|Strategies for Confronting Domestic Violence - A Resource Manual (UN, 1993, 130 p.)|
1 Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 38 (A/47/38), sect. I, general recommendation No. 19.
2 Council of Europe, Legal Affairs, Violence in the family, recommendation No. R (85) 4, adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Member States of the Council of Europe on 26 March 1985. See also Council of Europe, Legal Affairs, recommendation No. R (90) 2 of the Committee of Ministers on social measures concerning violence within the family, adopted by the Committee on 15 January 1990 (see Solemn Declaration of the Committee of Ministers of the Member States of the Council of Europe, 1991).
3 Policies to put an end to violence against children and women: draft resolution unanimously adopted by the Committee on Parliamentary, Juridical and Human Rights Questions.
4 A/37/351/Add.1 and Add.1/Corr.1, annex, sect. VIII, recommendation 1 (IV), adopted by the General Assembly at its thirty-fifth session (resolution 37/52).
5 See also The evolution of the work of the United Nations and its concern on the question of violence in the family, 1975-1986, prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Violence in the Family with Special Emphasis on its Effects on Women (BAW/EGM/86/BP.1), pp. 10-11.
6 Canadian International Development Agency, Violence against Women: A Development and Human Rights Issue: Proceedings (1991).
7 United Nations Development Fund for Women, Freedom from Violence: Womens Strategies from Around the World, M. Schuler, ed. (New York, 1992).
8 M. Borkowski, M. Murch and V. Walker, Marital Violence: The Community Response (London, Tavistock, 1983), p. 11.
9 Violence against Women in the Family (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.89.IV.5), pp. 18-20; see also Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General (A/CONF.144/17).
10 L. MacLeod, Wife Battering in Canada: The Vicious Circle (Quebec, Government Publishing Centre, 1980), p. 21.
11 C. Bradley, Final Report on Domestic Violence, Report No. 14 (Boroko, Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission), in press.
12 G. R. Tocaven and M. L. Rodriguez, Battered Woman Syndrome (Mexico City, Attorney General of Justice, 1989).
13 P. Jaffe and others, Emotional and physical health problems of battered women, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, No. 31, 1986, p. 625.
14 E. Hilberman and F. Munson, Sixty battered women, Victimology, No. 2, 1978, pp. 460 and 464-465; D. Counts, Female suicide and wife abuse in cross-cultural perspective, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, No. 17, 1987, pp. 194-204.
15 E. Stark, A. Flitcraft and W. Frazier, Medicine and patriarchal violence: the social construction of a private event, International Journal of Health Services, No. 9, 1979, p. 461.
16 L. Bacon and R. Landsdowne, Women who kill husbands - the problem of defence, paper delivered at the 52nd Australia and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science Conference, Sydney, 1982; K. ODonovan, Defences for battered women who kill, Journal of Law and Society, vol. 18, No. 12 (1991), p. 219; P. Kivung and others, Women and crime, women and violence, in From Rhetoric to Reality? Papers from the 15th Waigani Seminar, P. King and others, eds. (Waigani, University of Papua New Guinea Press), p. 75.
17 D. G. Fischer, Family Relationship Variables and Programs Influencing Juvenile Delinquency (Ottawa, 1985), p. 41.
18 L. MacLeod, Battered, but not Beaten: Preventing Wife Battering in Canada (Ottawa, Canadian Advisory Committee on the Status of Women, 1987), p. 35.
19 G. Roberts, Domestic violence: costing of service provision for female victims - 20 case histories, in Beyond These Walls (Queensland Domestic Violence Task Force, 1988).
20 Violence against Women in the Family...; and L. Smith, Domestic Violence, Home Office Research Study 107 (London, Her Majestys Stationery Office, 1989), pp. 29-30.
21 Violence against Women in the Family..., pp. 28-30.
22 Ibid, pp. 27-28; and Smith, op. cit., p. 30.
23 R. E. Dobash and R. P. Dobash, Violence against Wives: A Case Study Against the Patriarchy (London, Open Books, 1980); Smith, op. cit., pp. 23-30; Violence against Women in the Family..., pp. 25-33; J. Ptacek, Why do men batter their wives?, in Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse, Focus Edition Series, vol. 93, K. Ylld M. Bograd, eds. (Newbury Park, California, Sage Publications, 1988), pp. 133-147; and D. Adams, Treatment models for men who batter: a profeminist analysis, in Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse..., pp. 176-199.
