an unbalancing force. The response is displaced by a quarter-turn in the space domain, but there is no effect in the time-domain. The phase conjugate of a wave contains the complex conjugate of only the space component. Since the time component remains unchanged, without regard for the number of cycles (round-trips) in the amplifying-medium, the "arrow of time", which is determined by entropy, can be reversed!

A soliton's informational-pilot-wave can be created electronically and amplified with a PCR to the critical-energy density. As a direct consequence of relativistic effects, the waves in the center of this energy-resonance begin to co here, soften and increase in length. This compresses the waves in the leading and trailing ends of the soliton's wave packet, and their overall energy is increased. The natural dispersion effect, which is seen as the speeding up of these higher energydensity wave-components, causes the trailing end continually to try and catch up with the leading end. This synergistic process causes the normal effect of dispersion to be reversed!

I had learned from Dr. R.P. Shaw how to build analog models to solve intractable problems. The particular set of nested coils objectifies mathematical law by controlling the impedence of space-time. This allows various soliton wave-forms to be evaluated. - When the coils are all oriented to the same plane, they look like the periodic exponential structure in the rings of Saturn. However, when the skew-angle of each nominally orthogonal setting is correct, the resulting dynamic impedance structure produces a constant-power soliton. The current waves that collectively make up the soliton wave-packet.

There are three Faser® designs, covering the low, medium and relativistic-energy requirements; all employ phase conjugate resonance. The ferromagnetic Faser® provides a dynamic-impedance that converts the oscillating-power of ordinary alternating-current (AC) into a constant-power soliton train. This is of interest to industry presently requiring direct-current (DC). The DC xenon-arc light comes to mind because comparable flicker-free low-stress lighting, with a less costly AC metal-arc bulb, is made possible with Faser® ballasting. The AC metal-arc's plasma, which is normally nonlinear, becomes unconditionally stable and linear. By eliminating electrode sputtering, rated life-time dramatically increases, the bulb puts out more light, and there is less wasted heat.13

The medium power Faser®, is a low voltage, air-core network. It provides AC-power conditioning for high frequencies. With this system, soliton welding has been an industrial reality for nearly 24 years. Bromion's proprietary welding process allows it to weld the exotic thermocouple alloys used in its true-rms Thermal Watt Converter. In 1979, a contract to demonstrate this Soliton Welding Process was successfully completed. A.T. Cross pen company wanted to make a superior fountain pen. This required that a pure ruthenium ball be waded to a gold alloy nib. In addition to the normal problems common to impulse welding, pure ruthenium could not be welded to gold because of a quantum-electric effect. Without Faser®, ballasting, when the weld area melts, the arc becomes unstable, blows out the interface and ruins the yeld. With the Faser®, system, a single 4-volt soliton mats the ruthenium-gold interface and, upon the soliton's collapse, up to 50 volts are developed. Nearly instantaneous condensation is achieved, producing uniform diffusion from the gold nib to the ruthenium ball, the gold actually wetting the ball's entire surface as if driven by a spherical implosion. The Winsted Precision Ball Corp. supplied the ruthenium balls to A.T. Cross and monitored the welding project work-order.

Mr. William J. Kelley, General Manager of Winsted, was one of the few industry representatives who witnessed the demonstration of the ferromagnetic Faser®, the air-core Faser®, and the relativistic Faser® system. The demonstration of the relativistic Faser® in 1977, was organized to test the speed of spin-waves14 and Dr. Nikola Tesla's faster than-light claim.15 Tesla said:

"In the system I have devised, only force is conveyed to all parts of the earth . . . [It] reaches receiver without the slightest dispersion, so that an incomparably greater amount [of power] is collected than is possible by radiations . . . The mode of propagating the currents from the transmitter through the terrestrial globe is most extraordinary, considering the speed of the electrification of the surface. The [electrification] wave starts with a theoretically infinite speed, slowing down first very quickly and afterwards at a lesser rate . . . The mean surface speed is thus about 741,200 kilometers per second".

The mean surface speed translates into 2½ times light speed. The resulting shock-wave interference structure, like the Mach-numbers for matter-waves, announce the monopole's virtual-force. It progressively jumps back to light speed, exchanging linear momentum for "ortho-spin" (orthagonal momentum); this localizes the radiation's energy-density and "precipitates free charge". Tesla's insight was so advanced that physical science has arrived only recently at an understanding of his spin-wave magnifying-transformer.

Tesla's many writings led me to believe that he considered the electron's charge analogous to the charge on the earth. For example, this planet's charge is macro-quantized by the coupling to spin through the agency of its magnetic force. The characteristic impedance of the monopole-wave-guide comprising the earth's spherical surface and its radiation absorbing ionosphere is 377 , which is 120 or sixty revolutions. The SO microsecond spark structure of lightning appears to be relativistically dialated muon decay;16 it exemplifies coherence 500 times longer than the half-life of ortho-positronium. This bound-state positron provides fine-grained energy-structure in the earth's electromagnetic wave-cavity.

From this "sea of energy", Tesla's magnifying transformer was able to condense charge, do useful work, and later, retrace the initializing impulse backwards. This is analogous to the colored, hot-water drop and tub demonstration. Because of the extremely long range coherence made practicable with PCR, the incoming and outgoing electric current tides could be cohered, thus allowing Tesla to use clockwork commutators to rectify the earth's sub-audio Schumann resonance.17 When the inductor's geometry, and wire coefficients are optimized for effective conjugate-resonance, an "anti-matter magnetic-bottle", whose band width extends from DC to 200 Mhz, effectively localizes the charge liberated by "virtual ball-lightning". This allows "harvesting the free charge". There is conclusive evidence that Tesla actually succeeded in turning this 21st century Buck Rogers principle into viable hardware before the nineteenth century closed.

The results of my numerous experiments are interpreted in the light of Dr. Shaw's macrosonic soliton discoveries. By properly scaling the forces, one can understand quantized structure in the or/ho-spin/velocity quantization. For example, the disparity in conjugate spins increased the coupling-constant's force so that Mach-number speed jumps require "global" changes in the "or/ho-spin's" angular-momentum. My electromagnetic, zero-mode, energy-resonance could be amplified to the magnetic monopole's equivalent mass. Its decay would be associated with the observed time and space, ordered, virtual shock-field. This could account for the spontaneous charge production and vector-potential effects that have been reported by so many "free energy" experimenters.

In 1975, Bouford and Pinsky, at Berkeley and Houston Universities respectively, reported finding a monopole with a mass greater than 200 protons in cosmic rays.18 Current theory predicts that the mass-equivalent energy will be on the order of 10 trillion volts! The energy-density of the monopole-soliton's mass-equivalent (Z) only needs to be greater than the fine structure constant of 137, in order for the enhanced gravity of the nuclear-force to liberate charge from the negative energy continuum. The electromagnetic soliton's extended coherence length determines its relativistic mass-energy; like a black hole19, its time-dialation can "spark the vacuum"20 and liberate charge coherently.

This monopole phenomenon is based on the fact that energy-resonant states change abruptly, quantizing exchange energy in a photon with both spin and charge components. J.J. Thompson showed21 that the angular momentum of an electromagnetic couple is proportional to the product of magnetic and electric charges. However, unlike the reciprocal force of electric charge, the force of magnetic charge is undiminished by distance!

On the one hand, when an electric charge is accelerated close to the speed of light, it takes on the properties of magnetic charge. On the other hand, when a magnetic charge is slowed down close to light speed, it takes on the properties of electric charge. Theory says that magnetic charge should be nearly 100 times as strong as electric charge; consequently, the monopole's ionizing effect per-charge-unit should be 10,000-times greater.

In "The Dynamics of Space Time," John A. Wheeler describes how the gravitational force of over-critical nuclear mass creates a nonlinear and multiple-connected space-time.22 The monopole-soliton's mass-equivalent energy can become overcritical due to the cumulative effect of an unrestricted coherence-length. In reference to today's faster-than-light demonstration, it is also suggested that the vector-potential's effect is a quantized, nonlinear function of the magnetic field's rate of change and, the magnetic impulse's informational pilot-wave would not be attenuated by distance, nor effected by local-time reversal.

A distinction must be made between the convention of local-time that is alterable and the direction of spin-coupling for the north, south, and neutral monopoles. Local time-reversal may be affected by changing the direction of the spiral turns in an inductor without changing the magnetizing current. However, this entropy related time does not re verse a monopole's clock; its time is the absolute reference from which tachionic pilot-waves influence its future. The point is made clear by Robert K. Adair of Yale University, in a well-circulated "gedanken" experiment:

When a proton moves through a magnetic field, it follows a curved path. In one case the magnetic force may be produced by supplying current to a solenoid. The effect of reversing time would be to reverse the motion of protons and electrons, conjointly. Thus, the electrons that would make up the magnetizing current must also be reversed. Under such circumstance the proton will simply retrace its original path, but in the opposite direction; the path of the proton is said to be invariant with respect to time reversal. Suppose the magnetic field arises not from an electric current but from the presence of a magnetic monopole. The proton will still reverse direction, according to the polarity of the monopole, but it no longer is bound to retrace the original path. In short, the proton's path in the magnetic field of a monopole depends on Newton's absolute-time.23

In summation: The monopole's spin-quantizing force does not obey the inverse cube power-law of the electromagnetic field. The effect on electric charge by quantizing a magnetic monopole's angular-momentum is not diminished, despite the most extended coherence length. Repeated experimentation suggests that this magnetic, charge-cohering "informational-force" is also faster than the speed of light in a vacuum!

