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To appear in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems

Comparative Modeling and Evaluation of CC-NUMA and COMA on

Hierarchical Ring Architectures ?

Xiaodong Zhang Yong Yan

High Performance Computing and Software Laboratory
The University of Texas at San Antonio
San Antonio, Texas 78249


Parallel computing performance on scalable shared-memory architectures is affected by the structure of the interconnection networks linking processors to memory modules and on the efficiency of the memory/cache management systems. Cache Coherence Non-Uniform Memory Access (CC- NUMA) and Cache Only Memory Access (COMA) are two effective memory systems, and the hierarchical ring structure is an efficient interconnection network in hardware. This paper focuses on comparative performance modeling and evaluation of CC-NUMA and COMA on a hierarchical ring shared-memory architecture. Analytical models for the two memory systems for comparative evaluation are presented. Intensive performance measurements on data migrations have been conducted on the KSR-1, a COMA hierarchical ring shared-memory machine. Experimental results support the analytical models, and we present practical observations and comparisons of the two cache coherence memory systems. Our analytical and experimental results show that a COMA system balances the work load well. However the overhead of frequent data movement may match the gains obtained from improving load balance. We believe our performance results could be further generalized to the two memory systems on a hierarchical network architecture. Although a CC-NUMA system may not automatically balance the load at the system level, it provides an option for a user to explicitly handle data locality for a possible performance improvement.
?This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grants CCR-9102854 and CCR-9400719, by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant AFOSR-95-1-0215, by a grant from the Cray Research, and by a Fellowship from the Southwestern Bell Foundation. Part of the experiments were conducted and on the KSR-1 machines at Cornell University and at the University of Washington.