24 R. E. Dobash and R. P. Dobash, Women, Violence and Social Change (London, Routledge, 1992); H. McGregor and A. Hopkins, Working for Change: The Movement Against Domestic Violence (Concord, Massachusetts, Paul and Company Publishers Consortium, 1992); and S. Schechter, Women and Male Violence (Boston, South End Press, 1982).
25 National Committee on Violence, Australian Institute of Criminology, Domestic Violence (Canberra, 1989).
26 Ibid., p. 30.
27 R. Bruynooghe and others, Physical and sexual violence against women: situation in Europe, report commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment and Social Emancipation for the First Conference of European Ministers on Physical and Sexual Violence against Women, held at Egmont Palace, Brussels, from 14 to 15 March 1991, p. 29.
28 Violence against Women in the Family..., p. 67.
29 L. A. Long, Cultural considerations in the assessment and treatment of intrafamilial abuse, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, No. 56, 1986, p. 31.
30 A. Lazlo and T. McLean, Court diversion: an alternative for spousal abuse cases, in United States Commission on Civil Rights, Battered Wives: Issues of Public Policy (Washington, D.C., 1978).
31 L. W. Sherman and R. A. Berk, The specific deterrent effects of arrest for domestic assault, American Sociological Review, No. 49, 1985, p. 261; R. A. Berk and P. J. Newton, Does arrest really deter wife battery? An effort to replicate the findings of the Minneapolis spouse abuse experiment, American Sociological Review, No. 50, 1985, p. 253; A. Jolin, Domestic violence legislation: an impact assessment, Journal of Police Science and Administration, No. 11, 1983, p. 451; E. Penc, The Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice System: An Intervention Model for Domestic Assault Cases (Duluth, Minnesota, Police Department, 1985); and P. Jaffe and others, The impact of the police laying charges in incidents of wife abuse, Journal of Family Violence, No. 1,1986, p. 37.
32 P. Jaffe and C. Burns, An integrated response to wife assault: a community model (Ottawa, Solicitor General, National Victims Resource Centre, 1984).
33 J. Atkinson, Violence in Aboriginal Australia, Refractory Girl, Issue No. 36, August 1990, pp. 21 and 24.
34 Through black eyes: a handbook of family violence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities (Secretariat of the National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care, 1991), p. 31.
35 F. Wasoff, Legal protection from wife-beating: the processing of domestic assaults by the Scottish prosecutors and the criminal courts, International Journal of the Sociology of Law, No. 10, 1982, p. 187.
36 Violence against Women in the Family..., p. 69.
37 Julie Stubbs and Diane Powell, Domestic Violence: Impact of the Legal Reform in NSW (Sydney, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, Attorney Generals Department, 1989), chap. 2.
38 Smith, op. cit, p. 33 ff.
39 Violence against Women in the Family..., p. 66.
40 M. Wilt and R. K. Breedlove, Domestic Violence and the Police: Studies in Detroit and Kansas City (Washington, D.C., Police Foundation, 1977), p. 9.
41 L. W. Sherman and R. A. Berk, The specific deterrent effects of arrest for domestic assault, American Sociological Review, No. 49, 1984, pp. 261-272; and L. W. Sherman and R. A. Berk, The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, Police Foundation Reports No. 1 (Washington, D.C., 1984). See also Berk and Newton, loc. cit., pp. 253-262; and Jaffe and others, loc. cit., pp. 37-48.
42 V. G. Binney and others, Leaving Violent Men (London, Womens Aid Federation England, 1981).
43 Ibid., p. 15. See also N. Oppendlander, Coping or copping out, Criminology, No. 20, 1982, p. 449; and D. Bell Domestic violence: victimisation, police intervention and disposition, Journal of Criminal Justice, No. 13, 1985, p. 425.
