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close this bookAquaculture - Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1990, 350 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentForward
View the documentChapter one: Introduction
View the documentChapter two: Training philosophy and methodology
View the documentChapter three: Goals and objectives
View the documentChapter four: Site requirements, logistics and length of training
View the documentChapter five: Trainee qualifications and assessment
View the documentChapter six: Staff qualifications, staffing pattern and staff training
View the documentChapter seven: Ten-week program: summary and weekly schedule of events
View the documentChapter eight: Eight-week program: limltations, adjustments, program summary and weekly schedule of events
View the documentChapter nine: Program design considerations and orientation
Open this folder and view contentsChapter ten: Program design - week one
Open this folder and view contentsChapter eleven: Program design - week two
Open this folder and view contentsChapter twelve: Program design - week three
Open this folder and view contentsChapter thirteen: Program design - week four
Open this folder and view contentsChapter fourteen: Program design - week five
Open this folder and view contentsChapter fifteen: Program design - week six
Open this folder and view contentsChapter sixteen: Program design- week seven
View the documentChapter seventeen: Program design - week eight
Open this folder and view contentsChapter eighteen: Program design - week nine
Open this folder and view contentsChapter nineteen: Program design - week ten
View the documentChapter twenty: Program evaluation
View the documentChapter twenty-one: Recommendations for in-country training
View the documentChapter twenty-two: Publications, equipment and materials

Chapter three: Goals and objectives

Training Program Goals and Objectives:

The underlying goal of the training program is to provide the in-country projects with Volunteers who have the base of skills necessary to be effective aquaculture extensionists. The main objective of the training program is to provide all the circumstances, guidance, resources, and support systems necessary to enable trainees to prepare themselves for effective service as Peace Corps Volunteers. Another objective is to help the trainees develop greater self-awareness, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and prioritize their efforts to improve in the skill areas most critical to their personal effectiveness. It is also the objective of the training program to provide an opportunity for trainees to develop their self-confidence so that when they arrive in-country they are can approach their work with enthusiasm and commitment, and establish credibility with host country nationals. As a result, at the end of training the trainees will think, talk and act like professional aquaculturists who are able to impart their knowledge and enthusiasm regarding aquaculture to others.

These training goals and objectives are consistent with the training goals which Peace Corps considers to be common to all training programs. Peace Corps training goals that apply to this training program are:

· To provide training that encourages critical thinking, information gathering and analysis, creative problem-solving, flexibility, patience and self-sufficiency;


· To develop skills that allow individuals to function effectively as a consultant, helping others to define and solve problems;

· To demonstrate the value and methods of sharing knowledge;

· To provide trainees with ways to effectively manage the communication process using listening skills, giving and receiving feedback and non-verbal communication;


· To increase the trainees' knowledge and understanding of the Peace Corps mission, general Peace Corps and country-specific policies;


· To help trainees understand the complex and slow development process including the involvement of women;


· To provide trainees with effective skills for making a transition to a new culture using observation, information gathering and validation, as well as other' assumptions as they relate to technical work;


· To provide trainees with skills that enable them to effectively manage loneliness, isolation and stress while also understanding basic nutrition, hygiene and personal heath;


· To provide trainees with a clear understanding of what is expected of them as volunteers, thus enabling them to set personal and professional goals and to measure their progress in achieving these goals.

Skills Required for Volunteer Effectiveness:

A variety of skills, both technical and non-technical, are required for any Volunteer to be effective. Strong proficiency in one area will not be sufficient without other kinds of skills as well. It would be difficult to list them all, but some of the most important skills and qualities which are addressed in the training program described in this manual include:

· High level of technical competence in a particular skill area (i.e., aquaculture);

· Communication skills (verbal and written);

· Self-confidence and self-reliance; Ability to establish credibility;

· High level of self-motivation;

· Sense of responsibility;

· Ability to work independently;

· Ability to set realistic goals and to develop and implement plans to achieve those goals;

· Problem-solving and analytical skills;

· Ability to remain directed, motivated and effective in ambiguous circumstances;


· Ability to function effectively, keep things in perspective and remain calm, polite and job-oriented in frustrating situations;

· Ability to work in difficult physical conditions;

· Ability to assess own accomplishments, retain sense of humor and maintain a healthy perspective about one's own work without outside support systems;

· Professionalism;

· Ability to respect others and command respect for self through comportment, sensitivity to others, job performance, appearance;

· Leadership;

· Ability to motivate others, work effectively with others on an individual basis or in groups;

· Interviewing skills (ability to obtain information);

· Creativity;

· Persistence, tenacity;

· Ability to interact and establish rapport with others at a variety of levels and in diverse circumstances;

· Honesty, integrity.

