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close this bookNew Guidebook for Development and Production of Literacy Materials (ACCU)
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View the documentPreface
View the documentFor users of this guidebook
Open this folder and view contentsSection I: Rationale and principle of learning materials
Open this folder and view contentsSection II: Development and production of learning materials
Open this folder and view contentsSection III: Selection and adapting of existing materials
Open this folder and view contentsSection IV: Distribution, utilization and evaluation of basic literacy & follow-up materials
View the documentAppendix I: Statistics on literacy and related issues
View the documentAppendix II: System of AJP materials and their content

Appendix II: System of AJP materials and their content





Brief Explanations on AJP Materials so Far produced

A. Booklets

1. Why Literacy for Women

(Social and general)

This booklet deals with one of the most crucial problems in the region, illiteracy in women. It explains in simple illustration and word, how women and their families would actually benefit from them being able to read and write

2. Let 's Form a Cooperative for Setter Life

(Social and general)

Because many of farmers in the world still do not have cooperatives, a great number of them lose their profits to the middlemen. This booklet explains in light-hearted illustrations what a cooperative is, its functions and benefits and how to form one

3 More Income by Tree Planting


Destruction of the environment and depletion of natural resources caused by tree cutting is one of the biggest problems in the Asian/Pacific Region Planting saplings (young trees) after cutting trees can be one of the effective solutions. This booklet shows the usage and growthspan of about ten trees that grow in tropical areas and promotes increase of sub-income by tree planting

4 Use of Gas from Daily Wastes


In most rural areas excrement of people and term animals (cows and horses) and kitchen garbage are left around the houses causing detrimental effects on sanitation and people's health This booklet shows how to produce and use methane gas from these wastes in and around the village. It is one of the simple science series

5 Fish Need a Lot of Oxygen


This booklet shows the importance of oxygen for fish farming. It explains in a story format that fish live by breathing oxygen in water, just as humans live by breathing oxygen in air. How to increase the oxygen content in water is explained to protect the fish from asphyxiation.

6. The Life of Water

(Social and general)

It explains basic scientific knowledge water cycle: evaporation, forming clouds and raindrops, salting down to earth, flowing down the river, use by humans, then again evaporation. It also explains how humans depend on water in many ways.

7. Baby's Food


This booklet explains to mothers in simple language how and what to teed the baby and gives advice on basic nutritional needs.

8. Mari and the Festival

- Let 's Eat Vegetables


One of the serious diseases in the Asian/ Pacific Region is night blindness, caused by tack of the vitamin A mainly contained in vegetables This booklet explains in an interesting comic style. the importance of taking vitamin A in daily life.

9. Bamboo Handicrafts


This booklet promotes handicrafts to generate sub-income. It explains how to make articles using the bamboo that is available in every village, both for home use and for selling

10 Useful and Simple Knowledge for Everyday Living

(Social and general)

A simple device or sudden idea could easily alleviate or solve problems in daily life that are thought to be difficult. When this knowledge is applied, daily life can become easier. work more effective. This booklet raises a problem we meet in daily life on the front of each page, then on the back gives a solution through highly expressive illustrations,

11. Grow Mushroom for More Income


This booklet suggests mushroom growing for income generation It shows simple ways of growing mushrooms using banana leaves and other materials which are easily available in rural areas. Since mushroom growing suits the climate of the Asian/Pacific Region, they can be cultivated in about two weeks. This is one of the income-generating series.

12 Raising Chickens for Additional Income


An introduction to chicken-raising, showing necessary materials for a small-scale chicken farm, common diseases chickens tend to get, how to teed them and how to sell chickens and eggs Full of bright humourous illustrations

B. Posters

13 Let 's Reed

(Social & general)

This poster shows the importance and benefits of being literate by comparing life with literacy skills on one side of a river and life without them on the other side, In a colorful Illustration. I he right bank of the river has hospitals, schools, and productive farms: the left side has people suffering from sickness. and barren land, because of lack of the necessary information to be gained from written words

14. Tree Planting

(Social & general)

This is a green poster showing the importance of protecting trees and promoting tree planting Not only are trees useful for fuel and timber, they can clean the air and prevent natural disasters; random cutting of trees is a great threat to human lives.