44 M. D. Pagelow, Woman Battering: Victims and Their Experiences (Beverly Hills, California, Sage); Dobash and Dobash, Violence against Wives..., pp. 207-208; J. Pahl, Police response to battered women, Journal of Social Welfare Law, November 1982, p. 337; R. I. Parnas, The police response to domestic violence, Wisconsin Law Review, vol. 2, fall 1967, p. 914; R. E. Worden and A. A. Pollitz, Police arrests in domestic disturbances: a further look, Law and Society Review, No. 18, 1984, p. 105; S. K. Berk and D. R. Loseke, Handling family violence: situational determinants of police arrests in domestic disturbances, Law Society Review, No. 15, 1981, p. 315.
45 Violence against Women in the Family..., pp. 56-57 and background papers from Egypt, Greece, Malaysia, Nigeria and Thailand used in the preparation of the present Manual.
46 Justices Act 1959, Tasmania, sect. 106F; Crimes Act 1900, New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory, sect. 394A.
47 Crimes Act 1900, New South Wales, sect. 357F(4). 48 Bail Act, New South Wales, sect. 37. 49 Victims of Offences Act, 1987, sect. 10.
50 E. Kosovsky, Police stations for women - a new experience, in Domestic Violence, Z. P. Separovic and W. Jamieson, eds. (Dubrovnik, University of Zagreb, 1988), pp. 37-40. See also Reportage Brazil, a 1985 video about the first womens police station in SPaulo (Montreal, Canada, Groupe Intervention Video, 1986); Response, vol. 12, No. 2 (1989), p. 29; and Human Rights Watch, Criminal Injustice: Violence Against Women in Brazil (New York, 1991), pp. 43-50.
51 G. Goolkasian, Confronting Domestic Violence: A Guide for Criminal Justice Agencies (Washington, D.C., United States Department of Justice, 1986), p. 32.
52 Ibid., p. 33.
53 M. Bard, Training Police as Specialists in Family Crisis Intervention (Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1970).
54 The London Coordinating Committee on Family Violence (London, Ontario, London Coordinating Committee on Family Violence).
55 P. Lerette, Study on the Restigouche Family Crisis Intervenes Program (Ottawa, Solicitor General of Canada, 1984).
56 McGregor and Hopkins, op. cit.
57 Metropolitan Police Detective Training School, Sexual offences investigative techniques course, in Commonwealth Secretariat, Human Resources Development Group, Women and Development Programme, Guidelines for Police Training on Violence against Women and Child Sexual Abuse (London, 1988), p. 49. See also: G. Goolkasian, op. cit., p. 55.
58 Commonwealth Secretariat, Guidelines for Police Training..., p. 11.
59 See J. R. Shepherd, Law enforcements role in the investigation of family violence, in The Battered Child, R. E. Heifer and R. S. Kempe, eds. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1987); and D. R. Jefferies, Police role in child protection, in National Conference on Child Abuse, R. Snashall, ed. (Australian Institute of Criminology, 1987), pp. 155-164.
60 See Commonwealth Secretariat, Guidelines for Police Training....
61 Ibid., p. 48.
62 Metropolitan Police Detective Training School, Sexual offences investigative techniques..., p. 44.
63 Renfrew County Crown Attorney, Wife/Partner Assault Protocol: A Coordinated Response in Renfrew County (Renfrew County, Ontario, Renfrew County Crown Attorney).
64 Ibid., p. 25.
65 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 47.
66 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., pp. 29-34.
67 Violence against Women in the Family..., p. 68.
68 Goolkasian, op. cit.
69 C. Minch, Overview of family violence court (Manitoba Department of the Attorney General, Research and Development Branch, 1990).
70 Goolkasian, op. cit., p. 56.
71 W. Jamieson and R. R. Ross, An evaluation of the victim/Witness Assistance Program, Ministry of the Attorney General of Ontario, Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, spring 1991, pp. 84-96.
72 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., p. 27.
73 Renfrew County Crown Attorney, Wife/Partner Assault Protocol..., p. 26.
74 Goolkasian, op. cit., p. 60.
75 Ibid., p. 62.
76 Ibid., p. 64.
77 Ibid., p. 63.
78 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 51.
79 Goolkasian, op. cit., p. 72.
80 Ibid., pp. 72-73.
81 Ibid., p. 64. See also Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., p. 35.
82 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 49.
83 Goolkasian, op. cit., p. 65.
84 Ibid., p. 68.
85 Ibid., p. 66.
86 Ibid., p. 67.
87 Commonwealth Secretariat, Confronting Violence: A Manual for Confronting Violence (London, 1992), p. 18.
89 Ibid., p. 85.
90 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 51.
