|In Service for Teacher Development in Sub-Saharan Africa - A Review of Literature Published Between 1983-1997 - Education Research Paper No. 30 (DFID, 1999, 64 p.)|
Review of BEI and CIJE papers in reverse chronological order
Adler, J. (1997) Professionalism in process: mathematics teacher as researcher from a South African perspective. Educational Action Research, 5(1): 87-103.
This paper re-reports action research carried out by mathematics teachers in the Western Cape, S.A. much of it under the supervision of staff at the University of Cape Town. Adler comments that there is a continuum from the formal - teacher as researcher - through to the informal of reflective writing on classroom experience. Adler proposes the "teacher as inquirer" as a suitable appellation.
Carr, W. & Kemis, S. (1986) Becoming critical: education, knowledge and action research. Lewes: Falmer Press.
Cochran-Smith, M. & Lytle, S.L. (1993) Inside/outside: teachers' research and action knowledge. New York: Teachers' College Press.
Elliott, J. (1991) Action research for educational change. Buckingham: Open University Press.
The author wants us to get teachers reflecting on their practice and writing it down no matter what the standard of writing.
Betts, S.C. & Norquest, J. (1997) Professional Development for Educators through Travel to Zimbabwe: One-Year Follow-up. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences. 89(1): 50-53.
Guariento, W.A. (1997) Innovation Management Issues Raised by a Distance-Learning Project in Eritrea: Can Such Projects Be Successfully Transplanted from One Developing Country to Another? System. 25(3): 399-407.
This paper has several points to make. Two of the most relevant are:
(i) delegate responsibility to local trainers to enhance chances of sustainability. Appeals should be made to performing competently before peers, altruism and giving time off in lieu.
(ii) teachers who are poorly paid and live in rural areas should still be asked to attend INSET on a compulsory basis (the local administration should handle this) but recognition must be given to their travelling time and out of pocket expenses.
Kennedy, C. (1988) Evaluation of the management of change in ELT projects. Applied Linguistics, 9(4): 329-342.
Leach, F. (1991) Perception gaps in technical assistance projects: the Sudanese case. in M.K. Lewin & J.S. Stuart (eds.) Educational innovation in developing countries. London: Macmillan.
Time spent in helping local administrations take responsibility for innovations, so they can work in partnership, is time well spent in the long-run even though it may appear to be frustrating in the short term.
Kitavi, M.W. & Westhuizen, P.C. van der. (1997) Problems facing beginning principals in developing countries: a study of beginning principals in Kenya. International Journal of Educational Development. 17(3): 251-263.
This paper reports a questionnaire survey of head teachers on their rankings of their possible problems. School fees and money matters come out as being of most concern. In special pleading, supported by reference to literature, the authors want training for head teachers as they are the most influential figures in any school.
Lockhead, M.E. & Verspoor, A. (1991) Improving primary education in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rondinelli, A., Middleton, J. & Verspoor. A. (1990) Planning educational reforms in developing countries. Durham, USA: Drake University Press.
Support from head teachers is an important part of changing classroom teachers' practice and must be incorporated into plans for teacher development and change.
Miti, M. & Herriot, A. (1997) Action to improve English, mathematics and science (AIEMS): a case study in Zambia - the start-up process. International Journal of Educational Development, 17(2): 163-172.
This paper reports a large scale cascade project with a budget of £13M over 7 years. The Self Help Action Plan for Education (SHAPE) focused on Action to Improve English Mathematics and Science (AIMES) in Zambia. Amongst the management tools reported are a "two way information flow matrix" and a "quality framework matrix". The tone of the report is very much that of a heavy total quality management approach. Teacher change is slow and disappointing.
Bax. S. (1995) Principles for evaluating teacher development activities. ELT Journal. 49(3): 262-71. See 1995 below.
My interpretation, from the report, is that grand plans and management tools are of little value if you do not understand the reasons why teachers behave as they do in the first place.
Adara, O.A. (1996) Impact of an outdoor educational strategy on teacher profile in environmental education. International Journal of Educational Development, 16(3): 309-317.
The Yankari National Park was the site for a 2 day training workshop for teachers that focused on environmental education. The intention was to provide practical activities so that teachers developed awareness (action strategies) that were congruent with their knowledge and not at odds with it. Using questionnaire methods the author claims that there were gains in awareness scores which started to bring them in line with scores for knowledge.
There is no substitute for practical action to change knowledge, skills, affect and values.
Honig, B. (1996) Multilingual educational reform and teacher training in Ethiopia. Language and Education, 10(1): 1-12.
The principal focus of this paper is the way in which well intentioned government policies on the use of local languages in primary schools can actually lower the participation rates in basic education. The drop reported is from 36% to 25%. This author also reports as shocking the everyday conditions of education in Ethiopia.
Lewin, K. & Stuart, J.S. (eds.) (1991) Educational Innovation in developing countries. London: Macmillan.
"History has demonstrated that the inability to deal adequately with teachers in their central role condemns even the most enlightened educational reform to failure."
McLaughlin, D. (1996) Who Is to Retrain the Teacher Trainers?: A Papua New Guinea Case Study. Teaching & Teacher Education, 12(3): 285-301.
The overt concern of this paper is with training of local teachers. The issue of whether students' achievement correlates with teachers' length of post secondary schooling, or the number of teacher training courses completed, is raised early on. And thereby, the paper does a double take on the skills and competencies of the teacher trainers. Small tutor led tutorials are preferred as the best means of instruction for the exchange of ideas and the discussion of difficulties. Teachers who are interested enough in the progress of their students to be both intellectually critical and interpersonally warm are respected for their professional approach as they balance challenge against support. Learning in a second, or third, language means that students need time to draft, discuss, re-draft, discuss and publish.
Much of what is true for the learning of students is true for the learning of teachers.
Van der Wal, R.W.E. & Pienaar, A.J. (1996) Bringing Computers to Qwaqwa, South Africa. Learning & Leading with Technology, 24(4): 12-14.
This paper reports the introduction of computers and computer education to a small centre in a rural area. Plans for expansion to other centres were put on hold due to costs and infrastructural problems: unreliable power supplies.
Proposed changes need to be small scale, locally repeatable and workable within the constraints of current practice.
Wood, A. et al. (1996) Environmental Education in Suffolk. Environmental Education, 51: 4-12; 21-25.
This appears in the search because Alison Wood mentions both sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya) and in service for teachers in her article. Alison's article is less than 3 of the 14 pages. One point that emerges from the student exchange between Beccles in Suffolk and two schools in Kenya is how isolated Beccles is and how the high school teachers worked in a very parochial way, prior to this initiative.
Teachers in the UK are subject to the pressures of the same nature, but not same quality, as teachers elsewhere: parochialism, tradition, competing demands on time and energy.
