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Interest Group in Pure and Applied Logics
(The information clearing house of FoLLI)

IGPL Newsletter vol. 2, n. 4, december 1993

Edited by: Dov Gabbay & Ruy de Queiroz?

Department of Computing (?) also at Departamento de Inform?atica Imperial College Federal Univ. of Pernambuco (UFPE) at Recife 180 Queen's Gate P.O. Box 7851 London SW7 2BZ Recife, PE 50732-970 UK Brazil Tel.: +44 71 225 8447 Tel.: +55 81 271 8430 Fax: +44 71 581 8024 Fax: +55 81 271 4925 fdg,

1 Generalities

1.1 Happy New Year 1994!

A very happy New Year to all IGPL members, and warmest thanks to those who sent us cards.

1.2 IGPL { Pure and Applied Logics

We are pleased to inform you that membership has almost turned the 700 figure. Research interests now run very wide, ranging from mathematical to various computational, symbolic, linguistic and philosophical aspects of logic.
In order to be more faithful to the wide scope of the IGPL, we have decided to change its name, though keeping the already familiar acronym IGPL.
Instead of

Interest Group in Propositional and Predicate Logics

IGPL is now an abbreviation of

Interest Group in Pure and Applied Logics

1.3 Bulletin of the IGPL

The response of the community to the launching of our Bulletin has been very encouraging. It is estimated that the files containing the Bulletin were obtained by over 800 ftp requests since they were first made available.
We have also received various messages with compliments and (constructive) criticisms. A number of suggestions have been received, and for the forthcoming issue we are taking care of as many as it is possible at this stage. For example, it was suggested that we let individual papers be accessible individually, since the file containing the whole issue is likely to be very large, causing problems with the ftp transmission. The forthcoming issue will also provide individual files for each paper.

It was also suggested that in the message announcing the availability of each issue we include a table of contents (with full titles), so that one would then be able to select which papers to obtain. This has also been taken care of.

There were also suggestions regarding which submission procedures would be most convenient. A number of members, not having local ftp archives, have said that would find it impossible to submit via ftp (rather than e-mail). For this reason we have now created a subdirectory on which anyone can write files even if logged on as `anonymous'.

2 igpl newsletter v. 2, n. 4, december 1993

We are constantly learning of the best ways to improve the Bulletin and, needless to say, suggestions and comments are very much welcome.

Let us remind ourselves that the Bulletin is the first scientific journal in logic where publication is fully electronic: submission, refereeing, revising, typesetting, checking proofs, publishing, and distributing, all is done via electronic mailing and electronic publishing.

The next issue of the Bulletin of the IGPL will be available by the end of February '94, and will contain research papers as well as book reviews. (If you are interested in writing a review of a book on a logic-related topic, let us know and we will send a request for a free review copy to the publishers on your behalf.)

Please note that unlike the IGPL Newsletter , hard copies of the Bulletin will NOT be sent automatically to those who do not have ftp facilities. You will need to subscribe to hard copies of the Bulletin (which are free of charge to countries with soft currencies and to other members who cannot pay for it) by writing to:

Regina Kraemer
Max-Planck-Institut f?ur Informatik
D-66123 Saarbr?ucken

Subscription for hard copies costs DM 15 (US$ 10) for IGPL members; DM 30 (US$ 20) for non-members; and DM 40 (US$ 30) for libraries.

A brochure with a subscription form is now available both electronically and in paper form. The electronic file is obtainable from, directory theory/forum/igpl/Bulletin, file

Those who are being sent hard copies of this Newsletter will be receiving a paper version of the brochure. PLEASE FILL IT IN AND SEND IT TO THE MPII IF YOU WISH TO RECEIVE HARD COPIES OF THE BULLETIN.

1.4 Clearing house activities this term

Address of colleague in the USA to colleague in France; copy of virtually inaccessible report from colleague in Sweden to colleague in South America; request for copies of papers by colleague in the UK on behalf of colleague in Brazil' pointer to colleague in The Netherlands on where to find a quotable reference to the (virtually unpublished) proof of an important result in his/her field; copies of unpublished reports from colleagues in the UK to colleague in Spain; over 20 review copies of books.

1.5 Membership per country

Here are our current membership figures: 687 registered members (605 on the e-mail list) from 53 countries.