15 Do You Know Numbers?

This poster teaches how to count from 0 to 10 using coconuts It aims to explain the concept of numbers by showing a man wearing a turban who collects ten coconuts thrown by a monkey and goes to the market to sell them

16. How to Improve the Well System


On the left half of the poster, it raises the problem posed by a deep well, which requires great manpower to get water; and on the right half, as a solution, it suggests four ways of getting water from wells or tall water tanks On the back of the poster. it explains the simple scientific mechanisms used in each well system, such as lever and pulley, and application of these mechanisms to other systems in daily life

17. Charcoal Water Filter

(Health & sanitation)

There are many cases of people getting sick because of bad-quality water This poster shows how to make safe-to-drink water with a filter made of charcoal. gravel, sand, etc., which can be easily obtained in the village

18. The River a d Us

(Social & general)

On the back of Charcoal Water Filter poster, it shows how water is used in daily life: from the time it rains on the mountain, to the time it flows down the river to ocean

19 Sanitation

(Health & sanitation)

Hygienic problems caused by flies, water toilets and garbage disposal, and their solutions. are depicted in bright, colourful illustrations

20. Everyone 's Water

(Health & sanitation)

Various uses of common pond water in the village are illustrated, to show its importance and how proper use of it can enable every villager to live a healthy life

21 Let 's Wipe out Worms

(Health & sanitation)

People living in rural areas often get sick from worms (intestinal parasites). This poster shows how harmful worms are to human bodies, and how to wipe them out. in easy to-understand worms and a healthy man without.

22. Let 's Safely Use Electricity


In the rural villages electricity is rapidly becoming available these days Accordingly, basic knowledge of electricity and the safe use of electric appliances is needed This poster shows what causes electric accidents, and in case of one, how to deal with it.

23 Let's Think about Our Population

(social and general)

First in the series of 'Literacy and Population' materials This poster invites the learners to think about family size and its effect on the socio-economic situation By comparing an overpopulated village on left side of a river and a village with stable population on the right side, in a lively illustration, one thinks about the consequences of population size at school, clinic, on production, environment, home

24 We Can Take Action!

(Social a general)

Main target of this poster is women Its aim is to motivate women to take actions like gaining new skills for income, acquiring knowledge through reading, solving village problems. running cooperatives and more Active participation in village development combined with literacy skills would lead to self confident women

25 Home Gardening


A poster promoting the growing of fruit (papaya, mangoes) and vegetables (pumpkins, cabbages) in vacant spaces in the garden

26 Let's Make the Home Clean

(Health & sanitation)

In rural areas, sickness is sometimes caused by unsanitary environment around the home This poster shows how comfortable and beneficial it is to keep the home clean, by comparing a clean one with a dirty one.

27 Public Pollution inside the Bus

(Social & general)

It shows the need for morass in the public sector by taking bus riding as an example in a funny illustration,

C. Audio -visual Materials

(electronic L folk media)

28 Let's Form a Cooperative- cassette drama/radio programme

(Social & general)

A drama divided into five parts introducing a cooperative to solve the unending poverty of the village A father, whose daughter is seriously injured when a storm hits at night, realizes how poor the village is With neighbours, he starts convincing the villages to get involved in forming a cooperative for the improvement of village life

29 Save the Village-puppet show

(Social & general)

Four-character puppet show. a demon ( = illiteracy), father, mother, and son are living in a poverty stricken village. One day the son happens to overhear a demon talking to himself and finds out that the demon (illiteracy) is the cause of poverty in the village To fight poverty, he convinces lather and mother to start learning how to read and write

30 Pit Latrine for a Clean Village - picture story-telling

(Health & sanitation)

People in rural areas often get sick from polluted under ground water because they do not have pit latrines. Recognizing the rich oral tradition in the Asian/Pacific region, this picture story-telling was made to promote the construction of pit latrines for healthier life.