Bax, S. (1995) Principles for Evaluating Teacher Development Activities. ELT Journal, 49(3): 262-71.
The introduction of a comparison of in-service with "tissue rejection" is a nice one but it is not pursued. Instead the author uses it as a springboard to introduce the English at Secondary Level (EASL) project for English language teachers in South Africa. The in-service activities reported were designed to further teacher development rather than to be teacher education or training. The principles alluded to in the title are:
- Content negotiability: teacher development provides the form and not the content. The tutor can decide how we proceed, the teacher must decide what is of sufficient importance to pursue.
- Transferability: others must be able to do what we do - we are all resource persons for each other.
There is a middle-way between the straight certain path of proselytising evangelism and the empty abyss of relativism. But it is a difficult path to tread. Perhaps talking of teacher development, not training, will provide tutors with the "pole star" they need.
Bourne, R. 1995) Where the real work begins. Education, 185(10): 12-13.
This article rehearses the problems facing the new administration in South Africa and loss some of the historical antecedents.
Carey, J. & Dabor, M. (1995) Management Education: An Approach to Improved English Language Training. ELT Journal, 49(1): 37-43.
Faced with a runaway deterioration of teacher quality and ever shortening length of service in Sierra Leone, the authors pitched their in service at heads of English language departments rather than un-promoted, un-trained classroom teachers. By focusing on middle management issues they hoped to promote school based teacher development. The heads of department had to be persuaded that they had a staff development responsibility and then handed tools and techniques to engage in staff development. The input was a series of 2 day workshops.
How do you provide a clear vision of an alternative future, clear departmental objectives and motivate your subordinates when their income has dropped to $10 a week?
Crowther, S. (1995) Lesotho bound. Modus, 13(4): 113-115.
This is a report by a UK home economics teacher of a brief visit to a Lesotho school as an additional teacher. The usual issues are reported: poor facilities and low budgetary capitations; little participation by students in classrooms with no planned student activities; problems of learning in a second language; no direct linkage of education to employment opportunities.
Seeing the problems is not a problem. The problem is finding sustainable engines of long term development and growth.
Kachelhoffer, P.M. (1995) Teacher enrichment programmes in Kwa Ndebele, South Africa. Higher Education Policy, 8(2): 19-22.
The fact that under qualified teachers produce poor student learning points to the need to remediate under qualification. In this paper under qualification is interpreted in terms of subject knowledge. The paper reports an attempt to help mathematics and science teachers through specifically addressing their lack of content knowledge. The paper goes on to advocate what is effectively sponsored mobility for the "intelligent" and lengthened teacher training so that subject knowledge can be secured. Learning in a second language is seen as adding additional hurdles to the learning process.
Travers, P.D. (1990) A five year teacher education programme: an old idea. Education, 111(2): 222-5.
Vonk, H. (1991) Some trends in the development of curricula for the professional preparation of primary and secondary teachers in Europe: a comparative study. British Journal of Educational Studies, 39(2): 117-37.
Pedagogic tricks are of little value if you don't know your subject.
Maher, S. (1995) Building a better conscience. Child and Man, 29(2): 10-12.
This is a strong piece of descriptive and evocative writing that reports a programme for "putting the heart back into teaching". Class 1 and 2 teachers in Cape Town started out attending Saturday workshops at the Uluntu Centre in the Gugeletu township for a year. This was changed to an intensive 3 day input followed by 8 workshop sessions. The trainers used Waldorf methods developed from Rudolf Steiner's approach to primary education. They were battling to help teachers to overcome the tendency to teach as they were taught. The trainers made regular use of sessional evaluation and programme evaluation. The report claims success.
A theory wagon built in the workshop of long experience and hitched to the engine of enthusiasm makes a powerful combination.
O'Neill, T. (1995) Implementation frailties of Guba and Lincoln's "Fourth generation" evaluation theory. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 21(1): 5-21.
This paper reports misgivings over the use of an evaluation system that involves iterative negotiations of critical accounts of the project being evaluated round what is termed an evaluation circle. The principle criticism focuses on the inappropriateness of the concept of negotiation in circumstances where power and power relationships are strong. Project workers are (not surprisingly) the most involved in the proposed changes to teachers' practice. Teachers themselves may have marginal interest in the proposed changes. Differences in communication skills, tenacity, abilities to represent the subtleties of a particular case and negotiating experience, all call into question the notion of a negotiated evaluation. The authors comment on how formal evaluations are little used as sources of information for decision making. The evaluation was of the School Science Project (SSP) in Kwazulu Natal.
Guba, G.G. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1981) Effective evaluation: improving the usefulness of evaluation results through responsive and naturalistic approaches. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Guba, G.G. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1989) Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park: Sage.
Our methodologies are poorly matched to the demands of our problems. Beware of people peddling algorithms for the easy resolution of your difficulties.
Ogundare, S.F. (1995) Correlates of perspectives: Nigerian pre-service social studies teachers and human rights education. Education Today, 45(3): 25-30.
This paper reports a survey of views on human rights by a sample of Nigerian social studies students. It is reported that there are statistically significant differences in the views held by urban and rural populations, old and young and those coming from families of differing sizes.
Don't treat teachers as a homogenous group. Local variations will require local solutions.
Shommo, M.I. (1995) Teaching home economics by a problem-solving approach in Sudanese secondary schools for girls. British Journal of In-service Education, 21(3): 319-329.
This paper reports an experimental study where home economics teachers were trained to use critical thinking skills so as to introduce problem solving methods into their home economics teaching. The design of the study allowed comparisons to be made between the traditional and new problem solving methods whilst controlling for teacher and topic. The 4 day in-service delivered to 16 teachers of 234 students was deemed a success as judged by teacher's affective evaluation and student scores in tests.
Focused in-service can change teachers attitudes, modify their classroom behaviour and improve students' learning.
Von Kotze, A. (1995) Contending Models of Learning and Teaching in the Ministry. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 14(1): 23-37.
This paper reports adaptive resistance to the adoption of new teaching methods by members of a rehabilitation centre run by a religious community in Durban S.A. The author raises the question of, "we taught them but did they learn?" in connection with the introduction of experiential learning. The author claims that the goal of emancipation through experiential learning can be subverted by teachers adopting the pedagogic techniques but rejecting the central concern for clients to find their own solutions - not prescriptive ones based on the tenets of some religious authority. The author also considers whether it is indeed possible (we know it is not easy) for individuals to identify their needs, and feel comfortable doing so, when socialised into an authoritarian community.
Zimbardo, P., Ebbesen, E. & Maslach, C. (1977) Influencing attitudes and changing behaviour. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley.
The comfort in routine that enables teachers to go about their business is a powerful force of resistance to change. Uncertainty is unsettling. The first recourse, in reduction in irritation due to change, is assimilation rather than accommodation.