The superluminal soliton's "ortho-spin" produces coherent Cherenkov radiations because its force-field is coherent in both space and time. This would allow spontaneous charge to be withdrawn from a magnifying PCR (magnetic bottle). After doing useful work, the charge can be returned with the polarity reversed in a periodic sequence that survives the fatal Second Law of Thermodynamics.

In our experiment, the periodic spin-quantization appeared as the separations between 10-meter layers of a giant "onion", with the hypothetical magnetic-monopole-soliton at the nucleus. Within the space of approximately one foot, the phase-shift and attenuation suddenly became too compressed to resolve. These "end zones" appeared at twice light speed for the frequency detected. When the Magnifying Transmitter's aerial-terminal intersects the virtual force-field, charge accumulates in the PCR's primary capacity. The anomalous charge-effects were a very important part of the 1977 relativistic Faser® demonstrations.

Our ten-meter Tesla-type accelerator produced spin-wave structure small enough to investigate within our 70-foot building. It was powered by a Tektronix 40 Mhz function generator that supplied about 5 volt amperes. The power dissipation was insignificant Everywhere we probed, the detected signal was identical, without apparent time shift or attenuation with distance. The detector consisted of a geometrically tuned 15 cm solenoid, completely enclosed by a grounded 25 cm cookie tin which could be oriented in mutually orthagonal planes. Every plane registered the same amplitude and phase; thus, the radiation was shown to be isotropic.

The receiving system was mounted on an instrument carriage that contained a battery powered amplifier and lasing-diode for a fiber-optic signal return. This eliminated evanescent-wave conduction, and it isolated the receiver carriage when the connection to earth ground was opened. The charge that accumulated on the cookie tin ended reception whenever the grounding wire was removed. (This effect is noteworthy because it is connected with the Tesla gravitational experiments that involved stimulating a specific energy-resonance in a strong electric gradient.) The receiving equipment carriage could be rolled away from the "Force Magnifying Transmitter" in order to plot, as a function of distance, the detected phase and amplitude. There was neither phase shift nor attenuation, except in a discrete zone less than 30 cm wide. Here, the very rapid phase shift and attenuation were not resolvable because the receiver was of a similar size. After passing this first end-zone, the signal was seen to resume its normal amplitude and phase. Thereafter, the signal remained constant to the end of the laboratory, where a second end-zone began.

Today's elementary demonstration is easily reproducible. The instrumentation is common, requiring two identical UHF current transformers (1 Ghz bandwidth) and a 400 Mhz dual beam scope. The 3 GeV. per second (15 V. in 5 ns), parabolic rise and decay pulse generator allows adequate resolution, and it controls Gibbs-dispersion to form a single impulse. Finally, our six meter circular-loop wave-guide has a ground plane running down its center to isolate the launching and receiving current transformers from spurious artifact.

The Electro-Magnetic-Pulse (EMP) that is launched into one end of the wire loop is compared with its pilot-wave and "luminal" signals, which arrive at the opposite end of the loop. We measure the current being launched and the current being received. As one might expect, the wire wave-guide slows down the luminal part of the EMP. However, you can plainly see that a near instantaneous current signal is present before the arrival of the EMP. With a similar, but much larger loop and better instrumentation, the velocity-structure of the EMP's pilot-wave can be quantitatively investigated. For now, it has been demonstrated publicly that the force is faster than its radiations.

REFERENCES

1. B. d'/Espagnat, "The Quantum Theory ant Reality," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, November 1979, pp. 158-181.

2. R. A. Carrigan, Jr. and W. P. Trower, "Superheavy Magnetic Monopoles," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, April 1982.

3. L. De Broglie, Physics and Microphysics, Pantheon Books, 1955.

4. I. Prigogine, G. Nicolis and A. Babloyantz, "Thermodynamics of Evolution," PHYSICS TODAY, November 1972, p. 23.

5. N. A. Kozyrev, "Possibility of Experimental Study of the Properties of Time", Russian, May 1968.

6. C. R. Giuliano, "Applications of Optical Phase Conjugation," PHYSICS TODAY, April 1981.

7. C. Rebbi, "Solitons," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, February 1977, p. 92.

8. P. S. Wesson, "Does Gravity Change With Time?," PHYSICS TODAY, July 1980, p. 32.

9. Sir H. Massey, "Slow Positrons in Oases," PHYSICS TODAY, March 1976, p. 42.

10. J. D. Jackson, "Classical Electrodynamics," John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York (1962), p. 408.

11. D. Layzer, "The Arrow of Time," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, December 1975.

12. A. Yariv, "Phase Conjugate Optics," IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS QE14, 650 (1978).

13. T. M. Lemons, FIES, and A. G. Obolensky, "Improved Operation of HID Lamps," LIGHTING DESIGN & APPLICATION, January 1978.

14. "Search and Discovery," PHYSICS TODAY, June 1957, page 56.

15. Dr. N. Tesla, "World System of Wireless Transmission of Energy," TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE AGE, October 16. 1927.

16. M. L. Perl, "How Does the Muon Differ From the Electron," PHYSICS TODAY, July 1971.

17. V. I. Ivanov and S. Ledomskaya, "Effect Of ions on the Propagation Characteristics of VLF Radio Waves and On the Characteristics of Schumann Resonance," Institute of Physics, Leningrad State University, Leningrad, U.S.S.R., U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code: 0016-7932-82-2102, 1981.

18. PHYSICS TODAY, October 1975, page 17.

19. J. D. Bekenstein, "Black-Hole Thermodynamics," PHYSICS TODAY, January 1980.

20. J. S. Greenberg and W. Greiner, "Searching for the Sparking of the Vacuum," PHYSICS TODAY, August 1982.

21. J. J. Thompson, "The Cathode Rays," PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE, 5th series, 44 (October, 1897), page 312.

22. J. A. Wheeler, "The Dynamics of Space-Time," INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, December 1963, page 62.

23. R. A. Carrigan, Jr. and W. P. Trower, "Superheavy Magnetic Monopoles," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, April 1982, we 108.

SECTION II: THEORY OF SHOCK DISCHARGE LINES

By Dr. R.P. Shaw

Devices considered here are electrical analogues of gas-filled shock tubes and mechanical shock cascades. Nonlinear circuit elements are employed in such a way that the speed of electrical waves increases with their amplitude, just as the sound speed in a gas increases with pressure. Thus, as the wave is propagated down the line, later portions with higher voltage and current will overtake the low-voltage, low-current earlier portions, so that a steep profile is formed, corresponding to an almost instantaneous current rise. Such "shock discharge lines" may be used to accelerate greatly the slow current rise which inevitably results from effects of distributed inductance in all electrical and electronic equipment. The use of the term "transmission line" in no way limits the invention to radio frequencies, periodic or aperiodic waves. This device will be useful wherever the "power factor" or "standing wave ratio" cannot be improved by ordinary techniques.

As shown below, the wave speed v in the line is

(1)

where i(x,t) is the current flowing at time t at a point x on the line, and e(x,t) is the potential drop between the conductors at the same point. l(i,e) is the inductance per unit length of line and c(i,e) is the capacitance per unit length. v has the same form as that of the constant wave speed of an ordinary transmission line, but here its value depends on local, instantaneous values of current and voltage, owing to the dependence of I and c on these quantities.

At the input terminals of the line (x = 0), the impedence is

(3)

being the current-dependent generalization of what is called the (constant) "characteristic resistance" of ordinary transmission lines. Clearly, its dependence on the current i is similar to that of l(i), decreasing as the magnitude of i increases. Thus the external circuit initially sees a large resistance, which diminishes as the current builds up.

Within the line (x 0) conditions are very much like those within a gas-filled tube when the pressure and velocity at one end (x = 0) are raised by applying a force to a piston. Initially there is a "state of rest" in the line, with i = e = 0 throughout. When the switch is closed at t = 0 a simple wave is propagated down the line, quite analogous to a simple compression wave in a gas. It is characterized by a family of converging straight velocity characteristics

each bearing constant values of voltage e and current i. As later characteristics with higher values of current i and wave speed v(i) travel faster than the earlier ones, successive characteristics tend to overtake one another, so that the rate of current rise at points down the line far exceeds that at the input. Presumably matters could be arranged so as to make all the C+ converge at a point with a virtually instantaneous current rise analogous to a shock front in a gas. (We have not yet analyzed the phenomenon - analogous to the shock mechanism in gases - which would occur in the triply-covered region behind the envelope of converging characteristics. It should be interesting.)

Mathematical Analysis

If the familiar derivation of the differential equations for a transmission line with constant parameters is carried out in a straightforward way, it is easily found that for our non-linear line the equations are of the same form:

(1)
(2)

even though the inductance I and the capacitance c per unit length now depend on the voltage drop e(x,t) between the conductors and the current i(x,t). We shall neglect the resistance of the conductors and the leakage between them.