Behavioral Training Objectives - Technical:

By the end of training, the trainee will be able to demonstrate the necessary skills and knowledge in the following areas:

1. Site Selection

· Water

· compare advantages and disadvantages of various sources, i.e., wells, streams, springs, runoff, etc.

· discuss importance/difficulties of gathering information regarding reliability of water sources

· Soils

· describe, discuss various soil types, suitability for fish pond construction, etc.
· use appropriate field tests for evaluating suitability of soils

· Topography

· explain how various topographies lend themselves to certain pond designs.
· use a simple model to show how topography affects layout of ponds, cut and fill
· explain the importance of accessibility for the farmer and to the market, resources, etc.;

2. Surveying

· Name the parts of a dumpy level
· Use a dumpy and a hand level to survey a piece of land
· Use a string level and A-frame;

3. Pond design

· Discuss the following:

· basic pond types (barrage, diversion, watershed, groundwater, etc.)
· advantages and disadvantages of various types of ponds
· how different pond types can be used together
· options for layout of multi-pond systems
· management considerations regarding pond design
· use of canals;

4. Masonry

· Design, construct and prepare a masonry form
· Explain the importance and use of reinforcement
· Mix and pour concrete, explain curing;

5. Pond Construction

· Stake out a pond

· Build, calculate and/or explain the importance of:

· cut and fill
· core trench
· dike (toes, side slopes, top width, height, etc.)
· volume of dike
· compaction
· slope (pond bottom, canals)
· drainage/inlet structures (monks, sluices, pipes, canals)
· anti-seep collars
· emergency spillway/overflow
· sealing pond bottoms (bentonite, gley, etc.)
· machine and hand labor
· flow rates of different diameter pipe
· supply and drainage canals;

6. Anatomy

· Identify and explain the function of external and internal organs of a fish
· Describe methods of determining the age of a fish
· Dissect a fish;

7. Physiology

· Compare physiology of aquatic and terrestrial organisms

· Explain respiration, circulation, digestion, and osmoregulation in a fish


· Discuss ways in which fish respond physiologically to their environment and to various water quality conditions


· Describe how feed habits, tolerances, reproductive habits differ among various species of tilapia, carp and catfish;

8. Taxonomy

· Define taxonomy
· Use a taxonomic key
· Discuss practical applications of taxonomy
· Discuss taxonomy of various tilapias;

9. Stocking

· Describe the characteristics desirable in a fish species
· Determine an appropriate stocking density for a given situation
· Define each of the following and explain its importance in determining stocking density:

· carrying capacity
· factors that affect carrying capacity or biomass
· growth rate
· mortality
· stocking purpose

· Explain the effects of over and under-stocking;

10. Water Quality

· Define the following terms and explain the fluctuations and interactions among these parameters:

· pH, alkalinity, hardness
· carbon dioxide
· dissolved oxygen
· ammonia, nitrate, nitrite
· turbidity
· temperature

· Explain how the buffering system works

· use lime to buffer a pond

· Name sources of turbidity and explain its effects on water quality and on fish

· demonstrate methods for measuring turbidity including secchi disk

· Explain methods of predicting low dissolved oxygen and increasing dissolved oxygen

· Describe effects of overfeeding on water quality;

11. Feeds

· Discuss nutritional requirements of fish, including differences for fry, food fish, broodfish

· Discuss nutrients in feeds

· which nutrients are supplied by different foodstuffs
· complete vs. incomplete diets

· Discuss various forms of fish feed

· meal
· pellets
· compare properties, advantages and disadvantages of floating vs. sinking
· pellets
· describe how pellets are made


· Explain important considerations in storage of feed and results of improper storage (i.e., aflatoxins, loss of nutrients, etc.)

· Explain use of blood in fish feed

· Choose the feed appropriate to a particular fish, i.e., size, form, content

· Discuss methods of getting fish "on feed"

· Define and calculate food conversion ratio (FCR)

· methods for maximizing FCR
· typical FCR for common supplementary foods and plankton bloom


· Discuss frequency, times and methods of feeding, i.e., demand feeders, automatic feeders, ad-lib, satiation, percent body weight, etc.

