|The Reintegration of War-Affected Youth: The Experience of Mozambique (ILO, 1997, 52 p.)|
This report is divided into four sections. The first section outlines the impact of armed conflict on Mozambican youth and the prevailing economic and labour situation in post-conflict Mozambique. The second section reviews the process of reintegration of military and civilian children and youth, concentrating on vocational training programmes provided by the Mozambican Government and selected non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations and bilateral agencies. The third section discusses the relevance and importance of reintegration skills and knowledge in the context of the Mozambique experience. The final section summarizes the major lessons learnt from the programmes of vocational training reintegration and recommends possible action for future reintegration programmes in other countries emerging from armed conflict. The attached bibliography is followed by an annex listing selected organizations that have been involved in vocational training of youth in Mozambique.
The present study examines the experiences of Mozambique in providing vocational skills training and employment to war-affected youth1 as part of the reintegration process. The research for this paper was undertaken in Maputo, Manica and Sofala provinces in Mozambique during a three-week period in December 1996. It identifies needs and makes practical recommendations and proposals for different training requirements leading to employment for war-affected youth. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of including support for reintegration skills and knowledge as part of, or linked to, vocational training programmes.2 The recommendations are based on gained experiences in Mozambique on launching different reintegration programmes for young persons affected by armed conflict.
1 The term youth is inevitably subject to differing definition. For the purpose of this paper, it shall be understood to include only those persons between the ages of 14 and 25, even though certain Mozambicans regard 30-year-olds and even 35-year-olds as youths. According to 1990 government statistics more than one-fifth of the population of Mozambique is between the ages of 15 and 25 and more than one-quarter is between 15 and 35. A population census is currently being prepared. Where specific reference is made to children, in accordance with international and national law, this term shall be deemed to refer to those persons under the age of 18.
2 Reintegration skills and knowledge demand the provision of basic and specialized education and information courses that, although not normally included in vocational training, may be essential to an individual if training is to lead to successful long-term employment. Examples of courses include literacy and numeracy training; education in human rights and labour standards; and public health information, covering, for instance, HIV/AIDS, drug and alcohol abuse, and protection from anti-personnel land mines.