Lubben, F. (1994) The convergence of teachers' and providers' views on INSET needs: the case of the non-specialist physics teacher in Swaziland. International Journal of Educational Development, 14(1): 43-49.
This paper reports ongoing in-service (IMSTEP) for secondary mathematics and physics teachers in Swaziland who had poor or no qualifications to teach these subjects. The reported focus of attention was confidence building. This was achieved through regular informal meetings where attention was paid to topics, equipment and manipulative skills. The way in which specialists can be blind to the needs of non-specialists was of paramount concern. Differences in perspectives on the aims of science education need expression, discussion and development.
Beauchamp, L. & Boys, A. (1982) A strategy for uncovering teacher professional development needs. British Journal of Inservice Education, 8: 19-21.
Teachers will use things they have confidence in. Practice in a safe environment (Joyce and Showers, 1988) enables them to build confidence. Teachers' aims for activities are powerful selectors of activities. The unqualified teacher may have quite different aims for an activity to the qualified teacher.
Potgieter, D. & Olen, S. (1994) The Holdall Lectern and Prompt Poster. International Information & Library Review, 26(3): 181-93.
Sebatane, E.M. (1994) Enhancement of teacher capacities and capabilities in school-based assessment: Lesotho experience. Assessment in Education, 1(2): 223-234.
348 teachers in 45 primary schools, with an average class size of between 67: 1 and 91:1, were inducted into the Lesotho Action Research Network (LEARN). Teachers were encouraged to watch colleagues at work and then talk over the teaching styles and techniques used. Teachers started to use more open questions and make more explicit corrections on students' work. A monitorial system was simultaneously developed by some teachers to cope with problem of marking the work of so many students. It is claimed that such action research builds self-confidence and resourcefulness and develops innovation directly from teachers' needs. A newsletter from the National University of Lesotho disseminates the products of teachers reflective, and reflexive, practice.
Hustler, D., Cassidy, A. & Cuff, E.C. (1986) Action Research in Classrooms and Schools. London: Alien and Unwin.
Whole school professional self-help groups supported by some external funding together with the dissemination of ideas can make a difference to how teachers teach.
Walker, M. (1994) Professional development through action research in township primary schools in South Africa. International Journal of Educational Development, 14(1): 65-73.
This paper reports the introduction of action research for primary teachers through the Primary Education Project (PREP) in Cape Town. The author stresses how teachers' collegial relationships are very important for mutual support, and thereby, personal development. Reference is made to Fullan's (1991) ideas on the triadic interrelationship between new methods, new materials and new theories of learning.
One of the author's implications is that if one wants to introduce action research then teachers need systematic training in how to go about this. My implications are that mutual support groups are vital to any success.
Bobda, A.S. (1993) English pronunciation in Cameroon: conflicts and consequences. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 14(6): 435-445.
This paper compares the English language taught and used in school with the English in the community and finds gaps. There are weak echoes of the 60's debate about standard and non-standard English in UK schools. This paper is more concerned with the phonological. The conclusion are that teachers should be bi-dialectical.
Duffy, A. (1993) Steps towards new horizons. International Journal of Early Childhood. 25(1): 49-53.
This paper reports workshops held in Botswana for primary teachers when there were specific subject days: mathematics days and science days etc. The intention was to stress quality in education and to this end the maxim, "move from minimum for most to best for each" was a useful directional aid. The workshop methods were modelled as contagion rather than cascade. That is tutors worked directly with individual teachers to give them first hand experience of pupils successfully using novel learning strategies. The author hopes we can trust children as learners and teachers as researchers.
For me, the most important implication is that teachers need first hand experience of successful use of new methods to even consider using such methods routinely.
Jones, T.W. (1993) International Special Education Inservice Training: Challenges and Solutions. Teacher Education & Special Education, 16(4): 297-302.
A successful consultancy workshop by staff from Gallandet University in the USA to Liaoning Normal School of Special Education, China, focused on the development of teaching methods for deaf children.
* Model classroom methods through the in-service methods.
* Allow teachers time to assess their own needs and expectations at the beginning.
* Allow time for discussion.
* Have an overarching framework in mind to set developments against.
* Choose your team carefully.
Peacock, A. (1993) The in-service training of primary teachers in science in Namibia. British Journal of In-service Education, 19(2): 21-26.
This paper reports on the In-Service Training and Assistance for Namibian Teachers (INSTANT) project. Following a listing of 7 strategies for in service:
(a) full-time training;
(b) cascade dissemination
(c) advisory/mentorship schemes
(d) (expatriate) experts
(e) diffusion by workshops
(f) distance learning
The author selects out (e) diffusion by workshop as an appropriate starting strategy. On review and evaluation it is suggested that strategy (c) the development of a mentorship scheme with advisory teachers should have been started at the same time rather than left as a strategy to move on to. As an aside the author suggests that if stage models of teacher development and change are correct then cascade strategies can not succeed as the targeted teacher typically hears the message only once.
Ashton, P., Henderson, E. & Peacock, A. (1989) Teacher Education through Classroom Evaluation, London: Routledge Educational.
I am reminded of the PKG project in Indonesia where a cadre of teacher "instructors" worked on mentoring/advising teachers whilst still working in the classroom themselves.
Walker, M. (1993) Developing the theory and practice of action research: a South African case. Educational Action Research, 1(1): 95-109.
A different report coming from the Primary Education Project (PREP) in Cape Town. The paper makes several important points:
- most teachers do want to improve their practice, they will not have considered, let alone committed to, action research as a means of achieving this;
- action research as a means of teacher development can slide into an involvement mode, where teachers are part of a directed project, rather than participatory mode, where they direct their own project;
- publication of outcomes is the defining feature that differentiates plain development work from action research;
- action research "enquiries may help develop classroom practice but they will not necessarily shift into a critique of the contexts of that practice"
- it is useful to follow Grundy in recognising three modes of action research: the technical, the practical and the emancipatory.
Teachers can be reflective practitioners if they see a need for changing their working conditions, and there is a commitment to changed structural support from the system in which they are embedded, together with a recognition of the desirability of flexible transferable skills.
Grundy, S. (1982) Three modes of action research. in S. Kemmis and R. McTaggart (eds.) The action research reader. Geelong: Deaking University Press.
My reading of this is that action research is no more easy to use as a tool for teacher development and change than other tools such as supportive coaching in classes or structured release programmes.
Daniels, K.R. & Halamandaris, P.G. (1992) In-service training in Swaziland and Malawi: application of a process model for development education. International Journal of Educational Management, 6(5): 27-31.