USA: 203, UK: 63, Germany: 51, France: 31, Poland: 30, The Netherlands: 29, Brazil: 28, Italy: 24, Canada: 21, Japan: 21, Russia: 18, Portugal: 13, Australia: 12, Romania: 10, Spain: 10, Israel: 9, Sweden: 8, Austria: 7, Serbia: 7, Bulgaria: 6, Venezuela: 6, Belgium: 5, Czech Republic: 5, India: 5, Switzerland: 5, Taiwan: 5, Croatia: 4, Denmark: 4, Finland: 4, Hungary: 4, New Zealand: 4, Costa Rica: 3, Greece: 3, Norway: 3, South Africa: 3, Argentina: 2, Chile: 2, Iran: 2, Mexico: 2, Slovakia: 2, China: 1, Colombia: 1, Georgia: 1, Hong Kong: 1, Republic of Ireland: 1, Kazakhstan: 1, Lithuania: 1, Peru: 1, Saudi Arabia: 1, Slovenia: 1, Thailand: 1, Turkey: 1, Ukraine: 1.

P.S. If you wish to receive an updated list of members, just send us a request.

P.P.S. Those members who are interested in joining The European Foundation for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI), please let us know.

v. 2, n. 4, december 1993 1.6 generalities 3

1.6 Additions to theses library

(Abstracts of theses available from IGPL are obtainable from, directory theory/forum/igpl/theses-abstract.)

Extending Modal Logic, by Maarten de Rijke.
Language of Presentation: English
Promotor: Johan van Benthem
Date of Defence: 3 December 1993
Institution Granting Degree: Institute for Logic, Language and Computation, University of Amsterdam
Author's Address: CWI, P.O. Box 4079, 1009 AB Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Email:
Availability: A limited number of hard copies of the thesis is available from the author.

This thesis is about extensions of the standard modal language. After a brief introduction in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 goes on to develop a general perspective on modal logic; according to this perspective modal languages are first and foremost many-sorted description languages for relational structures, whose prime concern lies with the fine-structure of model theory. The chapter also identifies key research issues for (extended) modal logic, including `expressive power,' `combinations of modal systems,' and `relations between modal logics.'

Chapters 3, 4 and 5 investigate specific systems of extended modal logic, viz. modal logics with a `difference operator,' a system of dynamic modal logic, and modal systems corresponding to so-called Peirce algebras. Brief sketches are given of the applications of the modal systems being considered, and the general themes mentioned above are instantiated for those systems. In addition, Chapter 3 contains a method for proving axiomatic completeness results for logics with difference operators; the method is applied extensively in Chapters 4 and 5.

Chapters 6 and 7 deal with more general themes in extended modal logic. Chapter 6 uses bisimulations to develop the model theory of so-called basic modal languages; this yields modal analogues of general results on definability and preservation known from first-order logic (including the Keisler-Shelah theorem, Los's theorem, and Lyndon's theorem). The chapter also uses bisimulations to arrive at a Lindstr?om style characterization of basic modal logics. In the seventh and final chapter, which deals with correspondence theory, (extended) modal formulas are viewed as classical higher-order conditions on relational structures; the chapter gives both semantic and syntactic descriptions of fairly general algorithms that reduce such higher-order conditions to simpler ones.

Changing the Past: Database Applications of Two-Dimensional Temporal Logics, by Marcelo Finger.
Language of Presentation: English
Supervisor: Dov Gabbay
Date of Defence: February 1994
Institution Granting Degree: Department of Computing, Imperial College, London Author's Address: Dept Computing, Imperial College, 180 Queen's Gate, London SW7 2BZ, UK
Availability: by anonymous ftp on, directory theory/papers/Finger, file(s) thesis.fdvi,psg.Z

Temporal active databases are an extension of the traditional database concept wherein, on the temporal side, data is associated to time points or periods and, on the active side, temporal rules

4 igpl newsletter v. 2, n. 4, december 1993

provide a `temporal link' between the data, either via a procedural rule execution mechanism or through a declarative historical interpretation of the rules. In this database framework, we are interested in analysing and detecting the effects that a change in (data associated to) the past may cause in the database.