91 D. Sinclair, Understanding Wife Assault: A Training Manual for Counsellors and Advocates (Toronto, Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Family Violence Program, 1985), p. 82.
92 Goolkasian, op. cit, p. 90.
93 Ibid., p. 73.
94 S. Horley, Responding to male violence against women, National Association of Probation Officers Journal (London), December 1990; A caution against cautioning, Police Review Journal (London), 9 March 1990; and Mens groups in question, The Guardian, 8 March 1989.
95 Violence against Women in the Family..., pp. 72-73.
96 L. MacLeod and C. Picard, Toward a More Effective Criminal Justice Response to Wife Assault (Ottawa, Department of Justice, 1989), pp. 27-30.
97 Ibid., pp. 25-26.
98 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 41.
99 Ontario Native Womens Association, Breaking Free: A Proposal for Change in Aboriginal Violence (Thunder Bay, Ontario, Ontario Native Womens Association, 1989).
100 D. Kinnon, The Other Side of the Mountain: Working Together on Domestic Violence Issues, Report 1: Summary of Finding? and Conclusions, Phase 1, pp. 4 and 8.
101 Ibid., p. 9.
102 Interdisciplinary Project on Domestic Violence, The other side of the mountain: bow do we get there from here? Working cooperatively on domestic violence issues, draft for discussion (Ottawa, 1990), p. 8.
103 Correctional Service of Canada, Breaking the Cycle of Family Violence: A Resource Handbook (Ottawa, Bonnie Hutchinson Enterprises, 1988).
104 Canadian Association of Social Work Administrators in Health Facilities, Domestic Violence Protocol Manual for Social Workers in Health Facilities (1985).
105 Ontario Medical Association, Committee on Wife Assault, Emergency department protocol for wife assault, Reports on Wife Assault (Ontario Medical Association, 1991), appendix B.
106 Health and Welfare, Canada, Health Services and Promotion Branch, Health Services Directorate, Child Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Community Workers, report of the Federal Working Group (Ottawa, Health and Welfare Canada, Health Services Directorate, 1989) and Health and Welfare Canada, Guidelines for Standards and Health Care Related to Abuse, Assault, Neglect, and Family Violence (Ottawa, National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1989).
107 J. Osborne, Domestic Violence Fact Pack, a Home Office Development Fund project (London, Her Majestys Stationery Office, 1990), p. 2.
108 Taylor and Stewart, op. cit.
109 MacLeod, Battered but not Beaten..., pp. 103-104.
110 L. MacLeod, Wife battering and the web of hope: progress, dilemmas and visions of prevention, discussion paper prepared for Working Together: 1989 National Forum on Family Violence, held at Ottawa, from 18 to 21 June 1989 (Ottawa, Family Violence Prevention Division, Health and Welfare Canada, 1989), p. 21.
111 Match International Centre, Linking Womens Global Struggles to End Violence (Ottawa, 1990), p. 55.
112 Ibid., p. 51.
113 Ibid., p. 30.
114 I. Shamin, Women and family violence in Bangladesh, prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Violence in the Family with Special Emphasis on its Effects on Women (BAW/EGM.86.1/BP.3), p. 14.
115 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., p. 92.
116 Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Office of the Status of Women, Country report on violence against women: Australia, Commonwealth Secretariat paper, No. 3 (WAMM 90/VI/(ii)), presented to the Third Meeting of Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Womens Affairs, held at Ottawa, from 9 to 12 October 1990, p. 31.
117 New York Governors Task Force on Rape and Sexual Assault, Rape, Sexual Assault, and Child Abuse: Working Towards a More Responsive Society (Albany, New York, 1990).
118 Canada, Family Violence in Canada: A Call to Action (Ottawa, Supply and Services Canada, 1991).
119 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., p. 91.
120 Province of Alberta, Alberta Social Services, Office for the Prevention of Family Violence, Breaking the pattern: how Alberta communities can help (Edmonton, Office for the Prevention of Family Violence, Alberta Social Services), p..1.
121 Sinclair, op. cit.
122 Disabled Womens Network Canada, Meeting Our Needs: Access Manual for Transition Houses (Toronto, 1991).
123 Kinnon, op. cit., p. 10.
124 G. Nicarthy, Getting Free: You Can End Abuse and Take Back Your Life, New Leaf Series, 2nd ed. (Seattle, Seal Press Feminist, 1986).