This is a short paper in a professional, rather than academic journal, that makes some interesting points in a succinct way. The experience reported is that of Canadian educationists. These points are worth noting from Adams and Chen's (1981) work. There is a need for strong, but culturally sensitive leadership. There needs to be:
- credibility for the change proposed;
- functional relevance for the evaluation (this involves features of Adams and Chen's International Development Educational Model (IDEM));
- adequate financial and physical resources;
- stability of personnel;
- adaptiveness of the project;
- sequencing of critical events;
- stability of the educational system in which the innovation is located.
Adams, R. & Chen, D. (1981) The process of educational innovation: an international perspective. Paris: UNESCO.
Quinn, J.B. (1980) Strategies for change: logical incrementalism. Homewood, I1.: Irwin.
Rondinelli, D. (1986) Improving development management: lessons from the evaluations of USAID projects in Africa. International review of Administrative Science, 52: 421-45.
Wilson, D.N. (1987) Two decades of planned educational expansion in developing nations: an examination of success, failures and change. Canadian and International Education, 16(5): 24-38.
There is a cynical view which goes something like, don't all project directors claim they have taken account of the above before their projects start, and don't they all blame combinations of inadequate features of the above at the end? More seriously, identifying key issues is not the same as finding workable solutions. Iterative evaluation can help but is not a sure fire recipe for success.
Moja, T. (1992) Teacher education from classroom broadcasts for the new South Africa. Educational Media International, 29(3): 171-174.
This article involves special pleading for the planning of teacher training to ride on the back of curriculum development work using broadcast media: radio and TV. The point being made is that where the infra-structure exists, teacher training can be added at marginal extra costs. It is suggested that an Institute for Distance Education for Teacher Training should be developed in South Africa.
Linking teacher training to curriculum reform has long been known to be more effective than simply doing in-service. Using media already developed for curriculum content support work looks very sensible.
Peacock, A. (1992) Developing science teaching in Namibian primary schools. Primary Science Review, 24: 6-8.
A brief introduction to the In-Service Training and Assistance for Namibian Teachers (INSTANT) project where the Free University of Amsterdam and The University of Exeter provided expatriate experts to run "diffusion" workshops for science teachers. The three day workshops had the first day devoted to doing practical activities, the second to improvising apparatus and the third to brainstorming how to teach difficult topics. It was decided that kits of basic equipment like, scissors, paper clips, pins and glue as well as more scientific materials like weights, magnets and lenses should be provided for schools.
Teachers are severely constrained in what they can do by the resources they have to hand. Knowing fancy activities for pupils is of little value if there aren't the materials to support such activities.
Soudien, C. & Colyn, W. (1992) The Safety of Theory: Working with Educators in a Squatter Community. Journal of Educational Thought, 26(3): 258-71.
This is a salutary report on how well meant intervention with support from the South African Committee for Higher Education (SACHED) can totally miss the target of local people's aspirations for their children's education. The authors worked as volunteer mathematics teacher trainers in a school for the children of squatters in the KTC area of Cape Town. The teacher trainers were offering a Freire inspired, emancipatory, child-centred education with a focus on investigational work in mathematics. The parents and volunteer teachers wanted a first rate education for their children. For the local people first rate meant the children having a school uniform, there being a timetable with regular lessons in which the children sat at proper desks and learnt lessons from expository teachers.
The authors bravely re-interpret their own failure in terms of the sedimentation of ideas in the local community received through the hegemony of the white middle class and their approach to education. The failure is deflected by reference to resistance, compromise and contestation in the educational process.
Giroux, H.A. & McClaren, P. (1986) Teacher education and the politics of engagement: the case for a democratic schooling. Harvard Educational Review, 56(3): 213-238.
Radical reform is unlikely to be implemented in a sustained way if it runs counter to the expectations of local people.
Taylor, R. (1992) The Production of Training Packs in In-Service Teacher Training ELT Journal, 46(4): 356-61.
Vlaardingerbroek, B. (1992) Integrated Primary Schooling of Blind Children in Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 15(2):162-65.
Adigwe, J.C. (1991) Problem-solving processes of pre-service chemistry teachers in Nigeria. Research in Science and Technological Education, 9(1): 107-120.
This report is written in a vague general language that makes it difficult to appreciate quite how the behaviour of those who can problem solve in chemistry is different from those who can not. The opening of the report endorses the view that subject knowledge must take priority in teacher improvement.
There is a parallel to be drawn between problem solving in chemistry and problem solving as a professional teacher inspecting one's own pedagogy. Issues of identifying appropriate variables and causal linkages, overcoming "over focusing" and thereby being blinkered to the "real" problem in the classroom, learning to apply a search strategies systematically and finding ways to formalise ideas in theoretical relationships are appropriate to both problem solving and being a better teacher.
Akpe, C.S. (1991) Choice of teaching subjects in pre-service teacher education in Nigeria. Journal of Education for Teaching, 17(2): 213-219.
The outcome of this survey is that teachers chose to do those things they think they are good at. In the sample population only 39.5% chose science and mathematics against 60.5% choosing humanities options.
In-service for teacher change and development in areas outside a teacher's preferred area of expertise may not be well received.
Didillon, H. & Vandewiele, M. (1991) Interventions pedagogiques des psychologiques au service de l'enfant d'age prescolaire en Afrique Noir. Scientia Paedagogica Experimentalis, 28(1): 19-26.
Esu, A.E.O. (1991) In-service Teacher Education in Nigeria: A Case Study. Journal of Education for Teaching, 17(2): 189-99.
Part-time or evening in-service is compared with long vacation or sandwich in-service for Cross River and Akwa Ibou states.
For in-service to be successful it is recommended that:
- teachers decide their own needs;
- support is given by the administration and management
- colleagues discuss and share ideas;
- evidence of gains in student learning is readily/quickly available;
- changes in teachers' practice are evaluated systematically;
- there is an assessment of learning outcomes;
- coaching and visiting is budgeted for.
Hawkridge, D. (1991) Computers in Third World Schools: African Advances. Educational & Training Technology International, 28(1): 55-70.
This paper reports on the adoption of computers in schools in Kenya and Zimbabwe. The way in which private schools often lead in terms of what is workable is commented on. The way in which Ministries of Education often lag innovative developments is mentioned. The way in which Ministries will often seek to regularise and approve innovation is commented on. Teacher resistance comes from lack of contact, control, confidence and appropriateness to the curriculum.
A rather Thatcherite message of market economics: watch what private schools are doing as they have the money, more freedom for manoeuvre and are more directly linked into the geo-political economy through tighter parental backing.
Mugisha, R.X. & Mwamwenda, T.S. (1991) Vocational training, in-service courses and higher education for graduates in Botswana. Studies in Higher Education, 16(3): 343-354.