Temporal logic techniques are applied to describe and analyse the problems related to the evolution of temporal databases. For that, we start by presenting the mathematical framework of two-dimensional temporal logics. Several methods of combining two one-dimensional temporal logics are described. Each combination method generates a family of two-dimensional temporal logics. The objective of this study is to establish for each combination method whether the logical properties of the one-dimensional systems, e.g. completeness and decidability, are transferred to their two-dimensional combination.

A temporal logical description of data representation and temporal queries in temporal databases is provided, and a two-dimensional temporal logic is used to describe its evolution through updates. We use this two-dimensional description to characterise the differences between the transactiontime and valid-time types of temporal databases.

A two-dimensional imperative execution semantics and a one-dimensional declarative validtime interpretation for temporal rules are then presented. Updates in the past, and in general any historical update, are shown to cause conflicts between the former and the latter. Those conflicts are then considered as the effects of changing the past and a classification of those conflicts is proposed. Finally, several algorithms for the detection of some conflict occurrences are presented and we prove their correctness.

2 Meetings

JELIA '94 { 4th European Workshop on Logics in AI, York, U.K., September 5-8, 1994.

The European Workshop on Logics in AI provides a major biennial forum for the discussion of logic-oriented approaches to artificial intelligence. Following successful meetings in France (1988), The Netherlands (1990) and Germany (1992), the fourth workshop will be held at the University of York, England, and will be sponsored by the ESPRIT NOE COMPULOG-NET, ALP-UK, and GI.

The aim is to bring together researchers involved in all aspects of logic in artificial intelligence. Papers are sought in areas which include (but are not limited to): foundations of logic programming and knowledge-based systems; automated theorem proving; knowledge representation; modal, epistemic and temporal logics; constructive and many-valued logics; nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision; abductive and inductive reasoning; partial and dynamic logics; hybrid reasoning systems; and applications of logic-based systems. A particular emphasis of the 1994 workshop will be the use of Logic Programming for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning.

SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS: Authors are asked to submit five (5) copies of their papers to the first Programme Co-Chair (Luis Pereira) by Monday the 14th of February, 1994. Each copy should include a separate title page giving the authors' details and a list of keywords. Papers should be a maximum of 16 A4 pages (excluding references and the separate title page) in 12 point type with a maximum of 38 lines per page (corresponding to LaTEX article style 12pt). Double-sided submissions are preferred. Electronic or faxed submissions will not be accepted. Further enquiries should be addressed to the Workshop Chair at the address below. Programme Co-Chairs: Prof. Luis Moniz Pereira, Departamento de Informatica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2825 Monte da Caparica, Portugal, email:, fax: [+351] 1 295 5641. Dr David Pearce, LWI, Institut fur Philosophie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 30, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany, fax: [+49] 30 838 64 30.
Workshop Chair: Dr Craig MacNish, Department of Computer Science, University of York, York Y01 5DD, UK, email:, fax: [+44] 904 432767.

Semantics and Linguistic Theory - SALT 4, Fourth Annual Meeting, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA, May 6{8, 1994.

v. 2, n. 4, december 1993 meetings 5

Invited Speakers: Emmon Bach, Robin Cooper, David Dowty, Manfred Krifka, Sally McConnellGinet.

SALT 4 welcomes submissions for 30-minute presentations (with 10 additional minutes for discussion) on any topic in the semantic analysis of natural language emphasizing the connection to linguistic theory. Authors should submit 10 copies of abstracts, no more than 2 pages (1000) words long. Authors' names, addresses, affiliation, phone numbers and e-mail address, and paper title should accompany the abstracts on a 3x5 card. E-mail submissions also accepted at the address listed below; e-mail submissions should be plain ASCII text.
Abstract deadline: February 1, 1994.
Send abstracts to: SALT 4 Committee, Department of Linguistics, 611 Hylan Building, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA.

The program will be completed by early March, at which time conference information will be made available. Inquiries welcome at the address above, or e-mail to:

A Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation, will be held in Recife, on the northeastern coast of Brazil, from 28th to 30th July 1994.