Characteristic parameters a, b can be introduced and the characteristic equations corresponding to (4), (5) are easily derived. We may do this and integrate the resulting characteristic equations, and proceed in a more elementary way which the general reader may find easier to follow. In terms of the quantities,

(6)

equations (4), (5) can be rewritten:

(7)
(8)

where

(9)

Adding, we have

(10)

and subtracting

(11)

(10) and (11) show that along the curves

(12) constant

and along the curves

(13) constant

and are the characteristic parameters and also correspond to the Riemann invariants in the theory of one-dimensional compressible flow. To show that the curves C+ and C- defined in (12), (13) are actually the velocity characteristics, we must establish that they are the tracks in space time along which infinitesimal disturbances are propagated. To this end, consider an electrical condition of the line described in the neighborhood of an arbitrary point by a solution (i0,e0) of (4), (5) and superpose on this an infinitesimal perturbation (i,e) so that i = i0 + i, e = e0+ E.

Then, expanding l(i), c(e) in Taylor series, inserting in (4), (5), and neglecting the products of small quantities, we have


whence, still neglecting products of small quantities:

which are linear equations with the propagation speed, see Equation (9).

Simple Waves. Suppose that initially i = e = 0 throughout the line. Then, when the switch is closed and current begins to flow into the line, the disturbance at the input (x = 0) will propagate down the line as a forward-facing simple wave, characterised by

(14)

throughout. (The constant value zero is determined from the fact that along the initial characteristic i = e = 0 and hence = 0 .)

as

(15) constant

along each C+ in the wave, we have, by addition and subtraction of (14) and (15)

(16) i = constant = i(b), e = constant = e(b)

along each C+, and hence the slope is constant as well. Thus each characteristic C+: = constant, is a straight line whose slope, by (12), is

As the current is rising at the input (x = 0), v also increases, and succeeding C+ characteristics, each bearing higher values of current and voltage, propagate down the line with increasing speed, overtaking the earlier low-current characteristics. Consequently, at points down the line, the current rise must inevitably be greatly sharpened.

We now turn our attention to an external circuit represented by C,R,L. Let q be the charge on the condenser C. Then the current flowing in the external circuit and into the line is

(17)

Since x = 0 throughout the simple wave and therefore also at the input (x = 0), we have, by (14):

(18)

where

(19)

corresponds to what is called the characteristic resistance of a line with constant parameters. Then, adding potential drops around the circuit, we obtain

(20)

with the initial conditions

(21) at t = 0

Equations like (20) (non-linear in the first derivative) have apparently not been studied very thoroughly, and probably must be integrated numerically. Qualitatively we note by (19) that r, like l, decreases with increasing magnitude of current. Thus, the total instantanneous resistance as seen by the external circuit,

(22)

decreases as the current builds up, and things tend to go better. (In mechanical terms, even though the force, -q/c, decreases as it accelerates the mass L, the latter slides more easily as its velocity increases.) At any rate, the convergence of the C+ characteristics in the line insures a great amplification of the rate of current rise, and, as mentioned, they can probably all be made to intersect in a point, with an almost instantanneous current rise.

SECTION III: THE EXPERIMENT BACKGROUND AND FIELD OF THE EXPERIMENT

DECEMBER 28, 1980

The following photographs were taken from a Tektronix 7904 oscilloscope during the Loop Transmission Line Experiment conducted at Technethion Inc., 124 Route 17, Sloatsburg, New York on December 28, 1980. Present were Alexis Guy Obolensky, Henry K. (Andrija) Puharich, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, and Daniel H. Kane, Jr. An 18.52 meter current loop of copper wire was coupled to a Chronetics Inc. PG-11 recurrent step function generator with parabolic rise time operating at 2 mhz. The signal coupled into the end of the loop was also coupled to the Tektronix 7904 oscilloscope by means of a current probe current transformer. The signal received at the other end of the loop wire was coupled through a second current probe current transformer to a second input of the oscilloscope so that both transmitted and received signals could be compared in phase. The current transformers were calibrated for identical phase shift, frequency response, delay and attenuation. Furthermore, check was made to assure that these parameters remained the same at different amplitudes of the signal. The delay cables were adjusted so that transmitted and received signals were coincident. the following photographs show the recurrent pulse as transmitted and received. The primary pulse of each step is transmitted around the loop at 96.4% of the speed of light arriving 68 ns later. However, a near instantaneous signal rise is apparent at 4 ns in the received wave. If interpreted as a "pilot wave" or superluminal phenomenon propagating around the loop, this anomolous rise in received signal indicates a primary event propagating at 15.43 times the velocity of light in a vacuum. In the control which follows the loop is disconnected at the receiving end and shows no received signal.

WITNESSED AND UNDERSTOOD:

Alexis Guy Obolensky
Dr. Henry K. Puharich
Dr. Elizabeth A. Rauscher
Daniel H. Kane, Jr., Attorney
Witness of Signatures: Solneig I. Clark


Photo # 1


Photo # 2


Stag. 1 Experimental Setup:


Stag. 1 With Straight Line Transmission Option. Experimental Setup:

EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF POSSIBLE "FASTER-THAN-LIGHT" PHENOMENON

DECEMBER 28, 1980

By DANIEL H. KANE

This experiment relates to attempts to reproduce or generate and transmit so called "Tesla Waves". Many efforts have been made to reproduce the accomplishments of Nikola Tesla in wireless transmission of power. So far, none of these efforts, of which the author is aware, including the USAF "Project Tesla", has been successful. Past efforts have generally been based upon application of electrical and electromagnetic components having conventional parameters adjusted to very high levels of energy or power.

The present investigator has found, however, that the key to Tesla's success is more likely to be found in unconventional electromagnetic launching devices with non-linear parameters of special design presently guarded by Obolensky as trade secret information. These structures are referred to under the proprietary name "FASER" structures. According to experimental evidence to date, it is theorized that such "FASER" structures are capable, upon excitation, of generating and transmitting a controlled and coherent spectrum of actively coupled parametrically interacting wave components. This spectrum interacts in such a way as to produce a soliton-wave packet which propagates through space/time. In fact, experimental evidence indicates that with parameters properly adjusted, this soliton wave structure becomes superluminal, propagating at velocities faster than the velocity of light (c) in a vacuum.

It is not necessarily being asserted that mass/energy itself has been boosted to transcendental velocities. Rather, the novel macro-wave packet may be viewed as a structure analogous to a potential well or pure potential with its transmission approaching zero or near zero flux. The author also refers to this non-linear resonance phenomenon as a longitudinal wave. Thus, the transmission may be viewed not so much as transmission or propagation of power/energy as it is propagation of information. However, the potential well soliton structure is available to do work at a remote location to which it arrives faster than a simultaneously emitted parallel control signal at light velocities.

An important characteristic of a soliton-like macro wave packet is that it is self-organizing. Furthermore, it apparently may order and condition the local space-time region into a tapered transmission line in the direction of transmission or propagation. The established space link in effect becomes an impedance transforming line. It is theorized that according to the present invention, the appropriately generated non-linear spectrum of actively coupled waves establishes such an impedance space link at propagation rates c. At a remote location the established "impedance well" at the end of the line is available to produce a flux of energy entrained from the local environment at the remote location. This produces apparent energy effects before the arrival of a simultaneously transmitted and parallel light or radio beam.

In effect, the transmitting apparatus of the present invention conditions and structures the impedance of space. This "impedance modulation" may propagate at velocities far greater than c, bearing a similarity to the famous physical analogy of the intersection of a pair of scissors with blades extending into space. The intersection itself may reach velocities c and propagate superluminally while the mass of the scissors or scissor blades themselves move ponderously at superluminal speeds.

The established space link transmission line bears ana analogy to the bull-whip and is in effect a spatial "bull-whip" or line. Thus, the impedance of the soliton modulated transmission is thoroughly transformed as it propagates, for example from near zero flux at very high potential or voltage to relatively large flux at lower voltage and vice versa. It is this dynamically shifting impedance control which produces the anomalous results of the present transmission system. Controlled impedance transformation and modulation apparently enable the superluminal propagation so that work/energy is entrained and available at a remote location "faster-than-light".

Another aspect of the impedance modulation of space according to the experiment is that the impedance structure may be quantized. That is, the tapering or transforming spatial impedance established by the synchronously shifting non-linear spectrum of waves may be quantized or decay along discrete steps or impedance quantum levels.

Advanced variable reluctance alternators

By PAUL BROWN

First of all, l would like to thank the sponsors of this symposium for inviting me to speak and let me say that I'm glad to be here. I will be speaking of variable reluctance alternators in general while primarily dealing with what I termed "the magnetic distributor system". Some of you are familiar with my work already, but for those of you who are not, let me give you a quick review of this work to date.

Conventional practice is to circulate a conductive wire through a magnetic field, thus producing a true sine wave output. However, the shortcoming of this system is expressed by Lenz's law, which places an upper limit on the efficiency of such a machine.

Reluctance alternators consist of a plurality of permanent magnets, each of which has a wire coil wrapped around it. Magnetic flux is produced when an iron segment (known as the reluctor) passes in proximity to the magnet assembly. These type alternators operate at about 30% efficiency and produce a high voltage, low current pulse. The output power is low from no magnetic reversal and the magnetic field is not allowed to fall. This system is commonly used in breakerless auto ignitions.

Inductance alternators consist of a field core with iron "legs". Each of these legs is wrapped by a wire coil. The flux is produced by a rotating iron segment. Alternators of this type are used in radio communications because the high frequency output varies directly with rpm. These units also operate at about a 30% efficiency, have no magnetic reversal, and no falling field.