At first this paper appears to have little to do with teacher change and development and yet in studying graduate career trajectories there are lessons to be learnt that apply to teacher development. The paper reports on the careers of economics and social science graduates from the University of Botswana who graduated between 1980 and 1983. Practical, on the job experience, helps in decision making about which further training to apply for. Mobility enhances job satisfaction. It is claimed that training improves qualification, employability, efficiency, productivity, self-confidence, job satisfaction and a sense of career direction.
Teacher development may come from changed parameters of career progression as much as through specific training programmes.
Oladejo, J. (1991) The Teacher Factor in the Effective Teaching and Learning of ESL in Developing English Speaking Countries: The Case of Nigeria. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 12(3): 195-204.
This paper laments the falling standards in ESL work due to the unbroken cycle of bad teachers producing bad students, who go on to become bad teachers. The survey of 95 ESL teachers and 370 other-subject teachers revealed that ESL teachers worked with larger classes for longer hours compared with their other-subject colleagues. This is attributed to English language being a core subject.
Due to varying workloads, the needs and priorities of teachers for in-service will vary wildly between subject groups.
Robinson, B. (1991) Distance Education for In-service Teacher Education in the United Kingdom. Action in Teacher Education, 13(3): 60-63.
Tambo, L.I. (1991) Primary Health Care in Africa: Implications for Teacher Education. Action in Teacher Education, 13(3): 48-52.
Wal, R.W.E. van der. & Linde, H.J. van der. (1991) Computer-assisted science instruction: an experience in developing communities within the South African context. Educational and Training Technology International, 28(3):189-195.
This paper reports the use of computer assisted instruction to upgrade the subject knowledge of mathematics and science teachers in the Orange Free State, S.A. The Research Institute of Education Planning (RIEP) reports working with 5,417 teachers from 1976 onwards. CAI provides opportunities for repetition of learning tasks and small group work in learning. Such instruction is motivating to most learners.
Wilkinson, F.J., Reuter, M.A. & Kriel, C.F. (1987) An analysis of the problems experienced by teachers of physical science in some developing states within the S.A. context. South African Journal of Education, 7(1): 47-52.
If the focus of teacher upgrading is on content knowledge then CAI, perhaps through distance learning, has a contribution to make.
Brown, M. & Reid, D.J. (1990) Black for the people: green for the land: red for the blood of the martyrs: a case study of INSET in Malawi. Research in Education, 44: 93-107'.
This is a report of workshops held in Lilongwe and Mzuzu to help develop skills in heads of departments. The authors identify a flat management structure, of head teacher and the rest, as being a problem for teacher development in Malawian (African) schools. They suggest the devolution of many responsibilities and decision making to heads of department. The workshops themselves provide interesting ideas on how to run workshops. The workshop was short and intensive (12 hour working days) with close contact between facilitator/tutors and participants. The need to build personal friendships between colleagues was seen as being an important task for the workshops. It is suggested that to avoid cynicism, and even despair, setting in participant h.o.d.s should be returned to schools where change is possible. That is the head teachers need to have been trained first. Newsletters specifically targeted on issues of line management as a head of department are suggested as one way of maintaining momentum.
Caldwell, B.J. & Spinks, J.M. (1988) The self-managing school. Lewes: Falmer Press.
Teacher change has to be set within a context of whole school change. A top-down approach might be interpreted in terms of co-ordinating INSET for personnel at sequential points in line management. Start with the head, then h.o.d.s, then teachers.
Chadwick, C.I. (1990) Instructional Development and Third World Textbooks. Educational Technology Research & Development, 38(3): 51-59.
This is a championing of the need to include instructional system design (ISD) principles into text production for school books. The accusation is that the average school book author is ignorant of ISD and therefore produces texts that are difficult to learn from.
Teachers can be helped to change their practice if instructional systems design used in school books leads them to new activities for students.
Kahn, Michael. (1990) Teachers, tutors and inspectors: views of pre-service teacher education in Botswana. Educational Review, 42(1): 3-12.
A survey of 74 science and mathematics teacher graduates from the University of Botswana, 12 science and mathematics teacher educators or education officers, and 72 classroom teachers - half with long experience - provided data for this study of attitudes to the content of initial teacher education courses in science and mathematics. The teachers showed most concern for:
- working with the less able pupils;
- science and mathematics in society;
- lesson presentation;
- classroom control;
- establishing aims and objectives for work.
Whilst the teacher trainer/education officers were more concerned with:
- lesson presentation;
- aims and objectives;
- producing schemes of work;
- assessment of pupils;
- classroom questioning skills.
Patrick, H., Bernbaum, G. & Reid, K. (1982) The structure and process of initial teacher education in England and Wales. Leicester: University of Leicester.
Woolnough, B. (1980) The training of science teachers - perceptions of providers and consumers. Education in Science, Nov: 27-30.
People's concerns are congruent with their positions in a social institution, like schooling and education. The concomitant of this is that different positions give rise to different viewpoints and different sets of priorities for exactly the same feature of social life.
Khan, E.H. & Sharma, A.K. (1990) Implementation and Evaluation of Computer Science in an Indian Secondary School. Computers & Education. 14(4): 343-55.
There was an element of teacher development in the introduction of computer studies and computers into the Indian School in Bahrain.
If a piece of technology offers liberation in terms of when things are done and what is done, then it will be taken up and used. Technology for its own sake generally will be ignored by teachers.
Laridon, P.E. (1990) The Role of the Instructor in a Computer-Based Interactive Videodisc Education Environment. Educational & Training Technology International, 27(4): 365-74.
This report takes the work of an instructor working with computer assisted instruction as being problematic. Instructors tend to relapse into dealing with technical issues of how to work the system, rather than content knowledge and skill issues. Students and teachers on INSET are reluctant to expose their ignorance to instructors and therefore instructors need to work systematically around the room to monitor learning. The on screen material is often insufficient for the task and needs instructor supplementation. Some on screen material can be of poor quality, misleading and even wrong. This is due to programmers not being subject specialists. The start up of any new cohort is exhausting for instructors as they are confronted with maximum ignorance in a short space of time.
Helping any teacher to work around a room systematically and to deal with learning rather than technical matters is not an easy task. The addition of computers does not change this problem.
Msanjila, Y.P. (1990) Problems of teaching through the medium of Kiswahili in teacher training colleges in Tanzania. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 11(4): 307-317.
The decision to switch from one language (English) as a medium of instruction to another (Kiswahili) for teacher training colleges is questioned by the author. Problems of meanings, collocations, register and familiarity of usage make inconsistencies in language policy a nightmare for teachers. Consistency in language policy needs to be accompanied by suitable plans for training.
The choice of language as the medium of instruction is bound to have advantages and disadvantages no matter what the choice. The problem is choosing so the advantages support your programme and the disadvantages offer minimum damage.