Contributions are invited in the form of one page (300 words) abstract in all areas related to logic, language, information and computation, including: pure logical systems, proof theory, model theory, type theory, constructive mathematics, lambda and combinatorial calculi, program logic and program semantics, nonclassical logics, nonmonotonic logic, logic and language, discourse representation, logic and AI, automated deduction, foundations of logic programming, logic and computation, and logic engineering. There will be a number of guest speakers, including some who are already part of the advanced seminars of the parallel event (see below): J. Cunha (Porto), J. Fiadeiro (Lisbon), D. Gabbay (London), J.-Y. Girard (Marseille), J. Lambek (McGill), T. Maibaum (London). Three others have confirmed their participation: H. J. Ohlbach (Saarbr?ucken), U. Reyle (Stuttgart), K. Segerberg (Uppsala), while one more has preliminarily agreed: J. van Benthem (Amsterdam).

Submission: One page abstracts (preferably by e-mail) must be received by April 15, 1994 by the programme chair. Authors will be notified of acceptance by May 15, 1994. WoLLIC '94 is sponsored by the Interest Group in Pure and Applied Logics (IGPL) and The European Foundation for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI). Abstracts from members of the IGPL will be published in the Bulletin of the IGPL as part of the meeting report. Selected contributed papers will be invited for submission to a special issue of the Bulletin.

The Workshop will be part of a bigger event being held in Recife during the last week of July 1994: the IX School of Computing (24{31 July 1994, Recife), a large biennial event in computer science in the context of Latin America. As some of the invited speakers for the Workshop will be giving advanced seminars (in the form of short courses) on logic and computation in the School, the Workshop will benefit from the fact that the School will attract a good number of young researchers and students in computer science from all over Latin America. (The School is expected to have an audience of approx. 600 participants.)

Programme Chair: Prof P. A. S. Veloso, Attn: WoLLIC '94, Depto. de Inform?atica, PUC- Rio, R. Marqu^es de S~ao Vicente, 225, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22453-900, Brazil,, tel: +55 21 529 9524, fax: +55 21 511 5645. Programme Committee: W. A. Carnielli (UNI- CAMP, Campinas), M. Costa (EMBRAPA, Bras??lia), V. de Paiva (Cambridge, UK), R. de Queiroz (UFPE, Recife), A. Haeberer (PUC, Rio), T. Pequeno (UFC, Fortaleza), L. C. Pereira (PUC, Rio), A. M. Sette (UNICAMP, Campinas), P. Veloso (Chair, PUC, Rio). For further information, contact the Chair of Organising Committee: R. de Queiroz, Departamento de Inform?atica, Federal University of Pernambuco at Recife, P.O. Box 7851, Recife, PE 50732-970, Brazil, tel: +55 81 271 3052, fax +55 81 271 4925, (Co-Chair: Tarc??sio Pequeno, LIA, Fed. Univ. of Cear?a,, fax +55 85 223-1333)

The XIV International Conference of the Chilean Computer Science Society, will be held in Concepcion, CHILE, from October 31 to November 4, 1994.

6 igpl newsletter v. 2, n. 4, december 1993

Papers presenting original research in Computer Science are being sought. Typical, but not exclusive, topics include: Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Computer Algebra, Computer Architecture, Computer Graphics, Databases, Data Communications, Data Security and Cryptography, Data Structures, Distributed Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Office Automation, Operating Systems, Performance Evaluation, Programming Languages, Software Engineering.

Paper submission : Five copies of an extended abstract written in English, of at most ten typed pages, including e-mail address and/or a fax number, should be sent before May 16th, 1994, to the program committee chair: Dr. Rene Peralta, Elec. Engr. & Computer Science Dept., University of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, USA, E-mail: Fax or e-mail (Standard postscript) submissions may be considered in special cases. Authors will be notified of acceptance or rejection by July 15th, 1994. The full versions of the accepted papers (camera-ready) must be written in English, and will be due by August 15th, 1994. The proceedings conference will be published by an international publisher as in the last three years. Additional information can be obtained from the Chair of the Organizing Committee: Carlos Isaac, Depto. Ciencia de la Computacion, Pont. Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22, CHILE, Phone: +56 2 552-2375, FAX : +56 2 552-4054, E-mail:

3 Problems

3.1 Completeness and proof-theoretic strength

Queries from Roger Jones, International Computers Limited, Winnersh, Wokingham, Berks RG11 5TT, UK, e-mail:

1. Does anyone know what is the weakest logical system in which the completeness of FOPC can be proved? Specifically, can this be proven in PA?