Some time ago, I became acquainted with John Ecklin's SAG-6 concept. This non-conventional generator design skirts Lenz's law due to the fact that the field and output cores are stationary with the magnetic flux being altered by an iron segment that interrupts the magnetic path. We did assemble a small model to test the principle and it worked, but we were looking for a means of utilizing the "electrical spike" or falling field. Conventional electrical engineers spend their time trying to prevent these high pressure phenomena because these power surges "blow out" conventional systems. We came up with a design that utilizes this pulsed power for the production of useful current. It is a four pole modification of the Kromrey converter.

My attempts to build this non-conventional alternator at the University of California were delayed and ultimately stopped for various reasons. It was at this point that I submitted my project proposal to the Moss Research Group. Moss Research is a privately funded group of individuals working independently toward a common goal. It is this cumulative effort that results in progress. No one in the organization uses the term "proprietary" and researchers freely discuss their work and theories. I was granted funding and assigned frame number one on the stipulation that all my work be of public knowledge.

A basic explanation of the principle of stationary permanent magnet or DC electromagnet in proximity to the AC assembly with an intermittent iron rotor. It is best to think of magnetism as a fluid and iron is a conductor for this fluid.

When the rotor fills the gap, magnetism flows through a closed iron circuit, as indicated by the arrows. This flow sets up a magnetic field around the output coil. As the rotor opens the gap, the flow of magnetism through the output core ceases. This causes the magnetic field to collapse through the output coil. It is this rising and falling field, in the output coil, that produces the magnetic flux necessary for the production of AC current.

The Linemann configuration, as tested, incorporated four poles rather than two. We used the standard guidelines for the assembly of conventional alternators and transformers during the construction of number one. This means laminated steel wherever magnetic reversal occurs to prevent hysterisis losses, minimum air gaps, poly-thermaleze wire, sufficient turns of wire to produce magnetic saturization, a non-ferrous frame to prevent magnetic losses, etc. Our initial test data was published; some of you may have seen that paper.

There is no relative motion between the magnets and wire. Magnetism requires time for propagation; the rotor accelerates into the poles, and decelerates while pulling away. The result of all this is a dynamically balanced rotor that produces no net torque on the shaft during operation. By this, I mean that the only resistances to the rotation of the shaft are mechanical in nature. Thus, only a small amount of horsepower is required for the prime mover. We matched a 1/10 hp electric motor to this alternator for testing. From the design, you can see that the AC power has a frequency directly proportional to the rpm of the rotor assembly. The magnitude of the voltage is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux, therefore the voltage is also directly proportional to the speed of the rotor, while the amperage is proportional to the duration of pole interfacing.

At this point it would probably be beneficial to point out the difference between magnetic and electromagnetic induction. Magnetic induction is the induction of a current in a conducting circuit by variation of the magnetic flux linking the circuit. For this to occur, all that is required is a relative motion between the conducting circuit and the lines of magnetic force. This does not require motion of the magnetic flux nor the association of an electric field. While for electromagnetic induction, the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular and a variation of the magnetic flux causes a back electromagnetic field to be induced in the conductor. The magnitude of this back electromagnetic field is proportional to the rate at which the flux through the circuit varies. The main point here is that, without the association of an electric field in the induction circuit, Lenz's law no longer applies. This has long been known in homopolar theory and Das Gupta made note of the fact that no torque exists between the rotating disc and the field magnet, back in 1963. And without Lenz's law, no eddy-currents are produced to oppose the motion of the rotor.

During testing, the alternator ran cold and a direct short on the output coils did not throw a load on the drive motor. We also noticed that there is an increase in the rotor speed when an electrical load is applied.

We used resistive loads during the power measurements. The most efficient test was at 2800 rpm with the field coils in parallel, and drawing 180 watts of power (12 V at IS A). The motor was using 219 watts (115 V at 1.9 A). thus the total input power was 399 watts. From this test the alternator output was 240 VAC at 1.8 amps for a total power output of 432 watts.

With a one amp load, the alternator worked at a 99% efficiency.

During testing we found that the input power for field excitation could be eliminated by the use of capacitors. This is accomplished simply by shunting the DC coil with a capacitor of the appropriate capacitance. The really amazing part was that the output power actually increased from the use of capacitors in the field circuit. This phenomenon took some time and testing to explain, and as usual, there is a simple principle involved to explain this action. That principle is the resonance between two LC circuits.

Every physical system, in general, has one or more natural vibration frequencies, characteristic of the system itself. If such a system is subjected to impulses of some arbitrary frequency, it will necessarily vibrate with that frequency even though it is not one of those natural to it. These "forced vibrations" may be very feeble, but if the impressed frequency is varied, the response becomes more vigorous whenever any one of the natural frequencies is approached, its amplitude increasing manyfold as exact synchronization is reached. This is resonance.

Electrical resonance, for a circuit composed of a coil in series with a capacitor, is a condition which tends to produce relatively great currents in reactive circuits. This condition produces a minimum impedence and a unity power factor. If the resistance is small the current will become large and, as the voltage across the capacitor of the coil is the product of the current and impedance, it also becomes very large. Also, capacitor discharge in an LC circuit produces a damped oscillation. At resonance, it is the electrical resistance of the circuit which is the only factor preventing self-sustaining oscillations.

With this alternator we not only have achieved electrical resonance but the harmonic resonance of two loosely coupled LC circuits at the same fundamental frequency. This is analogous to an oscillator circuit tuned for resonance between two capacitors. Harmonic amplification due to resonance produces beat notes which are audible if you listen closely. It is this large flow of current through the DC coils that produces the high intensity excitation field for the AC coils.

Again, the test data was published separately. So, here we will concern ourselves only with the most efficient run which produced an output of 588 watts (490 V at 1.2 A) while the only input power was that of the 1/10 h.p. motor or 219 watts. Now we find the efficiency at 268%.

Now with our knowledge of the principles governing the operation of this alternator we can look at it with a new perspective. This understanding enables us to perceive the Hendershot system incorporated in the design. His device used two LC circuits and resonance was achieved through electromechanical excitation of the system.

Further testing revealed the circulation of currents through the frame and corrosion between the dissimilar metals produced a diode effect. The core iron is a conductor of electricity as well as a conductor of magnetic flux, and voltages induced in it by the changing flux passing through, cause the flow of electric current through it. Now we recognize the influence of the Coler effect. The principle of his device is that he ran current through the magnet cores.

There are variables that influence the performance of this device that are not yet fully accounted for. For instance, location, the weather, and orientation all have had an influence on its output at one time or another. Also, the characteristics of the rotor dramatically affect the machine's Performance. Other anomalous effects have been noted. For these reasons we must admit to ourselves that this machine is not only an alternator but also a transducer. A most important point to make here is that other people have duplicated these results. We are not discussing a one time occurence or an anomaly. Another curious phenomenon demonstrated by this alternator is the sudden surges of high power that literally burn out the load. At present, my objective is to tune in to that peak power with a circuit controller to maintain that high output level with regulation to prevent overloading the circuit. This is not a finished model, but a test stand, to acquire the data necessary to build a production model. Currently, we are working with the Mandala configuration that will be outlined later by Charles Moss.

In conclusion: The law of conservation of energy has been proven innumerable times. Surely this axiom of science must be true. Simply stated, this law says that the amount of energy within any closed system remains constant. If that is true, then the above unity performance of this alternator forces us to assume that this device operates in an open system, which then makes this viable evidence for the existence of an ether. Further, we can deduce that this ether is dynamic in nature and is unshieldable, making it impossible to create a perfectly "closed" system.

The simplicity and elementary design of this alternator coupled with the high efficiency and anomalous effects produced by the prototype warrant further research into this system for the production of power.

Increasing gas mileage

BY KEN MacNEILL

Figure 1 shows one of the original patents. Many of you probably have heard about Charles Pogue. He had six patents issued in this country, and this is the one that came out in 1934 on a vaporization device that would give you super gas mileage. This is his first one, not the best. This is the original one about which there was so much commotion in the 1930s. It is the 200 mile per gallon carburetor that was reputed in many publications to actually give up to 212 miles. If you'll notice, he's blowing gas up through number 10 on the drawing. It's going through heated coils, coming out and eventually coming through the throttle area. This is actually the basis for most of the vapor carburetors that you will find in the world.

Figure 2 is another cross section of the same carburetor, showing basically how it was supposed to have worked. As you can see, the air is vaporized. Unfortunately for Mr. Pogue, about 1940 we went to war and we did things to gasoline that were not normal at that time. We added about three or four different substances to it that made this system unreliable. It might run for 200 miles once, but then the system would gum up because of the heat caused by the addition of these additives to the gasoline.

If you're going to be experimenting in this area, these are some of the things that you ought to know about fuel. There are seven different things in most fuel (see Figure 3).

For anybody that is planning on getting involved in a carburetion device or a high mileage device, I recommend the Prince onboard computer. The device costs about $115.00. As you can see, it gives you all the information that you need every time you do something to the vehicle; whether you are adding a water system, adding a new tire, or doing anything at all to the system, this will tell you within one mile to the gallon what the efficiency rate is. It's available. It's one of the things that we use for our testing of the various devices which I'm going to cover today.

The device pictured in Figure 4 is another means of water injection. This has been documented; I think this came out of Popular Science several years ago. I do have a water injection device with me that I'll show you in a minute, but it does improve the mileage performance, and also does an excellent job of cleaning the engine . . . spark plugs, valves, et cetera. I recommend it for any vehicle.

