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close this bookAquaculture - Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1990, 350 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentForward
View the documentChapter one: Introduction
View the documentChapter two: Training philosophy and methodology
View the documentChapter three: Goals and objectives
View the documentChapter four: Site requirements, logistics and length of training
View the documentChapter five: Trainee qualifications and assessment
View the documentChapter six: Staff qualifications, staffing pattern and staff training
View the documentChapter seven: Ten-week program: summary and weekly schedule of events
View the documentChapter eight: Eight-week program: limltations, adjustments, program summary and weekly schedule of events
View the documentChapter nine: Program design considerations and orientation
Open this folder and view contentsChapter ten: Program design - week one
Open this folder and view contentsChapter eleven: Program design - week two
Open this folder and view contentsChapter twelve: Program design - week three
Open this folder and view contentsChapter thirteen: Program design - week four
Open this folder and view contentsChapter fourteen: Program design - week five
Open this folder and view contentsChapter fifteen: Program design - week six
Open this folder and view contentsChapter sixteen: Program design- week seven
View the documentChapter seventeen: Program design - week eight
Open this folder and view contentsChapter eighteen: Program design - week nine
Open this folder and view contentsChapter nineteen: Program design - week ten
View the documentChapter twenty: Program evaluation
View the documentChapter twenty-one: Recommendations for in-country training
View the documentChapter twenty-two: Publications, equipment and materials

Chapter nine: Program design considerations and orientation

While reviewing and using the information contained in the following chapters, training program staff should consider the following:

· Time frames given for specific sessions or activities are approximations of formal time, but do not include additional time that trainees will spend on their own preparing presentations, doing extra field work, or working on homework assignments and reports;


· Remember that training is not simply a flow of discrete activities that occur one at a time. Trainees have ongoing projects and there is a tremendous amount of overlap. Trainees manage their ponds throughout the program, in addition to all of the other activities. There are many demands on trainees' time, and good time management is a constant challenge to trainees and staff alike;


· Encourage trainees to note the links between different activities and to integrate what they learn at each step into their work as appropriate. This is especially applicable to their pond work, i.e., they can learn a lot through observing and working with their ponds and fish that will pique their interest for information that comes later, will allow them to develop clear questions, and will permit them to speculate so that some of what they learn will serve to reinforce what they already worked out on their own. On the other hand, as they acquire new information they will have the opportunity to apply that information to their pond management and use their ponds to reinforce the new [earnings;


· Both staff and trainees should be constantly watching for opportunities to integrate activities and note the relationships among all of the factors involved in aquaculture and extension work;


· Once ponds have been stocked, the schedule should be set up so that there are standard pond time hours each day. It is recommended that trainees have three blocks of pond time per day, once in the early morning (before breakfast or upon arrival at the training site), once during the lunch hour (lunch can be extended to 90 minutes so that trainees can use the block as they see fit for their own lunch and their pond time), and once in the late afternoon (the last 45 minutes to an hour before the end of formal training each day). Other activities may occasionally necessitate missing certain blocks of pond time, but every effort should be made to keep this time sacred. During pond time, trainers should circulate and interact with trainees occasionally at their ponds. To avoid having several staff members interacting with a particular trainee during a single pond time, which could become intrusive and distracting rather than helpful, staff should have a rotation system. The system should be such that each trainer is assigned a particular set of trainees to observe and interact with during each day's pond times. Trainers rotate each day so that all staff members will be familiar with the activities of all trainees. Trainers should remember that the trainees are the managers of their own ponds and should be permitted to make their own decisions. Staff members' interactions should be based on careful judgement so that they are not overbearing. In general, trainers should serve mainly as sounding boards to allow trainees to talk out problems they are having or issues they are finding puzzling regarding their pond work. Trainers may ask some questions to stimulate the trainees' own though processes, but should not pressure trainees into making "correct" management decisions;


· Evenings and Sundays, although not usually used for scheduling structured activities, are still often used for training activities. During these times trainees often work on their ponds; feed and/or sample their fish; work on reports, presentations or other assignments; set up meetings with trainers to get extra help on problems they are tackling or to advance their progress and do field work as needed on special projects;


· Evenings are sometimes used for formal training activities such as special meetings, slide shows by staff members or guests or seminars (if behind schedule). They may also be used for social events such as a party or a fish fry;


· The manual contains sample designs for many of the activities and sessions. However, this manual is not comprehensive. Many short meetings are held to deal with special issues or circumstances that arise, to check on trainee progress or mood of the group, or to make announcements. Either staff or trainees may request meetings, and either staff or trainees may facilitate meetings. (For example, trainees who are group coordinators for special projects often call meetings to organize those projects.) In cases of meetings that are set up and/or facilitated by trainees, staff should be informed, present and as involved as is appropriate, depending upon the nature of the meeting;


· Remember that trainees are told to take responsibility for their training, and encourage them to think of the program as their program. As training continues, trainees take increasing possession of the program. This does not mean that the staff is excluded, but trainee requests and expressed needs should be considered carefully and addressed (even if it is not possible to fulfill particular requests, this should be acknowledged), and they should be encouraged to take charge of their own activities as much as possible and reasonable.