Cover Image
close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 5: Income-Generating Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 127 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the documentChapter 1: Rationale and Principles
View the documentChapter 2: Programme Framework
View the documentChapter 3: Types of Programmes
View the documentChapter 4: Organization and Delivery System
View the documentChapter 5: Resources for Income Generating Activities
View the documentChapter 6: Personnel and Their Development
View the documentChapter 7: Monitoring and Evaluation
View the documentChapter 8: Issues and Prospects
Open this folder and view contentsANNEXES
View the documentBACK COVER

Chapter 3: Types of Programmes

A. Introduction

As discussed in the earlier chapters, IGPs are required for all kinds of people (educated and uneducated, employed and unemployed, men and women youth and adults) in all vocations (agriculture, small business, service and industrial sectors) and in all settings (rural, semi-urban and urban). However, it was emphasised that preference should be given to the rural people living below or at the poverty line who constitute a great majority of the population (more than 60 per cent) in most developing countries of the Region. Against this background, this chapter is devoted to development of approaches for conducting IGPs in rural settings.

B. Rural Setting

The Rural population mainly consists Of:

- illiterate youth and adults as small farmers and landless labourers - both male and female;
- school leavers (al secondary level) and drop-outs;
- traditional craftsmen and rural artisans;
- small scale businessmen.

Rural occupations are mainly associated with:

- agriculture, horticulture and farm machinery;

- livestock - poultry, cattle rearing, fish culture;

- social forestry - village nurseries and tree plantation;

- rural transport - rickshaws, country boats, push carts and vans;

- rural industries - flour mills, rice mills, oil mills, ice plants, lime kilns, brick yards, food processing;

- rural trading - buyers and sellers of products and services;

- traditional crafts - weaving, pottery, cane work, wood carving, lapidry, jewellery, shoe making, lace making, lacquer work, brass and silver work.

C. General Components of IGPs

In the context of the above content of IGPs ranges from providing basic literacy to establishing the participants in gainful employment. The major components of training need to be selected from among the following to meet the specific needs of the diverse target groups:

a) Functional literacy.

This comprises basic literacy, numeracy and social awareness with emphasis on health, nutrition, hygiene, sanitation, safety, first aid, ecosystems, community, technology and basic science in the context of the life of Mural people, their problems and opportunities.

b) Upgrading of literacy

The emphasis is usually on village organisation, management, leadership, cooperatives, rural banking, technological change, world of work and employment opportunities.

c) Occupational theory

This covers input requirements, processes, products and related science, technology and mathematics.

d) Basic occupational skills

These focus on increasing capacity and skill to carry out income generating activities effectively.

e) Higher order occupational skills

These enable participants to undertake income generating programmes with increased productivity and quality control using modern tools and processes at proficiency level.

f) Entrepreneurial skills

These comprise book keeping, accounting, marketing, problem solving, risk taking and communication skills.

g) Follow-up technical and support services

These may include rural enterprise projects, credit facilities, and co-operatives for sharing costly inputs.

The degree of requirement of the above components depends on educational background, and scope and nature of employment needs. This is illustrated in the following diagram (Figure 3.1).


Figure 3.1: The changing content of IGPs

The assumption made here is that people with low level of educational background engage in occupations at a basic level. The training content for them includes basic level occupational skills, upgrading of general education and lower order of entrepreneurial development. Another assumption made is that the people with increasing level of previous education wish to pursue income generating activities which require higher order occupational abilities and competencies. As such, they require increasing development of occupational and entrepreneurial skills. Their need for general education will be in decreasing order in view of their higher level of previous education.

D. Target Specific Components of IGPs

On the above basis, IGPs for various categories of rural people comprise the following components. For coding (a) to (g) refer to the list al section C.

- Illiterate groups

require functional literacy (a) and basic occupational skills (d) and follow-up support services (g).

- School drop-outs

need upgrading of literacy (b) occupational theory (c) basic occupational skills (d) and follow-up support services (g).

- School leavers

require occupational theory (c), basic occupational skills (d), higher order occupational skills (e), entrepreneurial skills (f), and follow-up support services (g).

- Traditional craftsmen

require upgrading of literacy (b), higher order occupational skills (e), entrepreneurial skills (f) and follow-up support services (g).

- Small businessmen

require upgrading of literacy (b) and entrepreneurial skills (f).

E. Steps for Development Of IGPs

Possible steps for development of IGPs in rural settings is schematically represented as under Figure 3.2.


Figure 3.2: Steps for the development of IGPs in rural settings.

Earlier experiences indicate that rural people have not shown adequate interest to participate in literacy development programmes which focus on literacy alone. This is because literacy alone has not improved their income raising capacity. To obviate this difficulty, occupational skill development programmes have been conducted on the assumption that the skills acquired would enable participants to engage in gainful employment. Even this has not helped the participants as much as expected because most found it difficult to become involved in income generating activities without follow-up support services for placement either in wage or self-employment. If IGPs are to be successful in respect of rural people, functional literacy, skill development and follow-up services particularly credit facilities need to be arranged as integral parts of IGPs. Seed money, revolving funds, learning funds and cooperative banks (with rural people as shareholders) are some of the ways for extension of credit facilities. This integrated approach has two benefits. Firstly, it encourages rural people to participate in literacy and postliteracy development programmes on a wider scale, secondly, it ensures their absorption in appropriate income generating activities.

F. Development of IGPs In Thailand

In Thailand some nonformal education programmes are especially designed to generate rural employment, income-generation, self-employment or small scale business enterprise. Although, the programmes differ from each other, they share several common characteristics.

· They aim to bring about economic benefits to learners during the course of the training programmes or immediately after.

· The programmes are designed to assist learners in the entire cycle of income generation promotion activities from survey of economic opportunities, decision making, acquisition of necessary knowledge and skills to implementation of the activities.

· Comprehensive curricula are developed to upgrade basic competencies, technical skills, managerial and marketing skills and abilities to work in groups. Support services are provided and actual working experiences are required as part of the training programmes rather than as anticipated outcomes of the programmes.

· All the programmes are planned and implemented by the Department of Non-formal Education but are carried out in close cooperation with a community’s local resource people, the private business sector and other development agencies.

The following are the three models currently in vogue in Thailand.


Model I: Vocational Training for Self-Employment


Model II: Business-oriented Vocational Training


Model III: Non formal Vocational Education for Rural Employment Promotion

In addition to specific training courses which are confined to learners and to specific periods, the policy of the Thai educational system is to create a learning network through which people can acquire necessary knowledge and information on their own.

The learning network aims to achieve the following:

i) To foster self-directed learners, and learning groups in the communities.

ii) To strengthen indigenous learning networks which already exist in the communities through such measures as parent education, village technical cooperation, promotion of local resource persons, and use of folk artists and religious leaders in education.

iii) To enrich the learning environment through establishment of learning resource centers (libraries, museums, etc.) and the use of mass media for education.

iv) To create mechanisms through which the learning network can be strengthened.

G. Conclusion

Most of the developing countries in the Region are seriously concerned with socioeconomic and educational development of their people. The IGPs conducted by them contain several of the components and elements described above. There are however some variations in the design and development of the models and their implementation Traditions, ethos, local genius, immediate needs and facilities for implementation are some of the factors which have influenced their design and development.

The suggestions presented in Chapter 2 and 3 of this volume are intended to strengthen current practice by advocating (i) a more systematic approach to IGPs and (ii) improving coordination between all relevant agencies.