Here is some documentation that came out, I believe, in Design News 1981, so I'm not the only one who's talking about this thing. If you read the first paragraph, they're talking about replacement from an automobile carburetor which converts liquid into an aeroform and increases combustion efficiency from the current 29 or 30 percent to 97 percent. So it's obvious that I'm not the only one who's thinking along these lines, and there is the way that they're doing it, and I'll show you mine in just a second.

Here, by the way, is an alternator set up to help you to get AC from a standard alternator, because I'm recommending that you put a separate alternator in the vehicle and run it through AC rather than DC. I've run into some problems with DC. Several of the people have mentioned, why don't I do it with DC, and probably it would be easier, but you don't have enough power to run it and your other systems in the vehicle, so you almost need the second power system.

Here are the names of three companies which I buy my parts from. The onboard computer is available from Prince Corporation. The positive displacement fuel pump that I'm using is available from Barnant. The cartridge heater and thermostat which there are several companies you can get it from. The thermostat I think is about $16.00. The cartridge heater runs between $15 and $22, depending on the manufacturer.

This is another vapor device and it came out of Texas. This is also written in the 200 mile per gallon carburetor book. Obviously, this is very complex, very involved and I would think very expensive. This is one of the few that I haven't built. I can't see any reason why it wouldn't work with the exception of the exhaust heat. One of the things when you get onto a vapor system, your exhaust heat, your usable heat for vaporization, drops anywhere from 250 to 400 degrees. Most people say, well it's going to burn your valves so forth. Your heating temperature is actually 200 to 400 degrees less in your exhaust system, and I've proved it many times.

This is something that has come out in several publications. A fellow back in the, I believe, 1940s, Guido Franch, this came out in newsreel series, he's pouring powder in a test tube into a bottle of tap water secured by the reporter and obviously this fellow disappeared very shortly thereafter and nobody has heard from him since. I don't know what happened, but I'm sure there's been enough consternation over this weekend until we wonder, because this would certainly make things different if we could use water as a fuel directly as a conversion from a chemical additive.

This is the separate alternator and this is the basic system just visualize this as an engine compartment with your carburetor in the middle, which I didn't get enough time to do completely. The diodes are cut out of the alternator and it is coming out of this directly AC coming directly to one of these cartridge heaters through the temperature control and a switch on the dash so that you can actually flip the system on, this will come up to temperature in about four minutes, and then you can start your fuel system going into it and you actually can start off from vapor. I recommend personally to start off on the original system as this system is an actual direct retrofit to the original system. If you view this as the original fuel pump this is your input from the fuel tank this goes directly to a two-way valve. One part of it goes directly to the carburetor originally the flip of a switch from the engine compartment and you go over here to the positive displacement fuel pump. One of the problems there has been in the vapor system is immediately when you start vaporizing gas in the vaporizer you run up pressures of anywhere from 10 to 100 pounds per square inch, and all of your original fuel pumps except diesel fuel pumps are diaphragm types and once you get over five pounds back pressure on them you have a thing known as vapor lock. So the only way to get around it is with a positive displacement pump. How this is done it comes in to your vaporizer here where depending upon the horsepower of the engine from 40/1000 ths to 55/1000 ths orifice which bring directly on this cartridge heater that I just showed you . . . by the way, it is totally encapsulated so there is no air that can get to it. This here . . . the totted lines on the outside is the encapsulation. This cover in the back here actually can come off and I have it bolted on. This one here you won't see that way, but you can actually take the back cover off and this goes in to the entire unit. The heating element is in the middle of this and then obviously your leads to the heating element go to the next slide.

Here is your thermostat of your cartridge heater and where it comes in from the positive displacement fuel pump and this little insert in here physically shows how it goes. This is the top or the middle of the air cleaner and over here is where it comes in and this is coming in either quarter inch or 5/16 ths and we squash it usually and if you have a dual carburetor we put a line here to go on top of each venturi, but this is basically how it goes. The vapor is injected directly over the venturi and I've had a lot of people tell me, well you've got a bomb there. This is true. There is absolutely no air that can get to this system other than right here and that's where it is supposed to be. You don't have an explosive situation until right here. One other thing that I don't have on here that I ought to mention. What I do is I put a large spring under this so that if you ever had a backfire that the spring would pop up, your air cleaner would come right back down, damp the explosion, and you're back in business. It's happened to me once or twice, that's why I make mention of it.

This water device in the bottle that you see over here this goes anyplace underneath the throttle plate and what it is it's an open air system we used to use a valve on it but you don't need it because your engine can use the extra air anyway. All you're doing here is you have a bottle full of water, we recommend adding about two drops of detergent every time you fill it up, your air is sucked into the engine through here. Now, obviously it has to come through the water, so it moisturizes the air. Actually I'll add approximately one mile to the gallon additional just by putting this one device on there. This device on the bottom here is a PVC pipe 1¼ inches, two caps on each end, two fittings, goes directly in the gas line and I would recommend that you put a regular standard fuel filter between this in the event that the nylon breaks in here because what we're using right now is a woman's stocking with activated charcoal tied into it so it can't come apart and it would catch it in the other filter if it ever did. We haven't had the problem yet. This was only told to me about two or three weeks ago how to do this and I couldn't believe . . . the guy told me he'd get anywhere from 10 to 20 percent increase. Obviously we've got the on board computer and we put it on the vehicle and immediate 10 percent.

Now, I might mention one thing. Les Adam, our first speaker, sent me two of his devices and I mentioned this to him and I'm going to mention it here because I felt several people would have tried the magnet trick that Rolf Schaffranke has made popular as well as Richard Clark. In Les's device, we put it on the vehicle and we get no immediate change. We ran the car for about four days and it stayed stable, just exactly what it was. About the fifth day it started - increasing about a mile per day for about three days and we got about 3½ miles per gallon increase on Les's device, but it's not immediate. It takes some time; I don't know why. I have no idea why. It could be that it's taking out some of the carbon, dying you better efficiency and so on; I don't know, but it took five days. I think I called Les back immediately and said it didn't work. He says, well, I've got all these tests, so we left it on, obviously, and it's still on there. It takes about five days for it to, evidently, neutralize itself, acclimate itself or something, and then it continues to give you mileage.

April 9, 1935.
C. N. POGUE
1,997,497

CARBURETOR

Filed Nov. 3, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet 1


FIGURE 1


FIGURE 2

Jan. 7, 1936.
C. N. POGUE
2,026,798

CARBURETOR

Filed Sept . 27, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2


FIGURE 3


FIGURE 4

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGINE FUELS

Vapor pressure of octane at critical temperature

350 psi gage @ 560°F.
(294°C.) (567°K.) (1020°R.)

Other vapor pressures of octane (calculated approximately)

1.5 psi gage @ 250°F.


12. psi gage @ 300°F.


30 psi gage @ 350°F.


60 psi gage @ 400°F.

Surface tension of octane against air

21.8 dynes/cm. @ 20°C.


17.9 dynes/cm. @ 60°C.

Percent gasoline boiled by weight

10% @ 150°F. maximum


50% @ 250°F. maximum


90% @ 350°F. maximum


100% @ 425°F. maximum

Heat of vaporization of gasoline (interpolate linearly)

75 cal./gram @ 0°F.


50 cal./gram @ 300°F.

Specific heat of gasoline (interpolate linearly)

0.45 cal./gram C° @ 0°F.


0.65 cal./gram C° @ 300°F.

Specific heat of air at constant pressure

0.24 cal./gram C° @ 200°F.
(small temp. coefficient)

Density of gasoline (temperature coefficient = -1% per 20F°.)

0.74 gram/ml. @ 60°F.


6.15 pounds/gallon @ 60°F.

Density of air

1 gram/liter @ 135°F. (595°R.)

*Temperature of gasoline components at absolute vapor pressures

PRESSURE

1 atm.

2 atm.

5 atm.

10 atm.

20 atm.

critical

COMPONENT







hexane

156°f.

199°F.

269°F.

332°F.

409°F.

453°F.

heptane

207°F.

257°F.

330°F.

397°F.

478°F.

513°F.

octane

258°F.

307°F.

385°F.

456°F.

539°F.

560°F.

nonane

303°F.

~350°F.

~430°F.

~504°F.

~586°F.

611°F.

decane

345°F.

~400°F.

~480°F.

~557°F.

~640°F.

652°F.

undecane

334°F.

~440°F.

~525°F.

~605°F.

~689°F.

690°F.

dodecane

421°F.

431°F.

572°F.

654°F.

~735°F.

725°F.

Heat of combustion of potential fuels by weight (cal./gram)

gasoline = 11,530
kerosene = 11,000
Kansas fuel oil = 10,760
acetylene = 11,970
hydrogen = 33,830
propane = 12,000
benzene = 10,050
butter = 9,200
dynamite = 1,290
denatured alcohol = 6,460
Kansas crude = 10,630
ethane = 12,340
butylene = 11,600
methane = 13,310
propylene = 11,780
xylene = 10,220
nitrocellulose (guncotton) = 2,580
gunpowder = 735
wood = 4,000
gas oil = 10,670
butane = 11,740
ethylene = 12,330
naphthalene = 9,620
toluene = 10,160
vegetable oil = 9,400

*Many of the above figures were obtained from the handbook of chemistry and physics.