2. If we add to PA the axiom that asserts the consistency of ZFC, does the resulting system have a proof theoretic strength greater than ZFC? If this is so, is PA the weakest system for which this claim is true? (it presumably isn't true for FOPC with the vocabulary of arithmetic but no non-logical axioms).

3.2 Any flaws in recent proof of Fermat's theorem?

From Mamede Lima Marques, IME, Center for Logic and Epistemology, UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil, e-mail:
Please, whoever knows anything about A FLAW IN THE RECENT PROOF OF FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM:
Please inform us!
We need to write a report on the situation to a Brazilian magazine and we are looking for fresh news.
Thanks a lot.

4 Abstracts

Goal-directed methods for strict implication, by Nicola Olivetti1 and Dov M. Gabbay.

In this work we develop goal-directed deduction methods for strict implication as defined by several modal logics. We give sound and complete procedures for strict implication of modal systems K, T, K4, S4, and S5. The purpose of this work is twofold. On the one hand, the present results are part of a larger project of a goal-directed presentation of implicational logics, inspired by logic programming. On the other hand, the proposed methods are intended to be a step towards the development of modal logic programming languages. It will be shown that for systems K, T,

1Dipartimento di Informatica, Universit?a di Torino, Svizzera 185, 10149 Torino, Italy, email:

v. 2, n. 4, december 1993 varieties 7

K4, and S4, the form of deduction rules is the same, and the only difference is a parameter in the reduction rule, which roughly correspond to the resolution rule in logic programming. Concerning S5, an additional rule is required which allows one to restart a proof from the initial goal. This additional rule is the proof-theoretic counterpart of the symmetry condition on Kripke semantics. Completeness of our proof procedures for each of these systems with respect to their own Kripke semantics, is a simple consequence of a cut property of successful derivations.

5 Varieties

Very smart dog! (a contribution from Vladimir Alexiev)
Logicus had a very smart dog. He used to command him `Bring me my hat or do not bring it!', and the dog always obeyed.

Last place (a contribution from M. Gabbay, 9)
Q: Why is it that when we are looking for something, we always find it in the last place we look?2

6 Announcements

6.1 Bulletin of the IGPL: Special Issue

A Special Issue of the Bulletin of the IGPL on `Mathematical Logic and Knowledge Representation' will publish the lecture notes of the EAIA '92: Third Advanced School in Artificial Intelligence, Furnas, Azores, Portugal, September 1992. EAIA '92 was supported by APPIA, The Portuguese AI Association. (Organizing Committee: Jo~ao Falc~ao e Cunha, Ruy de Queiroz, H?elder Coelho. Programme Committee: Miguel Filgueiras, Amilcar Sernadas, Luis Damas, Jose Luis Fiadeiro, Antonio Porto, H?elder Coelho, Luis Monteiro, Jo~ao Falc~ao e Cunha.)
Guest Editor: Jo~ao Falc~ao e Cunha.
Contents: Preface and Introduction, by Jo~ao Falc~ao e Cunha. Structuring Theories for Knowledge Representation, by Jose Luiz Fiadeiro & Amilcar Sernadas. Declarative Meta-Programming (abstract), by John W. Lloyd. Notes on Negation in Logic Programming, by Luis Monteiro. Lectures on Autoepistemic Logic, by Bob Moore. An Introduction to Labelled Natural Deduction, by Ruy de Queiroz & Dov Gabbay. Labelled Deductive Systems: An introduction, by Dov Gabbay. Linear Logic: a Survey (abstract), by Jean-Yves Girard.

6.2 Journal of Logic, Language and Information: Special issue on Lan-

guage and Proof Theory

Guest Editors: Dov M. Gabbay, Ruth M. Kempson.

With the definition of Definite Clause Grammars, the use of PROLOG as a parsing tool for natural languages, and the recent development of categorial grammar formalisms, there has been an explosion of interest in the application of proof-theoretic techniques to the study of natural languages. Proof theory is now used as a means of defining grammar formalisms, as a parsing tool both as a recognition device and in assignment of structure to wellformed strings, as a vehicle for expressing semantic generalisations about natural language, and even in investigating the syntactic basis of natural language systems. With such interest in formal properties of deduction now spanning several disciplines, it seems timely to devote an issue of JOLLI to this topic. Submissions are therefore encouraged on any application of proof-theoretic techniques in the natural language area. JoLLI prefers the submission of LaTEX papers. For more information on the LaTEX style file required, send a message to SURF404@KUB.NL.
Deadline for submissions is September 1st 1994.

