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close this book4th Report on the World Nutrition Situation - Nutrition throughout the Life Cycle (ACC/SCN, 2000, 138 p.)
close this folderAPPENDICES
View the documentAppendix 1: Conceptualizing Nutrition Problems in Society
View the documentAppendix 2: Countries in the UN Regions and Sub-Regions
View the documentAppendix 3: Methods to Estimate Trends in Undernutrition Prevalence: A Review
View the documentAppendix 4: Statistical Notes for Sections 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3
View the documentAppendix 5: Latest National Prevalence of Stunting and Underweight in Preschool Children
View the documentAppendix 6: Explaining Trends in Child Underweight in the Developing World
View the documentAppendix 7: Data Employed for Analysis of Child Underweight Rates in Sub-Saharan Africa
View the documentAppendix 8: Prevalence and Numbers of Overweight Preschool Children in 1995
View the documentAppendix 9: Countries Classified by WHO Regions
View the documentAppendix 10: National Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes
View the documentAppendix 11: Summary of Five Studies of the Social Impacts of the Indonesian Crisis
View the documentAppendix 12: Some Food and Nutrition Information and Data Resources on the Internet

Appendix 1: Conceptualizing Nutrition Problems in Society

The life cycle depicted in Figure 1.1 of Chapter 1 shows how various nutrition problems, causes, and consequences change and interact over rime. To better understand what causes such problems, it is necessary to systematically consider the operation of various determinants of malnutrition at different levels in society. The food-health-care conceptual framework is a widely used analytical tool portraying causal factors and their interactions at three main levels - immediate, underlying, and basic.

The synergistic interaction between the two immediate causes - inadequate dietary intake and disease - accounts for much of the high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Three groups of underlying factors contribute to inadequate dietary intake and infectious disease: household food insecurity, inadequate care, and poor health services and an unhealthy environment. These underlying causes are, in turn, underpinned by basic causes that relate to the amount, control, and use of various resources. The framework is used throughout this report as an organizing principle for discussions of etiology and approaches to remedial action. Although this version of the framework pertains to child undernutrition, it can easily be adapted to other age groups and to other nutritional outcomes.

FIGURE A1.1: Causes of child undernutrition

Source: Adapted from 1.


1. UNICEF (1998) The State of the World’s Children 1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.