FIG.1

How the water-injection system works: Electric fuel pump pushes water into float bowl, then through adjustable needle valve (from model-airplane engine) and a one-way valve (which keeps line to nozzle full at all times). Air Injection Reaction (AIR) pump stiff pumps air into exhaust manifold, but a restriction has been added to reduce the amount of air to the exhaust manifold. The lower volume of air needed is due to the lower temperature of the gases entering the manifold. AIR pump also pumps air into the atomizing nozzle through a one-way valve. Without a valve, at trailing throttle and high rpm, vacuum in the exhaust manifold could suck in water. One-way valve here is from oxyacetylene welder. Air pumped through nozzle draws water through nozzle's many tiny orifices. The amount of water spray increases in proportion to the rate of air flow through nozzle. Manifold vacuum draws the spray through the carte and into the cylinders.

An air-injection pump (standard on the Fiesta and many other cars) is used to control the amount of water spray leaving the nozzle above the carte. Because the pump normally supplies more air pressure as engine load increases (also the condition in which more water is needed to prevent detonation), it's an ideal device for control-ling the volume of water spray.

The combustion chamber has been designed to increase turbulence and therefore provide better fuel-air mixing. The chamber is comprised of matching depressions in the piston and cylinder almost entirely under the exhaust valve (see photo).

Goodman says the car can be provoked to detonate, if you run it at full throttle for a long while and get the pistons really hot. "But that's a developmental problem," he says. "If I had oil spray on the piston, as Mercedes does in its turbocharged diesel. Or a spark sensor like the one on the Buick Regal, I wouldn't have it."

Advantages of the system

Increased performance, better mileage, and the abillity to burn low-octane fuels without knocking are the benefits of this system, Goodman claims. "What you're doing." he says, "is using water as a replacement for lead. Lead will give you the power, because it will let you run a higher compression ratio, thereby increasing the engine's efficiency. But lead is a harmful pollutant, and the higher temperatures produce nitrogen oxides, another no-no. Water not only takes the place of lead; it also serves the function of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), which is disconnected on Goodman's Fiesta. The result is more fuel economy. Running at a higher compression ratio, the engine uses less gas to do the same amount of work."

"Thermal efficiency in modern engines is almost nothing," he continues. "If car makers raised compression and used water injection, they could use a smaller engine, increase engine efficiency, and at the same time enjoy the benefits of a smaller, lighter car. Less weight not only translates into more mileage; it means that producing the cars would use less energy."

Why has water injection, which has been tried many times before, not been widely adopted?

The main problem, Goodman believes, has been finding a way to meter the water properly. "At 60 mph," he says, "this engine burns five or six quarts of gas and six ounces of water in one hour. It's hard enough to make the carburetor meter five quarts of gas in an hour, without trying to make it meter five or six ounces of water."

NEW DESIGN IDEAS

Liquid petroleum gasifier replaces carburetor

Substantial improvements in fuel economy claimed

David J. Bak, East Coast Editor

Suffern, NY - A replacement for the automobile carburetor converts liquid gasoline into an aeriform increasing combustion efficiency from the current 29 or 30% to a reported 97%. The almost complete cornbustion is claimed to virtually eliminate pollutant emissions (primarily hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide), while increasing mileage by at least a factor of two. Besides replacing the carburetor, the unit also eliminates the need for exhaust gas recirculation valves, conventional air filters and catalytic converters

Invented and developed by Jack Gilbert, consulting engineer for several large corporations, the "liquid petroleum gasifier" works by simple evaporation and consists of a housing or liquid chamber, a float, gasifier anti catalyzer. The catalyzer, liquid fuel level (the air to fuel ratio in the gasifier based on volume), and gasifier size are all critical to the unit's operation.

Open at the bottom and placed inside the liquid chamber, the gasifier promotes the fast evaporation of the volatile liquid fuel. When the engine is turned on, air is drawn from the atmosphere through a desicant filter (the entire unit is connected to the engine's intake manifold, and is the engine's intake manifold, and is therefore at vacuum), bubbles up through the fuel in the gasifier and expands, accelerating natural evaporation.


FIGURE 5

System components. Unit performs best with low-octane gasoline (pure fuel means better combustion), but will work with all volatile, combustible liquids.


FIGURE 6 ALTERNATOR DRAWING TO OBTAIN 110 VOLTS A.C. FROM YOUR CAR.

CONNECTIONS ARE MADE BEFORE THE DIODES FOR A.C. - AFTER THE DIODES - IT WILL BE 110 VOLTS D.C.


FIGURE 7


FIGURE 8

SUPPLIERS OF HIGH MILEAGE EQUIPMENT

ON-BOARD COMPUTER

Prince Corporation
Windcrest Drive,
Holland, Mich. 49423
616 - 3925151

Positive displacement
Fuel Pump:
Barnant Company
28W092 Commercial Ave.
Barrington, Ill. 60010
312 - 381 - 7050

CARTRIDGE HEATER & THERMOSTAT
ACCURATE TEMPERATURE CONTROL CORP.
P. O. Box 1279,
Longwood, Fla, 32750

Ambient temperature superconducting filaments

By RON BOURGOIN

What I should like to do is to review with you the field of superconductivity. As you know, superconductivity at this time is a phenomenon that is found to occur at the extremes of low temperature. For those of you who are comfortable with the Fahrenheit scale, we are talking about electrical behavior which occurs at around 400° below zero on the Fahrenheit scale. We're talking about 0°, or something close to 0° Kelvin, or about minus 273° Celsius.

Kammerlingh Onnes is attributed with the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Now there were a few things that occurred prior to this discovery. In 1908, Kammerlingh Onnes was the first, as far as I have been able to determine, to liquefy helium. In 1908! And he was able thereby to obtain temperatures near 1° Kelvin, which had never been attained before.

Of course, there was considerable theory at the time of how metals might behave as the ambient thermal environment was reduced, and so his first work, as far as I am able to determine, was with platinum. He took platinum, cooled it down to his new found temperature, and found, essentially, a linear decrease in resistivity with reduction in temperature. When made tests specifically with pure platinum and impure platinum, he found that the resistivity reduction was a function of purity of material. Now, the point that I want to emphasize is this: the reduction in resistivity with temperature was no surprise. That had been expected. The near-zero resistance which was measured at these extremes of low temperature was low because he was already close to zero resistance anyway. So there was not a significant finding in that particular case.

Now, when he used mercury, he wanted to use a material with extremely high purity, and mercury, at the time, was the metal known with the highest purity. He cooled it down and he found the resistivity reduction essentially as he had found in the platinum, except that when he got down to about 4° Kelvin, he got a little surprise. The material dropped abruptly in resistance to measurably zero value. (I emphasize the measurably zero value because what it actually is we really don't know, but measurably it has a zero value.) He conducted some tests with impure mercury and found exactly the same behavior. That's quite an important point. In the case of platinum, he found that resistivity reduction was a function of temperature; in the case of mercury he found that it really didn't matter whether the material was pure or impure - it dropped in resistivity exactly the same way. So it didn't appear to matter to the mercury whether it was pure or impure.

You're already close to zero anyway when you get down to these extremes of low temperature, so I have often questioned the gain [of the measuring instrumentes - ed.] measuring the drop in resistance to a measurably zero value, especially when you consider the expense of cooling the materials to that degree of temperature.

Let's have a general review of the types of superconductors that are presently in existence. One is the Type One superconductor, which is essentially a metallic superconductor. Those materials have been found to enter the superconducting state at temperatures typically below 10° Kelvin. We find that the superconductivity is a surface effect. The current wants to travel on the surface. The electron drift velocities have been determined to be something of the order of 105 cm/sec. The thickness of the conducting sheath has been found to be something of the order of 10-5 cm. At one time it was thought that if you took a highly pure crystalline solid and, as you attained the absolute zero of temperature, the thermal vibrations would reduce in such a way that the mean free pass of the conduction electrons would be practically infinite, and so it was thought, you see, that the metal would provide almost perfect conductivity through the material - through the crystalline solid. However, this is not what occurs. If you take a pure metal of the highest purity you can obtain, ninety nine point nine out to the tenth decimal place somewhere, you find that the superconduction, that is this almost perfect conductivity, does not occur through the material. And yet the thermal vibrations at something of the order of a few degrees Kelvin is supposed to be significantly reduced, but when you crank the values of temperature through the equation, you find that the thermal agitation of electrons in the conduction band is still something of the order of 10 6 cm/sec. Now, you see, you've got a surface velocity of 105. So, apparently, you have a higher agitation in the structure, and that might be one of the reasons why the electrons are forced to the surface. As far as the theory was concerned at the time, what I want to emphasize is that a pure crystalline structure was expected to provide near infinite or near perfect conductivity at near absolute zero temperatures, which we have not found.

Another type of superconductor is called Type Two superconductor. Type Two superconductors are essentially alloys and metallic compounds. Can you think of any conducting structure less ordered than an alloy or metallic compound?

These materials have been found to enter the superconducting state at as high as 23° Kelvin. In these highly disordered structures we find that the superconductivity is through the material, and when we examine what's going on we find that there are naturally forming thin current filaments in the structure. When we do further work we find that the cross sectional diameter of these natural thin current filaments is something of the order of 10-6 cm. This is all in the literature. It also has been determined that the superconduction speed is of the order of 106 cm/sec.

So, the highly disordered structures that were supposed to provide all of this resistance, these imperfect structures which were supposed to contain all sorts of defects and impurities were never expected to provide the superconductivity that they do, yet we find that they superconduct at higher temperatures than the metals, and that the conducting speed of the superconduction current is increased by a factor of at least 10 times.

