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close this bookGATE - 4/92 - Networking: Lessons and Hopes (GTZ GATE, 1992, 56 p.)
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Resource Guide: Appropriate Technology in the Development Process

Bhalla, A. S., James, D.: New Technologies and Development. Experiences in Technology Blending. London 1988 (Lynne Rienner Publishers).

Appropriate technology seen from a different standpoint: the International Labour Office (ILO) uses the term "technology blending" to describe a combination of traditional and modern technologies (e.g. microelectronics, biotechnology).

Carr, Marilyn: The AT Reader. Theory and Practice in Appropriate Technology. IT Publications. London 1985. 468 pp (IT Publications: 103 - 105, Southampton Row, London WC 1 B 4 HH, UK).

An extremely comprehensive reader which describes the origins of the AT movement and its development, citing examples of practical successes and failures in various contexts. The examples are drawn from agriculture, health care, water and energy supply, building materials, industrial production and education.

Gamser, Matthew S. (ed.): Mobilizing Appropriate Technology. Papers on Planning Aid Programmes. IT Publications. London 1988. 112 pp.

Results of a workshop held in Oslo in 1987 on conceptions and implications of AT and its influence on Norwegian development cooperation (DC). The contributions include discussions on ecology, roles of the sexes, basic needs strategy, institutional aspects and criteria of appropriateness for DC measures and technologies.

Gamser, M. Appleton, H., Carter, N. (eds.): Tinker, Tiller, Technical Change. Technologies from the People. IT Publications. London 1990.278 pp.

A short general introduction into technology development "from the bottom", followed by three main sections with regional reviews of the state of technological development and technology transfer in Africa, Asia and Latin America; 17 case reports on successful applications of AT.

Jequier, N., Blanc, G.: The World of Appropriate Technology: A Quantitative Analysis. Paris 1983 (OECD).

Results of an OECD study on the dissemination of AT at the beginning of the 1980s. A quantitative investigation of the promotion and application of Appropriate Technology in almost all relevant organizations and areas of cooperation.

Kaplinsky, Raphael: The Economies of Small. Appropriate Technology in a Changing World. Washington/London 1990 (Appropriate Technology International, IT Publications). 244 pp.

The book describes ecological, social and economic aspects of the origins and nature of the worldwide AT movement. Case reports from the bread, brick, cement and sugar industries in Africa and Asia. The final chapter describes the role of the market in the development and dissemination of AT. The general section in particular is well worth reading.

Sands, D. M.: The Technology Applications Gap. Overcoming

Constraints to Small Farm-Development. Rome 1986 (FAO Research and Technology Paper No. 1).

Analysis of technology transfer problems in small-scale farming with reference to failed and successful FAO projects.

Smillie, Ian: Mastering the Machine. Poverty, Aid and Technology. IT Publications. London 1991.268 pp.

Up-to-the-minute account of the AT movement in the historical context of technological development and practice. Why were certain technologies developed (e.g. in the armaments industry)? How did the clock, railways and the typewriter influence social developments? This is followed by an analysis of classical applications of AT in development cooperation and of the outlook for technology transfer. A book that leaves few questions unanswered.

Stevens, Robert W.: Appropriate Technology. A Focus for the Nineties. ITDG North America. New York 1991.169 pp.

Results of a workshop with the same title held in May 1988. Covers theoretical principles and concepts of AT, followed by contributions on technology in practice in agriculture, energy, and promotion of small industry, and on dissemination of information and training as promotional instruments.

Stewart, F., Thomas, H., De Wilde, T.: The Other Policy. The Influences of Policies on Technology Choice and Small Enterprise Development. Washington/London 1990 (Appropriate Technology International, IT Publications). 486 pp.

A critique of the principal political factors promoting or respectively hindering the implementation of AT. Contains proposals for improving overall conditions through political reforms in individual countries, and numerous regional and sectoral case studies. One of the first basic studies to focus on the promotion of small businesses, currently a fashionable AT topic.

Straten, J. van der: Technology Transfer and Development. A Contribution to Policy Making. Amsterdam 1992 (TOOL). 82 pp.

A paper on the development of a sectoral policy for technology transfer, by a Dutch non-governmental organization. Particularly relevant to promotion of small businesses and market-economic criteria.

Willoughby, Kelvin W.: Technology Choice. A Critique of the Appropriate Technology Movement. Boulder/London 1990 (Westview Press/IT Publications). 350 pp.

An attempt to overcome the "for or against technology" antithesis is made by greater awareness in the choice of technologies. The approach is developed from a critique of the premises of the AT movement (Schumacher) and the problems of applying AT as the author sees them. A rather disappointing, formal and - to some extent questionable - ideological critique.
Klaus Schmitt / Holger Nauheimer

Improving Training Quality

R. T. Raab, B. E. Swanson, T. L. Wentling, C. D. Clark: Improving Training Quality. A Trainer's Guide to Evaluation. Rom: FAO 1991. 157 pp. (FAO, Publications Division, Via Belle Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, Italy).

Three objectives are mentioned in the preface of this publication:

1. To provide trainers with information on how to plan and design an educationally-sound training activity and to develop the necessary training support materials.

2. To provide simple, yet useful tools which can be used to assess the needs, effectiveness and impact of a training activity.

3. To provide assistance to trainers in identifying shortcoming
in training activities and the possible reasons for such problems with a view of improving future training activities.

Ian Montagnes: Editing and Publication. A Training Manual. Manila: Int. Rice Research Inst./Ottawa: IDRC. 429 pp. ISBN: 071-22-0009-4.