31 Water in Everyday Life-slide kit

(Social & general)

Enjoyable slides of beautiful pictures and simple illustrations that instruct on the good usage of water to promote the health of villages and make their life happier

32 Water in Everyday Life-video (converted from slides)

(Social & general)

A 16-minute video produced with the slide kit of the same title above. The methods and points of reminders of good use of water for drinking. cooking, washing, bathing and irrigating are shown on film

33 Poultry for Additional Income-slide kit


Since problems of literacy and poverty are closely inter-related, income-generation of the learners is one of the most important themes for literacy materials This slide kit explains, in easy to understand words and pictures, how to raise about 100 chickens to increase sub-income

34 Poultry for Additional Income-video (converted from slides)

A 11-minute video of the same title above Explains step-by-step how to effectively raise chickens to increase sub-income.

D. Games and Others

35 Building up a Happy Community-Sugoroku

(Social & general)

Players learn the importance of an individual's active participation in the community and the need for cooperation among people in building up a happy community by playing 'sugoroku' If one lands on 'flood'. one has to move back to 'tree planting', if on fighting', its back to 'start'.

36 A Balanced Diet-rotating piegraph


By rotating a disc showing three basic food groups (body-building foods, energy foods. regulating foods) and a disc showing what will happen due to lack of those foods, one can have fun and learn, about the importance of a good balanced diet.

37 Good Use of Water-jigsaw puzzle

(Health & sanitation)

This is a double-sided jigsaw puzzle On the front is a four-colour picture of an ideal village with a good water system. clear drinking water, toilet water, washing water, agricultural water On the back is a two-colour picture showing problems with water

38 Let's Plant Trees-step-by step game

(Social & general)

It shows, step by step, the danger of disasters caused by destruction of forests and the importance of tree planting as a preventive method It is in the format of a stone-throwing game that could be enjoyed by all Its aim is 'tree planting' to prevent the environmental destruction which has become a grave concern in the world. (fabric-made)

39. Women's Literacy for Happier and Healthier Life--box puzzle

(Social & general)

Four 10 cm-square boxes. Matching pictures on tour boxes make full pictures that show how life is made easier and happier by improvements in sanitation. nutrition, child raising and education, when women learn how to read and write

40 Nutrition-card game


While playing a picture-matching game, one gets to learn what kind of food one of four types of food groups, has what function in the body

41 Proverb Card Game


Instructional material that employs 'karuta', a Japanese traditional card game. Players compete to get cards by listening and looking for proverbs that contain the wisdom of forefathers.

42 Around Asia and the Pacific-Sugoroku


Cultural heritage of each Asian country is drawn in each square of a sugoroku which is a Japanese traditional game with dice The aim is to have fun learning

43 Animal Sugoroku

This is a sugoroku made especially for children so that they can learn names of animals Not only does it allow them to learn letters, it builds the imagination of an unseen world

44. Let's Repair Our Village Road-endless cartoon strip

(Social & general)

This is an endless comic. It starts by villages wanting to repair the bumpy roads, and ends with people cooperating to even out the road The aim is to motivate learners to repair roads through the cooperations among the villagers by informing them of the danger of bumpy roads and benefits brought by the good road

List of AJP Materials (prototypes)

Content areas


Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

(Beginning level)

(Middle level)

(Self-learning level)

A. Family Life

Let's Make the Home Clean (poster)

Home Gardening (poster)

Useful & Simple Knowledge for Everyday Living (booklet)

Women's Literacy for Happier and Healthier Life (box puzzle)

Why Literacy for Women (booklet)

Let's Think about Our Population (poster)

B. Economics, Income and Production

Let's Plant Trees (step by step game)

Bamboo Handicrafts (booklet)

Grow Mushroom (booklet)

Tree Planting (poster)

More Income by Tree Planting (booklet)

Poultry for Additional Income (slide kit) (video)

Raising Chickens (booklet)

Use of Gas from Daily Wastes (booklet)

Fish Need a Lot of Oxygen (booklet)

C. Health, Sanitation and Nutrition

Water in Everyday Life (slide kit) (video)

Nutrition (card game)

Mari and the Festival-Let's Eat More Vegetables (booklet)

A Balanced Diet (rotating piegraph)

Let's Wipe out Worms (poster)

Pit Latrine for a Clean Village (Kamishibai)

Sanitation (poster)

Everyone's Water (poster)

Charcoal Water Filter (poster)

D. Civic

Save the Village (puppet play)

Building up a Happy Community (Sugoroku game)

