|Law in Humanitarian Crises, Volume II : Access to Victims: Right to Intervene or Right to Receive Humanitarian Assistance? (ECHO)|
The standard list of precedents collected by D. J. Scheffer is as follows:
1. Intervention to protect religious or ethnic minorities.
a) Greece (1827-1830). Great Britain, France and Russia intervened. Greece gained independence in 1830.
b) Syria (1860-1861). France intervened in Syria to restore law and order, and to protect the Christian population.
c) Bosnia, Herzegovina and Bulgaria (1877-1878). Russia intervened with the consent of Austria, Prussia, France and Italy to protect the Christian population in the Ottoman empire.
d) Macedonia (1903). Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia intervened in order to protect the Christian population.
2. Intervention to end internal aggression or human rights atrocities.
a) East Pakistan (1971). India invaded East Pakistan in order to redress widespread human rights violation, but claimed self defence.
b) Cambodia (1978). Vietnam intervened to end the genocide which took place under the government of Pol Pot (Khmer Rouge). Vietnam claimed self-defence and the occupation lasted until 1989.
c) Uganda (1979). In 1979, Tanzania invaded Uganda claiming self defence in reaction to earlier Ugandan attempts to attack Tanzania. After the intervention Tanzania invoked humanitarian intervention.
3. Intervention to rescue or protect citizens abroad and other endangered individuals (strictly speaking this is not humanitarian intervention but the exercise of self-defence).
a) The Congo, Stanleyville (1964). Belgium intervened and freed 2,000 foreign residents on the invitation of the Congo government, which could not control the rebellion.
b) The Dominican Republic (1965). The United States
"To preserve the lives of American citizens and citizens of a good many other nations - 46 to be exact, 46 nations". Dep't State Bull.20 (1965).
c) Entebbe, Uganda (1975). Israeli commando forces rescued Jewish and other passengers.
d) Grenada (1983). The United States and forces of six Caribbean states intervened on the basis of: "The narrower well-established ground of protection of United States nationals". Letter from the Legal Adviser, United States Department of State, 18 Int'1 Law, pp.381, 386 (1984).
4. "Other" rescue operations:
a) Panama (1989). According to the United States to protect U.S. nationals. In effect it resulted in the overthrow of the military regime of General Manuel Noriega.
b) Rwanda (1990). On a request by the Rwandan President, Belgium and France agreed to militarily assist the Hutu government against Tutsi attacks.
c) Chad (1990). France intervened to evacuate 1,200 foreigners.
d) Liberia (1990). The United States rescued 125 foreigners.
e) Zaire (1991). France and Belgium intervened and rescued their nationals and other foreigners.