Onocha, C. & Okpala, P. (1990) Classroom interaction patterns of practising and pre-service teachers of integrated science. Research in Education, 43: 23-31.
This is a very depressing report on how experienced integrated science teachers in Nigeria resort to much more monologue in their classes than do teachers in training. Pre-service student teachers use a lot more teacher prompting and even small group work. The data was collected by using observation schedules in integrated science classes together with an attitudinal survey. Amongst the pre-service teachers a positive attitude to integrated science correlated with a greater use of student activity in the class. Amongst experienced teachers there was no correlation between positive attitude to integrated science and classroom activities for students.
Zahn, R.D. (1976) The use of interaction analysis in supervising student teachers. in E.J. Amidon & J.B. Hough (eds.) Interaction analysis, theory, research and application. New York: Addison Wesley.
Furst, N. (1976) The effect of training in interaction analysis on the behaviour of teachers in secondary schools. in E.J. Amidon & J.B. Hough (eds.) Interaction analysis, theory, research and application. New York: Addison Wesley.
One place to start helping teachers to develop their practice is to get them to ask a college to systematically record what happens in their class and then discuss the observations made on their lesson with their colleague.
Shaibu, S. (1990) Centralised/support service as a cost-effective way out of the school library chaos in Gongola State of Nigeria. Education Libraries Journal, 33(2): 23-33.
This paper starts by railing against the deplorable state of school libraries in Nigeria, and then turns quickly to the language of prescription.
There are gains in economy due to centralising resources in libraries and media centres to benefit from larger scale installations that are offset by diminished accessibility and loss of personal control for teachers. Beware of media people with grand plans.
Adeyemi, M.B. (1989) Preparing Secondary School Teachers of Social Studies in Nigeria. Social Studies, 80(5): 203-04.
A slightly irritating "should" list that slides into a "must" position.
Find out what "is" and why before invoking any "shoulds" and "musts".
Ballantyne, R.R. & Tooth-Aston, P.J. (1989) In-service environmental teacher training in an apartheid education system. Environmental Education and Information, 8(1): 1-10.
The authors of this paper rail against the politics of apartheid and how it stands in contradiction to any attempt at environmental education, which the authors claim, needs an open democratic society to be worthy of the name education.
My musing is: Education is an epiphenomenon of the political and economic. The radical's problem has always been one of, at best, transcending, and at weakest, decoupling, the causative links. Can reflective practitioners engaged in action research be any more than shufflers of deck chairs on sinking ocean liners?
Faraj, A.H. & Tarvin, W.L. (1989) Curricular Change and In-Service Teacher Training Programmes in Developing South Asian Countries. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 21(6): 567-71.
The authors remind us that the 1980s was a decade of massive in-service programmes in South East Asia, particularly in vocational education and science education. They distinguish ad-hoc in-service, which is essentially fire fighting, from the need to plan and sustain on-going in-service.
Hughes, M. (ed) (1975) Administering Education: an international challenge. London: Athlone Press.
Sustained long term teacher development requires a rather different pattern of in-service from the fire fighting of massive quick training programmes.
Nziramasanga, C. (1989) A View from Zimbabwe. Citizenship for the 21st Century: The Role of Social Studies, Third in a Series. Social Education, 53(1): 25-28.
This paper is instructive in its approach to rhetoric. It starts with alarmism and then trumpets a call to integrated approaches to social studies. There is an analytic categorisation that subverts the integrated aspirations. The paper ends with a Utopian prescription for teacher education to carry the project forward.
Beware of authors enthusiastically endorsing future radical programmes.
Abolaji, G. & Reneau, F.W. (1988) In-service Needs and Problems of Agricultural Science Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of the American Association of Teacher Educators in Agriculture, 29(3): 43-49.
Akpe, C.S. (1988) Using consumer evaluation to improve college curricula in Nigerian teacher training. Journal of Education for Teaching, 14(1): 85-90.
This report of the evaluation of a B.Ed. programme by 54 male and 60 female student teachers in Port Harcourt follows the decline in intake from 210 in 1981/2 to 46 in 1985/6. The generally negative evaluation of the programme raises issues of quality control for such programmes run in affiliation with the University of Ibadan.
There is a problem in judging whether poor quality education is better than no education. The issue of how to make things better is a problem of a different magnitude.
Diatan, S. (1988) Teaching in Tanzania. Links, 13(3): 40-41.
This is a two page report of a personal journey to teach in Mwanza by a VSO commerce teacher volunteer. The issues of selective education, ill health, overcrowded classes, second language learning, electricity and clean water are all touched on briefly. The discussion point appears to be that there is happiness in simplicity.
Where is the line between happiness in simplicity and fortitude in the face of adversity? This article could be dismissed as slight, or recognised as deeply worrying. What are we trying to improve education for?
MacDonald, M.A. & Rogan, J.M. (1988) Innovation in South African Science Education (Part I): Science Teaching Observed. Science Education, 72(2):225-36.
This paper reports on changes to teacher behaviour and student performance during the Science Education Project (SEP) programme in Ciskei, Transkei, Soweto and Durban. Using a Science Teacher Observation Schedule (STOS) the classroom practice of SEP teachers did move towards that of UK and Canadian teachers. Student performance in examinations did improve but was still poor.
Teacher change takes a long time and is likely to occur before students' performance shows the same size in gains.
Carr, R. (1987) The modular teacher training programme, Ghana. Open Learning, 2(3): 50-51.
A programme of distance education for primary and middle school teachers, started as a fire-fighting exercise in 1982, had 3,500 students admitted to the programme each year. The target was the up-grading of 40,000 under qualified teachers. Using textual materials, 18 days a year of 3 day meetings and a total of 12 weeks a year of residential meetings, the training bill was half that of full-time training. The principal advantages of such distance education are that rapid expansion is possible at marginal cost when the instructional materials have been produced. The disadvantage for teacher training is the lack of school-based supervision.
Brophy, M. & Dudley, B. (1982) Patterns of distance teaching in teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 8(2)
Distance education with workshops and residential periods can be cheap for large volume training.
Crossley, M. & Guthrie, G. (1987) Current Research in Developing Countries: INSET and the Impact of Examinations on Classroom Practice. Teaching & Teacher Education, 3(1): 65-76.
This is a review paper that addresses recent research on the two issues of INSET and the role of examinations in shaping classroom practice. A claim is made for two principles of INSET:
(i) Inset should not be viewed in isolation but should form part of a continuous and systematic process of professional development.
(ii) The trend is to remove the focus of activity from specialist institutions and concentrate upon individual schools and their personnel. This helps to differentiate school based INSET from school focused INSET. The development of local clusters of schools involved in school focused INSET add mutual support.
Best achieved with two quotes:
"Teachers are not generally irrational opponents of change but they rationally weigh alternatives according to the realities they perceive."