2A: We stop looking.

8 igpl newsletter v. 2, n. 4, december 1993

Four copies of the paper should be sent to: Professor D. Gabbay, Department of Computing, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Huxley Building, Queen's Gate, London, SW7 2BZ.
One copy to be sent to: Journal of Logic, Language and Information, Editorial Office, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Deadline for submissions September 1st, 1994.
For further details contact: Prof. Ruth Kempson, SOAS, University of London, UK, e-mail:

6.3 The TPTP Problem Library, Release v1.0.0Z

Geoff Sutcliffe: Dep't of Computer Science, James Cook University.
Christian Suttner, Theodor Yemenis : Institut f?ur Informatik, TU M?unchen.
The TPTP (Thousands of Problems for Theorem Provers) Problem Library is a collection of test problems for automated theorem provers (ATPs), using the clausal normal form of 1st order predicate logic. The TPTP aims to supply the ATP community with a comprehensive library of the ATP test problems that are available today. The problems are presented in a general-purpose format, together with a utility to convert the problems to existing ATP formats. The principal motivation for this project is to move the testing and evaluation of ATP systems from the present ad hoc situation onto a firm footing. This is necessary, as results currently being published seldom provide an accurate reflection of the intrinsic power of the ATP system being considered. A common library of problems is necessary for meaningful system evaluations, meaningful system comparisons, repeatability of testing, and the production of statistically significant results. The TPTP is such a library.

Release v1.0.0 of the TPTP, containing 2295 problems, is now available. It can be obtained by anonymous ftp from either the Department of Computer Science, James Cook University, or the Institut f?ur Informatik, TU M?unchen. The ftp hosts are ( and (, respectively. At both sites the TPTP is in the directory pub/tptp-library. There are three files, ReadMe, TPTP-v1.0.0.tar.Z, and TR- General information about the library is in the ReadMe file, the library is packaged in TPTP-v1.0.0.tar.Z, and a technical report describing the TPTP is in

6.4 Books from Modern Logic Publishing

To all IGPL members (from Irving H. Anellis):
The following books are still available for review in Modern Logic:

1. Malgorzata Porebska & Wojciech Suchon, Elementarne wprowadzenie w logike formalna (Warszawa, Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1991)

2. Imre Rusza, Intensional Logic Revisted , (Budapest, L. Eotos University, 1991)

3. Istvan M. Bodnar, Andras Mate & Laszlo Polos (editors), Intensional Logic, History of Philosophy, and Methodology: To Imre Rusza on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday , (Budapest, Kezirat Gyanant, 1988)

Contact: attn: Reviews Department, Modern Logic, Modern Logic Publishing, Box 1036, Welch Avenue Station, Ames, IA 50014-1036, USA; e-mail: f1.mlp@ISUMVS or f1.mlp@ISUMVS.IASTATE.EDU.

7 List of books available for review

If you would like to review any of the following books, or indeed any book on logic and computation (if not in the list, we can request a review copy from the publisher), please contact us either via ordinary post, or on
Asperti, A. and Longo, G., Categories, Types and Structures, MIT Press, 1991, ISBN 0-262- 01125-5, $29.95