125 R. G. Rogers, Reaching for Solutions: The Report of the Special Advisor to the Minister of National Health and Welfare on Child Sexual Abuse in Canada (Ottawa, Health and Welfare Canada, 1990), p. 100.
126 W. Jamieson, The first steps, Vis-a-vis (Ottawa, Health and Welfare Canada, 1988), pp. 11-12; and Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., pp. 87-88.
127 D. G. Saunders and S. T. Azar, Treatment programs for family violence, in Family Violence, L. Ohlin and M. Tonry, eds. (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1989) pp. 486-488.
128 E. W. Gondolf, How some men stop their abuse: an exploratory program evaluation, in Coping with Family Violence: Research and Policy Perspectives, G. T. Hotaling and others, eds. (Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1988), p. 130.
129 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 54.
130 Chiswick Family Rescue, How would you feel if a violent attacker had the key to your door?, information brochure.
131 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 57.
132 MacLeod, Wife battering and the web of hope..., pp. 29-30.
133 D. Williams-White, Self-help and advocacy: an alternative approach to helping battered women, in Family Violence: Emerging Issues of a National Crisis, L. J. Dickstein and C. C. Nadelson, eds. (Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Press, 1989), p. 53.
134 J. Herman, Recognition and treatment of incestuous families, in Family Violence: Emerging Issues..., p. 38.
135 Saunders and Azar, loc. cit, p. 488.
136 Domestic violence: report of the Secretary-General..., para. 59; S. Horley, Love and Pain: A Survival Handbook for Women (London, Bedford Square Press, 1988); and S. Horley, The Charm Syndrome: Why Charming Men Can Make Dangerous Lovers (London, Macmillan, 1991).
137 P. G. Jaffe, D. A. Wolfe and S. K. Wilson, Children of Battered Women (Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1990), pp. 32-54.
138 MacLeod, Wife battering and the web of hope..., p. 43.
139 Jaffe, Wolfe and Wilson, op. cit., pp. 86-87.
140 C. D. Webster and N. Z. Hilton, Violence in the family institution: the future of research and practice, in Family Violence: Perspectives on Treatment Research and Policy, R. Roesch, D. G. Button and V. F. Sacco, eds. (Burnaby, British Columbia Institute on Family Violence, 1990), p. 177.
141 Saunders and Azar, loc. cit, p. 482.
142 Correctional Service of Canada, Living without violence: a component of the living skills program within the correctional service of Canada: an overview.
143 J. L. Jennings, Preventing relapse versus stopping domestic violence: do we expect too much too soon from battering men?, Journal of Family Violence, vol. 5, No. 1 (January 1990), pp. 43-60; S. Horley, Responding to male violence..., pp. 166-170; S. Horley, Mens groups...; B. Hart, Safety for Women: Monitoring Batterers Programs (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 1988); and Dobash and Dobash, Women, Violence and Social Change....
144 D. Adams, loc. cit, pp. 176-199; J. Edelson, Judging the success of interventions with men who batter, in Family Violence: Research and Public Policy Issues, D. Besharov, ed. (Washington, D.C., AEI Press, 1990), pp. 130-146; J. Edelson and Z. Eisikovits, Men who batter women: a critical review of the evidence, and B. Hart, Safety for women: monitoring batterers programs, Journal of Family Issues, vol. 6, No. 2 (June 1985), pp. 229-247; J. Ptacek, loc. cit., pp. 133-157; M. Wilson and D. Morran, CHANGE: Men Learning to End their Violence Against Women (Stirling, Scotland, University of Stirling).
145 L. K. Hamberger and J. E. Hastings, Counselling male spouse abusers: characteristics of treatment completers and dropouts, Violence and Victims, vol. 4, No. 4 (1989), pp. 275-286.
146 M. McNeill, Domestic violence - the skeleton in Tarasoffs closet, in Domestic Violence on Trial, D. J. Sonkin, ed. (Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, Copters, 1987).
147 S. Horley, Responding to male violence..., pp. 166-170; McGregor, Conceptualising male violence against female partners: political implications of therapeutic response, Australia New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, vol. 11, No. 2 (1990), pp. 65-70; Dobash and Dobash, Women, Violence and Social Change...; B. Hart, op. cit.; and N. DeClerq, Canadian Research on Mens Programmes.