"A necessary, but not sufficient, condition of attempt to change classroom practice is that innovations should not be incongruent with teachers' and pupils' perceptions of the requirements of any public examination system."
Dienye, N.E. (1987) The effect of in-service science education. British Journal of In-Service Education. 14(1): 48-51; 55.
This paper reports gains in score on the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS) attributed to an in-service programme that are independent of gender or previous qualification.
The meta-activity of understanding the nature of one's subject, rather than just the content of the subject, is open to development through in-service work.
Gitau, B.K. (1987) Achievement Motivation in Distance Education: An Experimental Study to Measure Students' Achievement Motive as Elicited by Achievement Arousal Conditions Given in Reference to, and with Emphasis on Written Assignments. International Council for Distance Education Bulletin, 14: 37-47.
In 1982, faced with 55,000 under-trained primary teachers, the Min. of Ed. in Kenya planned to revive in-service provision. 3,500 primary teachers a year were enrolled in a distance education scheme that involved the use of study guides, radio programmes, an attempt to improve the turn around time on marking of assignments, together with 21 weeks of face to face tuition over 3 years. The planning was informed by mostly American literature on achievement and motivation. The literature directed the project team to devise tasks that were tightly structured, had a single purpose, involved classroom application and were to be completed in a short time scale. The distance learning instruction was designed to help teachers enjoy a series of quick successes. The paper reports plans not outcomes.
Maintaining teachers' motivation is crucial in any distance education programme. It has to be carefully built in and cannot be left to chance.
Harber, C. (1987) The West Midlands-West Africa Project. British Journal of In-Service Education, 13(2): 86-90.
This report is about teacher training in the UK with the geography of Senegal and the Gambia as its focus. Nevertheless lessons for teacher training in general can still be learnt. One day general courses are evaluated as of little value for teacher change and even change to teachers values. It is better to spend the one day on using specific existing materials and then discussing their use.
Henderson, E.S. (1976) Attitude change in in-service training. British Journal of In-service Education, 2(2).
Henderson, E.S. (1976) An investigation of some outcomes of in-service training. British Journal of In-service Education, 3(1).
Baily, A. & Braithwaite, R. (1980) In-service education and the promotion of change in secondary schools. British Journal of Teacher Education. 6.
Hargreaves, J. & Grey, S. (1983) Changing teachers' practice: innovations and ideology in part-time B.Ed. courses. Journal of Education for Teaching, 9(1).
Chadwick, G. (1983) The effectiveness of in-service provision: what do we know? The Vocational Aspect of Education, XXXV, No.90.
Get people familiar with new materials before you engage them in general conversation. Work from the specific towards the general.
Koivukari, A.M. (1987) Question Level and Cognitive Processing: Psycholinguistic Dimensions of Questions and Answers. Applied Psycholinguistics. 8(2): 101-20.
This is a report that follows from Ph.D. work on improving the tuition of the French language in secondary schools in Zaire. Although the author focuses on Saussures ideas on the components of the sign, the INSET programme of 36 hours of in-service, over 2 months, for 12 teachers was much more general. It included sessions on cognitive development, the psychology of learning and Berne's ideas on transactional analysis. Using direct observations the author detected changes in teachers classroom questioning styles with an increase in the use of open questions and a reduction in the use of closed questions.
The efficient development of skills may require a more general understanding by teachers than simply skills training.
Kouraogo, P. (1987) Curriculum renewal and INSET in different circumstances. ELT Journal, 41(3): 171-178.
Olivier, A.A. (1987) Correspondence Based Model for Training Teachers of the Gifted. Gifted International. 4(2): 59-63.
Osuala, J.D.C. (1987) ABE teacher training in Anambra State of Nigeria. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 6(3): 215-225.
This is a report of a survey of tutors working in adult literacy at the First School Leaving Certificate level in Anambara State. The major finding is that remuneration varies considerably with 172 out of the 303 sample never having been paid. Tutors lateness for class, or irregular attendance, can not be disciplined when people are unpaid. 97% of the sample said they would welcome training. For 84% this would be their first training. 40% had been tutors for less than 2 years, 38% for 3 to 5 years and 22% for more than 6 years.
Teachers are more dedicated than they are often given credit for. But poor pay or no pay means one cannot expect to demand certain standards of professionalism.
Akinyemi, K. (1986) A Study of Technophobia among Primary School Teachers in Nigeria. Programmed Learning & Educational Technology, 23(3): 263-69.
This is a bizarrely theorised paper that interprets 48 Ilorin primary school teachers lack of awareness and interest in educational technology as being a phobia. The author betrays himself with, "A few privileged primary schools in urban areas have some of the items listed above."
Teachers are more realistic than educational evangelists or researchers.
Basu, C.K. (1986) In-Service Teacher Training as Part of the Universal Primary Education World Bank Project in Bangladesh. Performance & Instruction, 25(4): 17-18.
250 Assistant Upazilla Education Officers (AUEOs) in Bangladesh were recruited into an in-service programme to upgrade the skills of 4,000 primary heads and 12,000 primary teachers. The AUEOs attended weekly training meetings and cascaded the message to primary teachers at fortnightly 2 hour meetings with the teachers. They were supported in this with modules of work comprising a series of two page leaflets for teacher use. The leaflets were deigned to:
- cover one topic at a time;
- be self-contained;
- have clear objectives;
- be carefully sequenced in the activities for the teachers;
- use the local language;
- provide practice and feedback evaluation questions;
- incorporate an element of pre-test and post-test.
In the long term results come from helping people within the existing organisational structures to do a better job rather than set up parallel structures.
Berg, O. van den. & Todes, M. (1986) In-service teacher education in the Cape Teachers' Professional Association: educational innovation in apartheid society. Cambridge Journal of Education, 16(3): 163-170.
This paper reports the history of the development of the Cape Teachers' Professional Association (CTPA) and its Education Research Committee (ERC) against a background of apartheid. What is of interest is the menu of project activities. These included: videotaped natural phenomena and demonstrations for use in science lessons; workshops on the use of the OHP; leadership skills courses; a Spring School crash course of 1 week in school subjects for pupils; Saturday School 10 week programmes; Teacher Opportunity Programmes to improve teaching skills.
Pupils are probably more enthusiastic about out of school activities than teachers. Teacher development on a voluntary association basis is possible. We don't have any good way of understanding or developing teachers' associations.
Chaudhri, M.M. (1986) India: From SITE to INSAT. Media in Education & Development, 19(3): 134-40.
"The problem does not lie in technology: India has a sophisticated technology at its disposal. The major problem lies in forming working relationships amongst researchers, script-writers and producers who are educated and urbanised to an extent where it has become difficult for them to comprehend the rural milieu and to develop an empathy with the child growing up in it."