Let's Forma Farmers' Cooperative (cassette drama/radio programme)


Let's Repair Our Village Road (endless cartoon step)

Good Use of Water (jigsaw)

Cooperatives for Better Life (booklet)

Public Pollution inside the Bus (poster)

We Can Take Action! (poster)

Let's Read (poster)

E. Culture, Science and Others

Let's Safely Use Electricity (poster)

How to Improve the Well System (poster)

The Life of Water (booklet)

Do You Know Numbers? (poster)

Animal Sugoroku (game)

Proverb Card Game (card game)

The River and Us (poster)

Around Asia and the Pacific I (Sugoroku)

"Mine Smiles''

This is a very interesting animation programme especially for literacy promotion. It is important to utilize various kinds of media, Such as animation for effectively conveying the message and to give impact on societies and individuals. "Mine Smiles" is a story about a farmer's wife in rural areas who overcomes her and her family's hardships and to make themselves happier through acquiring literacy skills and knowledge. Character design LAT (Malaysia)

Directors: Shinichi Suzuki (Japan) & LAT (Malaysia)

16 minutes (English)



"How to Develop Literacy Materials foar Women"

Presented is the methods of developing literacy materials for women who occupies more than 70% of the total illiterate population in the world, thorough ACCU's Regional workshop in Pattaya, Thailand.

21 minutes (English)


"Street Children and Literacy,'

Importance of literacy and education for street children is highlighted, through the close linkage among children, teachers, parents and the communities. communities.

28 minutes (English)


Audio-visual materials electronic & folk media

Games and references

How to prepare national versions of AJP materials

National Versions of AJP Materials - How to Adapt AJP Materials for Local Use

Participating countries improve/modify these prototype AJP Materials according to each country's situation, translate them into their languages and actually utilize them in the rural areas Most of AJP Materials have so far been adapted and translated into 16 vernacular indigenous languages in 13 countries to produce national versions whose total number amounts more than 130 kinds.

Examples of adaptation "Baby's Food" (booklet)

Examples of adaptation "Everyone's Water" (poster)

Examples of adaptation "Useful & Simple Knowledge for Everyday Living" (booklet)

Materials for Neo-Literates Produced by ACCU

Asian/Pacific Joint Production Programme of Materials for Neo-literates in Rural Areas (AJP)



Asian/Pacific Joint Production Programme of Materials for Neo Literates in Rural Areas (AJP)

As a contribution to the eradication of illiteracy in Asia and the Pacific, ACCU has been carrying out since 1980 "Asian/Pacific Joint Production Programme of Materials for Neo-Literates in Rural Areas (AJP)", intended for people who have acquired a primary knowledge of reading and writing (neo-literates), but who may easily relapse into illiteracy due to lack of appropriate reading materials.

By blending the experitise and experience of the participating countries(18 countries), and with the collaboration of the UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (PROAP), 44 AJP materials in the form of booklets, posters, games and audio-visual materials on various subjects closely related to daily life in rural areas have so far been developed as prototypes (in English). The process for developing AJP Materials in shown below.

How AJP Materials Are Prepared (prototypes)

Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs

Goals and Targets

Expansion of early childhood care and developmental activities, including family and community interventions, especially for poor, disadvantaged and disabled children;

Universal access to, and completion of, primary education (or whatever higher level of education is considered as "basic") by the year 2000;


Improvement in learning achievement such that an agreed percentage of an appropriate age cohort (e.g., 80 percent of 14 year-olds) attains or surpasses a defined level of necessary learning achievement;


Reduction of the adult illiteracy rate (the appropriate age group to be determined in each country) to, say, one-half its 1990 level by the year 2000, with sufficient emphasis on female literacy to significantly reduce the current disparity between male and female illiteracy rates;

Expansion of provisions of basic education and training in other essential skills required by youth and adults, with programme effectiveness assessed in terms of behavioural changes and impacts of behavioural changes and impacts on health, employment and productivity;


Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better living and sound and sustainable development, made available through all education channels including the mass media, other forms of modern and traditional communication, and social action, with effectiveness assessed in terms of behavioural change.

Source: "World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs" (March 1990)

Designed by Kang, Woo Hyon (Republic of Korea)