148 E. Pence and M. Payman, Power and Control: Tactics of Men Who Batter: An Educational Curriculum (Minnesota Program Development, 1990).
149 D. Adams, Stages of anti-sexist awareness and change for men who batter, in Family Violence: Emerging Issues....
150 M. Holmes and C. Lundy, Group work for abusive men: a profeminist response, Canadas Mental Health, December 1990, pp. 12-17.
151 E. W. Gondolf, loc. cit., p. 142.
152 A. Browne and D. G. Dutton, Escape from violence: risks and alternatives for abused women - what do we currently know?, in Family Violence: Perspectives on Treatment,..., p. 75.
153 D. J. Sonkin and M. Durphy, Learning to Live without Violence: A Handbook for Men (Volcano, California, Volcano Press, 1989).
154 J. Rusinoff, Mens Treatment Handbook, 2nd ed. (Minneapolis, Domestic Abuse Project, 1990).
155 A. Jenkins, Invitations to Responsibility (Adelaide, Dulwich Centre Publications, 1990).
156 Ibid., p. 41.
157 H. L. Wood and L. Olivier, For the kids, Investigating Child Sexual Abuse: Instructors Guide and Script (Calgary, Calgary Society for the Investigation of Child Sexual Abuse, 1988).
158 Commonwealth Secretariat, Human Resource Development Group, Women and Development Program, Violence against Women: Curriculum Materials for Legal Studies (London, 1989), pp. iii-iv.
159 University of Buenos Aires, Psychology Department, Graduate Studies Office, Interdisciplinary program on family violence, information brochure (Buenos Aires, University of Buenos Aires, 1991).
160 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit, p. 65.
161 National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, Domestic Violence Policy Development: National and Regional Training Seminars for Law Enforcement Executives and Managers (Washington, D.C., United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime and the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, 1990).
162 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit, p. 83.
163 T. Lobu and others, Assaulted Women: A Manual for Advocates (Toronto, Community Legal Education Ontario, 1990), p. 1.
164 Sinclair, op. cit.
165 Rogers, op. cit., p. 93.
166 MacLeod, Battered But Not Beaten..., p. 116.
167 Match International Centre, Linking Womens Global Struggles..., pp. 56-57.
168 MacLeod, Wife battering and the web of hope..., pp. ii, iv.
169 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit, p. 23.
l70 Violence against Women in the Family..., p. 103.
171 C. Benard, Patterns of violence against women in the family, working paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Violence in the Family with Special Emphasis on its Effects on Women (BAW/EGM/86/WP.1), p. 25.
172 Match International Centre, Linking Womens Global Struggles..., p. 30.
173 Organization of American States, Inter-American Commission of Women, National report: Barbados, prepared for the XXV Assembly of Delegates, held at Washington, D.C., from 15 to 19 October 1990.
174 Australia, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Office of the Status of Women, Country Report on Violence against Women: Australia (Canberra, 1990), pp. 51-54.
175 Bruynooghe and others, op. tit, p. 59-60.
176 Ibid., pp. 59-61.
177 Ibid., p. 23.
178 Violence against Women in the Family..., p. 103.
179 Church Council on Justice and Corrections, Canadian Council on Social Development, Family Violence in a Patriarchal Culture: A Challenge to Our Way of Living (Ottawa, 1988).
180 Employee Assistance Program Association of Toronto, The Family Violence Project (Ottawa, Health and Welfare Canada, National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 1987).
181 Match International Centre, Linking Womens Global Struggles..., p. 48.
182 Match International Centre, Linking Womens Global Struggles..., p. 48. See also Violence against Women in the Family..., p. 103; I. Shamim, Bangladesh, case study prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Violence in the Family with Special Emphasis on its Effects on Women (BAW/EGM.86/CS.2), p. 5.
183 L. Mailloux, Manuela Ramos - Pulling strings to end violence, Match Newsletter, Summer 1991, p. 6.
184 M. Gonzz Suz, G. Blanco Marten, E. Yglesias Mora, Aprendiendo a ser Mujer (Buenos Aires, Fundatiuan B. de Justo). See also E. Tchalidy, Basta de Violencia contra la Mujer (Buenos Aires, Fundacilicia Moreau de Justo, Fundaciuan B. Justo, 1989); E. Tchalidy, Violencia no es sel Golpe! (Buenos Aires, Fundacilicia Moreau de Justo, 1990).