So you see that, when I saw all of that coming out in the literature years ago, I began to question, What is resistance? Wouldn't you? You're told for years and years and years that resistance is a function of thermal agitation of metal ions in the lattice. Resistance is a function of collisions of conduction electrons between each other. Resistance is a function of crystal defects. I could go on and on, but you know this as well as 1. And yet we find that when we cool the imperfect materials down to as high as 23° Kelvin, resistance goes to zero, or measurably so. So what happened to all of this resistance that's supposed to be provided by the defects in the structure, and the impurities, and the thermal vibration? Because, as I told you a while ago, the thermal agitation velocities occuring in the conduction band in the metals near 1° Kelvin or below is found to be something of the order of 10 6 cm/sec. What I didn't tell you is that, at room temperature those vibrations are of something of the order of 107. So we find a reduction in thermal agitation velocity of only a factor of 10. And yet we get all of this high conductivity in the alloys. Apparently, you see, when the material enters the superconducting stage the defects don't evaporate, the impurities don't evaporate, everything is still right there. They have found no changes whatsoever in the structure of the material. So what caused the resistance in the first place? You say, "Well, the thermal agitation in the structure has reduced significantly". Really? You call reduction by a factor of 10 significant? You're going from 10,000,000 cm/sec thermal agitation in the conduction band down to 1,000,000 - that's a significant reduction?

So what's happened? Well, it appears the key to a high temperature superconductor might be in that thin filament existing in the Type Two superconductor. We'll explore that a little bit later.

Let's talk about some of the general properties of superconductors. This is very important. The first general property is extremely high current, something of the order of 105 amps per cm2. 106 amps per cm2 is no surprise. As a matter of fact, they get up much higher than that, but you're talking about currant densities that are truly anomalous.

The superconductors have extremely long electron mean free path, which means they can go for a long, long way without colliding into anything, whatever that means. I never have understood how two like charged particles like electrons could collide anyway, but it's in the literature, and those of you who have read the textbooks on electrical theory know it's there. You've seen the word "collision" all over the place, and yet you know that can't collisions can't possibly happen.

The electrons have high electron drift. Obviously we're talking about something to the order of 105 cm/sec in a Type One and 106 cm/sec in a Type Two. When you calculate the electron drift velocity in a copper wire, say 20 gauge, at room temperature, you find something of the order of l/100th of a cm/sec. Even that's pretty liberal; I think it's quite less than that, depending on how much current we're passing through, of course. So you can see a significant increase in order of magnitude.

Next point is abrupt drop in resistance. The point that I want to emphasize here is that the in the field of superconductivity, the name superconductivity was derived from this phenomenon, which is the abrupt drop in resistance; it wasn't everything else that has come later.

The next point is the generation of extremely high magnetic fields - in the Type One material, something of the order of 600 gauss; in the Type Two material, something of the order of 200,000 gauss. That's in the literature. Niobium-Tin, for instance, has a field of 200,000 gauss.

The next point is extremely enhanced diamagnetism, and we've heard diamagnetism mentioned frequently here. What is it? You approach a diamagnetic material with a magnet, it has a tendency to run away from you. So, extremely high diamagnetism. It repels any incoming magnetic field.

The next point is extremely poor thermal conductivity.

The next point is that if you make thin films ["chips"] with this material, you find that when they enter the superconducting state, they do so at a particular temperature and they measure certain current magnitude and they also measure certain magnitude of magnetic field. Then, as you probably know, if you increase the current to a value that is called the "critical current", then you lose the superconductivity, or, if you apply a magnetic field in excess of its particular value, you find that you lose the superconductivity. But they have found - the sides [tapered edges - ed.] of the chip continue superconducting. The fields required to lose the superconductivity in the edges are significantly higher than in the rest of the chip. The current drift along the edges is much higher than it is in the remainder of the chip. But you know what they do: they feel that the sides are causing than all kinds of difficulty, so what they do is they clip them off. That is a fact. Because, you see, those darn sides are causing them to get erroneous measurements. The blasted things just won't go out of superconductivity. It just destroys the magnetic effects on the chip so when they want to force reentry of the chip into the normal conducting state, so they cut the things off. What they ought to do is to keep the edges and throw the rest away.

What I want to discuss, basically, is a field called superfluidity. I'm not going to go over all the details of superfluidity, except to say this. When you take helium and you cool it and you get down to about 4° Kelvin, about 4.2°, to be exact, it enters the liquid state, which is no surprise. But then, if you keep cooling and cooling and cooling, you get to a point at where you have a completely inviscid fluid. Zero viscosity. That means that it has no internal friction and, once you get it going, it won't stop. They have passed liquid helium through extremely fine apertures, something of the order of a few Angstroms diameter. A few Angstroms - an atomic diameter is an Angstrom or a couple of Angstroms, or three, or something like that, and we're talking about a capillary of five to ten Angstroms through which you are passing liquid helium! And you measure no reduction in pressure from the point of input to the output. No loss in pressure. What does that mean? That means that there was no friction between the capillary walls and the liquid. There was also no viscosity - no internal friction in the liquid. There was nothing to slow it down. No dissipation of energy whatsoever.

They have determined that the superfluid state is due to the pairing of helium atoms in an orientation of antiparallel spin. What that means, basically, is that one rotates clockwise, adjacent to another that is rotating counterclockwise. Now, if you look at Bernoulli's theorem, what does he say ought to happen when you have parallel flow lines? Think of two ships out at sea that get to close to each other. You get parallel flow lines. What happens to the water in between? Parallel flow lines, in essence in an antiparallel configuration. What happens? You get attraction. Those of you who have ever sailed know exactly what I'm talking about.

Now, these gentlemen here, Tilly and Tilly, have written a wonderful textbook called Superfluidity and Superconductivity, and they have found some interesting parallels between electrical superconductivity and the field of superfluidity. What they're talking about is essentially this: Isn't it interesting that in the field of superconductivity three men, Bardeen, Shriefer and Cooper, in 1957 generated an acceptable theory for a phenomenon that was discovered in 1911, and, I believe, were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1972. What did they find? They found that the basic superconducting unit is antiparallel spinning electron pairs. So these gentlemen here, you see, said, "Look! You've got antiparallel spins leading to attraction of conduction electrons. You have essentially the same kind of thing happening at extremes of low temperature in liquid helium". And so what they have done is to applied equations from superconductivity to superfluids, and some the predictions they were able to make are wonderful. That is about a 250 page to 300 page book, and it's absolutely delightful for those of you who might be interested. I'm just giving you a background now, some of the things that I was seeing over the years, which eventually led to the research that I performed.

In the fields of whiskers and filaments, Howard L. Cobb, in 1946, reported finding some whiskers growing off of capacitors that were able to short out radio units. Sydney Arnold, at Bell Laboratories, in 1956, was talking about "tin whiskers" that were able to short out large capacitors. He conducted resistance measurements and found drops in resistance, very anomalous drops in resistance from what is expected from the standard law of resistivity. And he made this statement: "The current magnitudes exceeded those expected by a factor of 100". Those of you in the electrical and electronics fields know that we try not to pass any more than 100 amps/cm2 through a wire. You just don't pass more than that; otherwise it's going to evaporate. Arnold found 200,000 amps/cm2. And that was found about 1951 and the man, I'm sure, had to think a long time before he published his results. But he published them in 1956. There was a book by Bogenschutz in 1974 that talked about all of the problems that were being provided by metallic whiskers and thin filaments. These things were just shorting everything out. Well, why didn't somebody look at those fibers at the time and say, "Might it be that we have something that's trying to superconduct at normal ambient temperatures and higher temperatures?" - because these capacitors are at quite high temperatures, as you know.

What they should have done is stopped all of this work that was going on at the extremes of low temperatures and the helium refrigeration devices and so on and so forth, and gone to work on these thin whiskers and filaments. Stanford R. Ovshinsky, in 1966, received a United States patent for a symmetrical current controlling device, and what the man found was this: he was able to make a chip which offered resistance in the several millions of Ohms. When he got to a certain threshold voltage, he found that the resistance went down to something far less than one Ohm, and the only way that he could explain what was going on was to hypothesize the creation of very thin current filaments inside his chip. The drop in resistance from several million Ohms down to less than one occured instantaneously and THERE WAS NO EXCESSIVE GENERATION OF HEAT IN THE DEVICES. So much for i2r heating. Article by Marcus and Rottersmann in 1967. They found that in making chips they were making thin stripe conductors going all over the chip - and they were being shorted out. They examined the situation and found extremely thin filaments that had grown inside the thin film conductors themselves. Now, those thin film conductors were something of the order of 200 to 1,000 Angstroms in diameter. If there were thin filaments forming inside that, how big were they? They had to be significantly less than 1,000 Angstroms in diameter. That's in the literature. A.K. Jonscher, in 1969, found thin filaments in glassy insulator substate material. It seems that nature is going to find a path of least resistance whether we provide it or not.

D.E. Thomsen in 1980, in Science News, reported work with Saran wrap. Those of you who have ever seen Saran wrap under an electron microscope know that there are flbrils going all over the place. If you put an Ohmmeter across the thing, you'll measure several millions of Ohms. But take it and stretch it: align those fibrils inside the material and you find that the resistance drops down by several orders of magnitude, like 105 or 106; resistance drops by a factor of about 1,000,000. What's the size of them? Roughly 500 Angstroms in diameter.