Kogoe, A. (1986) Perceived Administrative Needs of School Executives in Togo. Comparative Education, 22(2): 149-58.
This paper draws attention to the fact that administration is not the same as leadership. Head teachers need to adopt leadership roles by closer instructional supervision. (In fact for secondary heads or heads in large schools this is not possible and delegation to heads of department is important. My commentary) The survey of 200 administrators and 177 teachers indicates that teachers expect leadership whereas administrators prefer to see themselves as just administrators.
Wood, C. (1975) The secondary school principal, manager and supervisor. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
In-service training of head teachers to either take, or delegate, more active leadership through instructional supervision might take priority over in-service for teachers.
Olukoya, A. (1986) Teaching Medical Teachers How to Teach in Lagos, Nigeria. Medical Teacher, 8(2): 145-48.
This paper reports workshops for medical teachers run between 1979 and 1985 at the College of Medicine in Lagos. The scheme has been extended to other colleges. The focus of activity was to develop self-instruction packages for medical students. The enterprise was underwritten by Mager's ideas on learning objectives. The workshop format was of cycles of formal input, followed by evening assignments and then mornings of practical group work. Some medical instructors followed up the workshop with videoing their own teaching and then discussing their teaching with colleagues. Such activity changed teaching habits.
Highly skilled, well equipped teachers with relatively good salaries can adopt change.
Sheen, J. (1986) Disputed territory. Youth in Society, 115: 10-11.
Coldevin, G. & Amundsen, C. (1985) The Use of Communication Satellites for Distance Education: A World Perspective. Canadian Journal of Educational Communication, 14(1): 4-5; 20-23.
Crossley, M. et al. (1985) INSET: Prospects and Practice in Developing Countries. Journal of Education for Teaching. 11(2): 120-32.
Holmberg, Borge. (1985) Applications of Distance Education in Kenya. Distance Education, 6(2): 242-47.
This paper comments on a distance education programme in Kenya and contrasts primary teachers, literacy tutors and paramedics. Where paramedics engage tutors on matters of course content, the education students are reported as only arguing over marks. The education programme contains material that is very arcane. The distance education experience is marred by slow administration, poor turn-around in marking assignments and still relatively high costs compared with local incomes.
Distance education is a solution with its own problems.
Special issue of the Bulletin of the International Bureau of Education. n234-35 p7-103; 204-06. on in-service teacher education.
Macdonald, M. Al. et al. (1985) Teacher Reaction to Innovation: A Case Study in a South African Setting. Journal of Education for Teaching, 11(3): 245-63.
This is a long description of the changes brought about through the SEP programme in South Africa. The headings used are:
- teacher as subject specialist
- teacher in the classroom
- teacher as professional
- teacher as employee.
The categories are mapped onto Gray's phases of:
- concern for security
with the teacher as subject specialist
- concern for methods
with the teacher in the classroom
- concern for aims
with the teacher as professional
The category of teacher as employee is flagged as alerting us to the problem of teachers' roles and role conflicts.
Teachers need different experiences at different times of an in-service programme. The early focus of in-service may be on subject content and only later the focus might shift to professional concerns.
Rogan, J.M. & Macdonald, M.A. (1985) The In-Service Teacher Education Component of an Innovation: A Case Study in an African Setting. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 17(1): 63-85.
The SEP programme in Ciskei, Transkei, Soweto and Durban has attracted attention for a variety of reasons. Project evaluators comment that teachers need to experience new ways of working, either directly or vicariously, with video, before they can have any confidence to adapt them. In the South African context, the upgrading of black teachers subject knowledge is more pressing than introducing new pedagogies. When teachers have moved through the security phase of developing a gap between their content knowledge and that of the students they can move onto the method phase. After teachers have security with new pedagogic methods they are then in a position to adapt content and methods to suit their personal aims for the education of their students. Short regular meetings are more supportive of change than one off long workshops. The focus of supervisory visits should be on team-teaching, offering help and advice. The use of zonal clusters for grouping teachers on in service helps to focus the groups attention on local problems that may vary from urban to rural and from one part of the country to another.
Havelock, R.G. & Huberman, A.M. (1977) Solving Educational Problems: The theory and reality of Education in Developing Countries. Paris: UNESCO.
Beeby, C.E. (1966) The Quality of Education in Developing Countries. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Local groups, meeting regularly, building confidence in content is a good way to start in service for under qualified teachers. Local conditions allow for faster or slower confidence building through adaptive stages.
Venter, J. (1985) Developing an Enrichment Programme in a Junior Primary School. Gifted Education International, 3(1): 59-62.
Workshops for gifted children in Natal, S.A. are described. Teachers were surprised by how much time the preparation of activities took. The project was supported by the active involvement of parents and the local community. The reward for teachers came from the joy of the children in learning.
Teachers will gain intrinsic reward from changing their practice if they can see the effects in their students.
Wong, C. et al. (1985) Special Issue: Training of Trainers and Adult Educators. Part 2: Regional Reviews. Convergence: an International Journal of Adult Education, 18(3-4): 23-115.
This is a descriptive and discursive piece on training adult educators in Shanghai. There is an expectation by students and practice by teachers of didactic methods. A minor modification is to get tutors to organise pre-course study, then to give lectures and talks which are followed by group discussions. Finally, in the modified method, the trainees practice their own delivery under supervision. The hope is expressed that once political will has developed change will be swift and widespread.
As I read this I heard the echo of Ausubel's dictum on determining the students' ideas (in this case about how to teach) and starting to teach them from that base.
Unattributed. Learning on Air. (1984) Media in Education & Development. 17(1):36-39.
This is a report of the work of the National Education Radio Network (NERN), in Thailand, which started using about 8% of its air-time for teacher training. The expectation was that of the countries 360,000 teachers 50,000 might be involved in teacher development through radio. Bureaucratic demarcations of responsibility looked like stalling the project. One useful aside was on how well judged and well timed consultancies can re-juvinate tired social institutions. The final comment is a throw-away line on how radio introduces some element of democracy into teacher training in that it can be switched off!
The minor point on re-juvinating tired social institutions might be the most important. That is, it may be more cost effective and sustainable to provide consultancies to existing institutions than to try to set up parallel ones.
Harper, D.O. (1983) Using Computer Assisted Learning for Teacher Education in New Guinea. Teacher Education Quarterly, 10(4): 54-60.
Zurub, A.R. & Rubba, P.A. (1983) Development and Validation of an Inventory to Assess Science Teacher Needs in Developing Countries. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(9): 867-73.
This paper is a bit of a tease in that it reports the development of an instrument to be used to assess science teachers' perceptions of their own needs and then stops short of reporting what those needs are. The instrument was used with 444 grade 10-12 science teachers in Jordan.