185 M. Pineda, No! A la Violencia contra la Mujer (Santo Domingo, Editora Taller).
186 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., p. 63.
187 K. Stavrou-Petersen and D. Gamache, My Family and Me - Violence Free: A Domestic Violence Prevention Curriculum (St. Paul, Minnesota, Coalition for Battered Women, 1988).
188 State of New Jersey, Department of Community Affairs, Division on Women, Domestic Violence Prevention Program, Domestic Violence: A Guide for Educators (Trenton, New Jersey, 1987). See also State of New Jersey, Department of Community Affairs, Division on Women, Domestic Violence Prevention Program, Workshop Leaders Guide to the Effects of Domestic Violence on Children: A Workshop for New Jersey Educators (Trenton, New Jersey, 1990).
189 London Family Court Clinic, London Board of Education, Violence in intimate relationships: pilot program completed in five secondary schools, Violence Prevention Bulletin, No. 1, June 1990, p. 1.
190 S. Steinmetz, Abuse of the elderly, in Insights into Violence in Contemporary Canadian Society, J. M. MacLatchie, ed. (Ottawa, John Howard Society of Canada, 1987).
191 J. Riddington, The disabled, Working Together: 1989 National Forum on Family Violence Proceedings (Ottawa, Health and Welfare Canada, 1990), p. 41.
192 G. Allan Roeher Institute, Issues and Questions Involved in the Sexual Abuse of Persons with Intellectual Impairments (Downsview, Ontario, York University, 1987).
193 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., p. 18.
194 The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Strategy for the collection and analysis of national family violence information, document submitted to Health and Welfare Canada, November 1990.
195 Finklehor, Hotaling and YllI>Stopping Family Violence: Research Priorities for the Coming Decade (Newbury Park, California, Sage Publications, 1988), p. 31.
196 Violence against women: an obstacle to development, information paper prepared for the 29th session of the Consultative Committee on the United Nations Development Fund for Women, January 1991 (UNIFEM/CC29/2).
197 Amnesty International, Women in the Front Lines (New York, 1991).
198 D. Callahan and B. Jennings, Ethics, the Social Sciences and Policy Analysis (New York, Plenum, 1983); R. P. Dobash and R. E. Dobash, How research makes a difference to policy and practice, in Family Violence: Research and Public Policy Issues..., S. Rose, L. J. Kamin and R. C. Lewontin, Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (New York, Penguin, 1984); N. Tuana, ed., Feminism and Science (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1989).
199 Finklehor, Hotaling and Yllp. cit., p. 31.
200 S. K. Steinmetz, The battered husband syndrome, Victimology, No. 2, 1978, p. 499; M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles, Societal change and change in family violence from 1975 to 1985 as revealed by two national surveys, Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 48, No. 4 (1986), pp. 465-479; M. A. Straus, The conflict tactics scale and its critics: an evaluation and new data on validity and reliability, in Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families, M. A. Straus and R. J. Gelles, eds. (New Brunswick, New Jersey, Transaction, 1990).
201 See E. Pleck and others, The battered data syndrome: a comment on Steinmetzs article, Victomology, No. 2, 1978, pp. 680-683; G. Margolin, The multiple forms of aggressiveness between marital partners: how we identify them, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, vol. 13, 1987, pp. 77-84; R. P. Dobash and others, The myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence, Social Problems, vol. 39, No. 1 (1992), pp. 402-432; W. S. DeKeseredy and R. Hinch, Woman Abuse: Sociological Perspectives (Toronto, Thompson Educational Publishing, 1991), pp. 21-25; and Dobash and Dobash, Women, Violence and Social Change..., chap. 8.
202 Finklehor, Hotaling and Yllp cit., pp. 15-16.
203 Bruynooghe and others, op. cit., p. 17.
204 D. Levinson, Family violence in cross-cultural perspective, in Handbook of Family Violence, V. B. Hasselt and others, eds. (New York, Plenum Press, 1988), pp. 435-455.
205 Ibid., pp. 436-438.