v. 2, n. 4, december 1993 books for review 9

Bahgat, Reem, Non-Deterministic Concurrent Logic Programming in PANDORA, World Scientific, 1993, ISBN 98-1010215-18, $34
Bakker, J. W. de, W-P de Roever and G. Rozenberg (Eds), Semantics: Foundations and Applicatons, LNCS 666, Springer Verlag, 1993, ISBN 3-540-56596-5, DM 122
Barwise, J. and Etchemendy, J., The Language of First-Order Logic (Third Edition, revised and expanded), The University of Chicago Press, 1992, ISBN 0-937073-90-3, $27.95 Bauer, F. L, W. Brauer, H. Schwichtenberg, Logic and Algebra of Specification, Springer-Verlag, 193, ISBN 3-540-55813-6, DM 148
Birtwistle, G. and P. A. Subrahmanyam (Eds), Current Trends in Hardware Verification and Automated Theorem Proving , Springer-Verlag, 1989, ISBN 3450989888, DM 88 Black, E. et al. (Eds), Statistically-driven computer grammars of English: The IBM/Lancaster Approach, Editions Rodophi BV, 1993, ISBN 90-5183-478-0,
Clote, P. and Krajicek, J., Arithmetic, Proof Theory, and Computational Complexity , Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-853690-9, $45.00
D. J. A. Welsh, Complexity: Knots, Colourings and Counting , Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-521-45740-8, $19.95
Desc?es, J. Langues Applicatifs Lanuges Naturelles et Cognition, Hermes, 1990, Devlin K, Logic and Information, Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0521410304, $17.95 Fari~nas del Cerro, L. Penttonen, M. (Eds), Intensional Logics for Programming, Oxford University Press, 1992, ISBN 019-853775-1, $25.00
Fishman M B (Editor), Advances in Artificial Intelligence Research, Volume 1, JAI Press, ISBN 089232578X, $57.50
Fourman, M. P., Johnstone, P. T. and Pitts, A. M. (Eds), Applications of Categories in Computer Science, CUP, 1992, ISBN 0-521-42726-6, $24.95
Gaines B and Boose J (Editors), Machine Learning and Uncertain Reasoning , Volume 3, Academic Press, ISBN 012273229, $21.50
Gardin F, Mauri G and Fillipino M (Editors), Computational Intelligence, North Holland, ISBN 0444886486 (Vol 1) 0444873406 (Vol 2), Vol 1 US$77 Vol 2 US$79
Gibbons, A. and Spirakis, P. (Eds), Lectures on Parallel Computation, Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-421-41556-X, $25.00
Goodman, I. R. et al (eds), Conditional Logic in Expert Systems, North Holland, 1991, ISBN 0-444-88819-5, US$111.5
Hill, F. J. and Peterson, G. R., Computer Aided Logical Design with Emphasis on VLSI (Fourth Edition), Wiley, 1993, ISBN 0-471-59987-5, $19.95
Hoggar, S. G, Mathematics for Computer Graphics, Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-521375746, $25
Homer S, Nerode A, Platek R A, Sacks G E and Scedrov A, Logic and Computer Science, Springer, ISBN 3450527346, DM 30
Huet, G. and Plotkin, G, Logical Environments, Cambridge Universtity Press, 1993, ISBN 0-521-43312-6, $35
Jackson P, Introduction to Expert Systems, Addison Wesley, ISBN 020117578, $17.95 Jacquet, Jean-Marie (Ed), Constructing Logic Programs, Wiley, 1993, ISBN 0-471-93789-4, $19.95
Krohn, M., Using the Oracle Toolset , Addison Wesley, 1992, ISBN 0-201-56538-2, $21.95 Lengauer T, Combinatorial Algorithms for Integrated Circuit Layout , John Wiley, ISBN 0471928380, $35
Lyuu, Y-D, Information Dispersal and Parallel Computation, Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-521-43226-X, $22.95
Manes, Ernest G., Predicate Transformer Semantics, CUP, 1992, ISBN 0-521-42036-9, $22.95 Martin, N M, Systems of Logic, Cambridge University Press, 1989, ISBN 0521367700, McCawley, J. D., Everything that linguists have always wanted to know about logic but were ashamed to ask , The University of Chicago Press, 1993, ISBN 0-226-55618-2, $25.95 (Paper) $79.25 (Cloth)

10 igpl newsletter v. 2, n. 4, december 1993

Meyer, J-J. Ch. and R. J. Wieringa (Eds), Deontic Logic inComputer Science, Wiley, 1993, ISBN 0-471-93743,
Neapolitan R E, Probabilistic Reasoning in Expert Systems, John Wiley, ISBN 0471618403, $35

Nerode, A; Marek, W and Subrahmanian, V S, Logic Programming and Non-monotonic Reasoning. Proceedings of the first international workshop, MIT Press, 1991, ISBN 0262640279, $29.95 Neumann B (Editor), Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 92), Wiley, 1992, ISBN 0-471-93608.
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