IBM at the present time is doing some work on nanobridges, extremely fine line conductors on chips. These things are about 20 to 200 Angstroms in cross-sectional diameter. That is one particular method at this time of making very thin film stripes. Bell labs is presently working with quantum well wires. It's a rectangular thin film conductor that has a thickness of 200 Angstroms and width of about 200 Angstroms. The length is as long as you want to make it. M.l.T. is making what it calls "narrow lines". All of these people are making narrow lines of essentially the same dimensions. My question is why are they making them but they are not reporting resistance.

My method of making thin filaments is to prepare a chemical colloidal suspension. I take extremely fine metallic particulates and I suspend them in high dielectric mediums such as an epoxy resin. I heat the mixture to the melting point of the metal, which in the case of bismuth is something of the order of 271 °K. The only reason for doing that is to bring the particle into the molten or semimolten state. Then you apply electrodes to a container such as teflon or a glass beaker with pins, opposite polarity facing each other. You apply the voltage, which in some cases can be several thousand volts, wait awhile, and you'll get conductivity in just a matter of a minute or so. Then you retract one set of electrodes as far as you want to go. If you'll take cross sections of your mixture, you'll find little thin fibers going all over the place.

It's a very easy way to make filaments. As far as controlling the diameters and the lengths, I'm still working on that. I'm trying to get into the Ph.D. program in Materials Science at North Carolina State University, and hope that if I'm invited back next year that I will have some good reports for you. But this is presently what I'm doing. I do have a United States patent for the process. What it's doing at the present time is nothing, but there is a publication next month, the Bismuth Institute, which is headquartered in La Paz, Bolivia, has gotten very interested in my findings, and has decided to publish a very long abstract of the patent. The publications center for the Bismuth Institute is in Bussells, Belgium.

There are several theories of high temperature superconductivity. The Soviet theories say this: That if you make an extremely thin filament process, or film, and you encapsulate it by a polarizable medium, then the high current flow, assuming there will be one through the thin filament process, will induce positive charges all over the surface of the thin filament. And that extremely high positive field will serve to reduce the repulsive effect between electrons, and let those natural spin forces take over. And they must be extremely short range. They are saying basically that you create a positive, attractive field for the electrons. So you can get pairing that way.

Another theory, as expressed by my old professor, Dr. Robert Carroll, says that if you take a thin film of a material that normally contributes very few electrons to the conduction process, and yet presently contains high drift velocities, you ought to be able to confine the electrons into an extremely thin channel and force them to pair thereby. Just upon entry to an extremely thin channel.

And so, what I started doing was to look around for materials. All this seemed very exciting to me. It seemed there was a lot of theory saying that these things ought to superconduct at normal ambient temperatures. And also the findings with the edges on thin films and with the whiskers. If I could speak with Mr. Arnold of Bell Laboratories, I would ask him this: "How come that first whisker that made contact with the ground did not evaporate?" This man was talking about capacitors in the order of a hundred microfarad. What about the instantaneous current drain through that whisker? It must have been truly enormous. So you see, you look at all of those things and then a picture begins emerging, and that is that if you can make extremely thin conductive filaments they ought to superconduct, or you ought to see something akin to superconductivity at normal ambient temperatures, and possibly higher temperatures. This is what I did. I started looking at bismuth, which has a resistivity that is about 100,000 TIMES LESS than what it should be according to its conduction electron density. The resistance is high, but NOT AS HIGH AS IT OUGHT TO BE. Also, the electron mean free path, that is, the distance between collisions, to use the present vocabulary, is extremely long, so you have extremely long mean free path in the bismuth. This is in bulk, at normal ambient temperatures. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all of the metals. If you don't believe it, approach it with a magnet and see what happens. I did that on purpose. I made extremely thin filaments that I could see, put them on a table top, approached them with a magnet - and off the tabletop they went, instantaneously. If that's not diamagnetism, I don't know what is. Also, bismuth, in the bulk form, has the next to the lowest thermal conductivity of all the metals. And, also, another of the things that I liked about bismuth is that it has extremely low wear resistance, or a very low coefficient of friction. I put all of those things together and they spelled a partial superconductor at room temperature. Remember the first list 1 gave you and compare it with what I've just given you. So then I thought that if I could make bismuth filaments down to a couple of hundred Angstroms in diameter, I ought to be able to observe superconductivity behavior at ambient temperatures. All of the details are in the patent.

I worked and I worked and I worked and I was down to a micron diameter of fibers. I noticed that I needed a certain voltage, and then suddenly, I got very rapid oscillations all over the place, tremendous instability, and then I would increase the current just by a little bit, and the needles would just go out of sight. The voltage went down to practically zero, as far as I could measure; the current tended to rise to infinity. Now, I didn't like the idea of having a voltage drop - they tell you you're not supposed to have a voltage drop in a superconductor. So I worked to eliminate the voltage drop. So I learned to prepare a colloidal suspension having smaller particulates suspended, and worked at that and, my wife can tell you, I will never forget the day that this happened - I succeeded in making the suspension; I went ahead and formed the fibers as I had normally done; I took resistance measurements at the end of the trials, and they measured ZERO RESISTANCE. That was one of the happiest days. I immediately ran out of that laboratory, took my wife out and we had some wonderful wine and a wonderful meal, and just had a great time. I have made hundreds of these, and I can tell you that it works as I say it does. I have not measured resistance. I am not exactly certain what's going on, and that's why I'm going on into this program and hopefully doing some additional work.

As far as the magnetic field is concerned, I don't need to get into details. You can surmise what they would be as well as I can. Potential applications include the obvious computer applications. One application which might not be so obvious is the possibility of developing a synthetic spinal cord bridge. That excites me more than anything. If we are able to find a way to make something that will not generate resistance and i2r heating in the body, insert a material that would be accepted by the body (and, by the way, bismuth is very nice) and bridge gaps in the spinal cord where fibers have not regenerated, wouldn't that be wonderful?! We've got a lot of work to do. There's a possibly of very thin microelectrodes for single neuron studies, which they desperately need. You have a zero resistance electrode - think of the activity that you could measure in the individual neurons. The extended lengths of fibers - think of the possibility of low loss cables. Think of the possibilities of the generation of high magnetic fields, without auxilliary refrigeration mechanisms. Think about windings for motors and generators. And I could go on and on, but I've got to quit at some point. Thank you all very much.

Q. In one of your comments you were surprised that the voltage dropped to zero. Why did you not want this? And second question is, can you comment on "frozen-in" fields in superconductors?

A. Are you talking about the so-called "fluxoids"? [A. Yes.] Regarding the first question - I wanted a voltage drop to zero. If I said that, I certainly didn't mean it. When I found initially a voltage drop I didn't want it because I knew that in order for a material to be superconducting, it would have to provide no potential drop. Regarding the second question, in superconductors you can have a persistent field which stays there and "locks" the superconducting filament in place. In my case, we are talking about a single one of those filaments. 90 we are not talking about exactly the same thing.


FIGURE 9 MACNEILL VAPOR SYSTEM

Geometric models of nested field wave forms

By DAN WINTERS

There was a famous French mystic named Fabre D'Olievet who decided that he was going to start things from the beginning one time, and he was in the process of writing a book, The Hebraic Tongue Restored. He had spent his life learning 32 different languages around the world, and he thought this Kaballa, this ancient legend, the first five books of the Bible, the Pentateuch, whatever you want to call it, was pretty nifty and might have some clues to some things. So what he did was to decide, since the translations of Genesis that were available at the time had gone through about five languages on the way to him, that he needed to get back to the roots a little better. So he took the shapes of the Hebrew letters and did what he called a "radical analysis of the roots of the vowels as wave shapes". It was pretty nifty because, when he was done, he had a meaning for each letter, and he got the meaning by just looking at the shape of the letter as it was written and the sound of the letter as it was pronounced. And that was the meaning for the letter. And then assembled those into the first primal words and translated Sepher Barshith, "Genesis at first in principle". So a couple of hundred years later, after his books had been translated from French and English and lots of other things had happened, a physicist on the West coast named Fred Wolf, who wrote Taking the Quantum Leap, was messing around with one of his good friends, who was named Carlos Suares, who wrote Sipher of Genesis, which was his book in which he said all these letter shapes had clues to cosmogeny. And what Fred Wolf, the physicist, and this kaballist did together was they took and pronounced the letters into a spectrum analyzer, which is just a gadget which gives you the complexion, the picture, the analysis by frequency of the energy density in sound. And they found out that these pictures, which are like fingerprints of the sound, turned out in most cases to be very close to the shape of the letter that was pronounced that way. So the envelope of the sound as it was superposed from the vocal cords into the shape of the oral cavity was recreating the harmonic frequency ratios which were the superposition of information which is the creation of order out of inertia in waves.

I thought what we'd try to do today is pretend to get back to beginnings insofar as we're able. We'll start with two dimensions, we'll say, "Maybe there's this thing we ought to call a 'compressible medium' that seems to be around here". Maybe it's air or ether. There seems to be this compressible medium which has this quality which is that it conveys inertia momentum. And it is compressible. So, given that, and given not much else, we ought to be able to build things like atomic tables and fundamental concepts of physics. The idea is that the principles of creation are principles of superposition of wave shapes, and that's what this talk is about. The suggestion here is that wave shape archetypally, naturally builds geometry, and that that is the clue to the information structure of atoms and molecules and people.

[At this point, Winter showed a videotape of the phenomena he was discussing, which is available through the chairmen. ed.]0