(Ins. Rice Research Institute, PO Box 933, 1099 Manila, Philippines; IDRC, PO Box 8500 Ottawa, Canada).

This book is based on a Editing and Publication Training Course offered by the IRRI in collaboration with the IDRC in 1985-1988. The author developed the course and in the process he wrote this manual. The content is organized in 11 chapters which cover all steps necessary while producing a book: Author, Editor, Reader; Getting the most out of Words; The Editor's many Tasks; Editing for the Specialist; Reaching the Nonspecialist; Illustrations; Design for Publication; Introduction to Print Production; Production Management; The Business Side; Reaching the Reader.

NGO Directory

OECD: Directory of Nongovernmental Environment and Development Organizations in OECD Member Countries.

Repertoire des Organisations

Non Gouvernementales dans les Pays Membres de L'OCDE pour L'Environnement et le Developpement. OECD Paris 1992. 409 pp. ISBN: 92-64-03536-2FF 300. (OECD, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, F-75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France.)

This Directory provides information on 649 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in OECD Member countries that focus on environment and development. Profiles of the NGOs describe their aims, education work and actions in developing countries.

Strategies for Africa

Mohamed Suliman (Ed.): Alternative Development, Strategies for Africa. Vol.2: Environment. Women.

Inssitute for African Alternatives (IFAA), London, 1991, 178pp. ISBN: 1-870425-29-4. (Institute for African Alternatives: 23, Bevenden Street, London N1 6 BH. UK).

Volume II of Alternative Strategies for Africa deals with Africa's environmental crisis and the situation of women. It contains the papers from the workshops on the environment and woman at the Dar es Salaam conference called in December 19X9 to consider alternative strategies for Africa.

The first part of this volume analyses the nature and magnitude of the continent's environmental problems. The ideas of classic economic development are challenged and writers emphasize the central role of agriculture, the proper use of natural resources and the importance of popular participation Case studies on Ghana, Southern Africa, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda demonstrate similar features: desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, declining food production and pollution.
The workshop on women and development analysed the problems confronting African women and their practical strategies to challenge them. There are papers on education, agriculture, the informal sector and women in politics, and case studies from Nigeria, Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda und Cameroon.

Sheep Production in Developing Countries

Ruth M. Gatenby: Sheep. A book of the series "The Tropical Agriculturalist".
CTA/MacMillan, London 1991. 150 pp. ISBN 0-333-52310-5.
£ 4.99. (CTA, Postbus 380, NL-6700 AJ Wageningen, Netherlands).

This book is the second (the first was on poultry) to be produced in the field of animal production in the tropics for The Tropical Agriculturalist series. The series is intended to provide up to date information to both students and farmers. All the books have been written by specialists who have worked in a number of tropical countries and regions.

The importance of sheep in tropical countries is often overlooked. They are in fact very important in many developing countries where over 600 million of them are located.

Sheep provide with few exceptions, a very acceptable source of food for people of all ethnic types and religious persuasions. Sheep will thrive under conditions where crops and other forms of livestock would die because the climate is too arid or the soil too poor.

Consequently they are particularly valuable in the arid parts of the world. In this book Ruth Gatenby discusses sheep production in Africa, Asia and Latin America and has produced an easy to read guide for those interested in this form of livestock. It is informative and seeks to transfer ideas not only from the "north" to the tropics but also between tropical countries.

New Head of GATE

On 1 October 1992 Dr. Wolfgang Morbach took up his appointment as the new Head of the GATE division of GTZ. Dr. Morbach, a chemist, succeeds Professor Alexander Wittkowsky, who is returning to his post at the University of Bremen.

For four years Dr. Morbach, 44, was on the GTZ field staff as lecturer in analytical chemistry at the Algerian Mineral Oil Institute. Subsequently he worked at GTZ head office as project liaison officer for higher education promotion projects before joining GATE in October 1985. He was responsible for dissemination programmes of appropriate technologies and for the setup of GATE's environmental unit. Since 1989 he has been Senior Planning Officer.

Dr. Morbach's special fields of activities are: institutional development in environment; pollution control in urban and industrial areas; methodology and concepts of environmental impact assessment gate Publications

Wulf Killmann: How to Process Coconut Palm Wood, GATE/Vieweg, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden, 1988. 72 pp. DM 19,80. ISBN 3-528-02033-4.

The author describes felling, sawing, seasoning and further processing of coconut wood. He shows the various possible uses of coconut wood for construction, furniture, flooring, curios etc. The book is intended to be a guideline and information source for the users of coconut wood.

Jurgen Carls: Abstracts on Sustainable Agriculture. Volume 4. GATE /Vieweg, Braunschweig 1991.485 pp., DM 34,80. ISBN 3-528-02065-2.

This is the fourth edition called "Abstracts on Sustainable Agriculture". The abstracts are divided into different sections, e.g. integrated systems, agroecology, homegardens, soil fertility, water management etc. The subject index, based on keywords, the geographical indices as well as the index of authors help the reader to find abstracts on specific asepects of sustainable agriculture easily. The abstracts are more comprehensive than the usual type of annotated bibliography.

Wulf Boie: Introduction of Animal-Powered Cereal Mills. GATE/Vieweg, Braunschweig/ Wiesbaden 1989. 70 pp. DM 19,80. ISBN 3-528-02044-X.

In many cases animal powered cereal mills can be an alternative to motor mills. Since 1984 GATE has worked on the introduction of animal powered mills in West Africa. This brochure reflects the experience gained so far. It is designed to provide information and helps interested projects and organizations for planning and implementation of projects.