· Explain how to recognize if fish are feeding, if they are overfed or underfed

· Explain the "food chain"

· Discuss how fish are adapted to certain feeding habits

· Formulate a diet using rice bran, peanut cake, blood meal, corn;

12. Fertilization and "Bloom Management"

· Define limiting factor and list/explain limiting factors in pond

· Discuss the following for inorganic and organic fertilizers:

· characteristics
· examples
· when to use which
· how they can be used to complement each other

· Compare nutrient levels of different manures

· Apply fertilizer

· Build a compost

· Describe methods of getting a bloom in acidic waters

· Explain meteorological effects on a bloom;

13. Sampling and Growth

· Discuss the role of sampling

· Describe the range of sampling techniques available, i.e., cast net, seine, traps, electroshock, lift nets, etc. and explain advantages and disadvantages of each

· Discuss considerations for sample size, frequency

· Interpret sampling data

· Calculate and interpret condition factor

· Name factors that affect growth

· Calculate and evaluate growth and FCR

· Project harvest times

· Discuss normal growth patterns;

14. Parasites and Disease

· Classify disease organisms that affect fish

· Discuss problems that may be caused by pollution and nutritional deficiencies

· Describe relationship among stress, parasites and bacterial/viral pathogens

· Describe, from the general to the specific, indicators of disease problems

· Describe how fish should be examined for parasites or disease

· Discuss symptoms generally associated with certain types of disease or parasite problems


· Discuss common treatments used in fish culture, their characteristics and special considerations regarding their use (salt, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, malachite green, terramycin, acriflavin, furacin, formalin, etc.)

· Describe methods of treatment (dip, bath, pond, treated feed, etc.)

· Accurately calculate dosages

· Discuss legal aspects of use of chemicals including FDA/EPA regulatory requirements


· Discuss other considerations when deciding about use of chemicals (cost, stress to fish vs. stress of disease itself, etc.)

· Discuss how diseases are transmitted

· Discuss how disease can be prevented;

15. Reproduction

· Explain differences between reproductive habits of various groups of tilapias, i.e., Tilapia, Oreochromis, and Saratherodon


· Discuss how fecundity, frequency of spawns, age of sexual maturity, hatch rate, fry survival, differ among various tilapias

· Discuss management of tilapia ponds for fingerling production

· Discuss other techniques used to spawn and rear tilapia


· Discuss catfish reproduction and management of catfish broodponds and broodstock Discuss techniques used for carp reproduction (pond spawning, hormone induced spawning)

· Discuss management of carp broodstock Discuss trout reproduction

· Accurately sex tilapia Explain removal of pituitary and injection

· Demonstrate proper care of fry

· Discuss basic genetics/techniques for hybridization and sex reversal;

16. Hybrids

· Define "hybrid vigor"

· Discuss possible reasons for hybridizing

· Discuss the following for popular hybrids used (e.g. red tilapia)

· Success rates

· Maintaining separate broodstock

· Long-term considerations;

17. Handling

· Demonstrate proper handling techniques with minimal stress to fish

· Discuss special handling considerations for fry, foodfish, broodstock

· Count, weigh and measure fish accurately

· Acclimate fish to a new environment;

18. Predation and Theft

· List common predators in fish ponds

· Explain methods for preventing predators from entering ponds

· Explain methods for removing predators from ponds

· Describe strategies for minimizing theft;

19. Nets

· Describe parts of a seine and cast net

· Describe different types of nets and their uses

· Describe different types of mesh, how netting is measured, etc.

· Describe proper care of nets (treating, sunlight, drying, hanging, etc.)

· Weave and repair netting

· Hang a seine

· Demonstrate effective use of a cast net and a seine;

20. Harvesting

· Successfully harvest a pond

· Successfully seine a pond

· Explain the following strategies:

· partial vs. complete harvest
· top-off and restock

· Describe the use of catch basins, live cars, graders, tables, etc.;

21. Processing, Preservation and Preparation

· Demonstrate ability to kill and clean fish utilizing several techniques

· Understand basic role and operation of processing facility

· Explain range of preservation methods and level of technology involved;

22. Transport

· Discuss preparing for a transport, i.e., people, delivery point, equipment

· Prepare fish for transport

· Discuss the importance and/or use of:

· conditions (time of day, temperature, oxygen, ammonia, etc.)
· aeration
· use of salt or other chemicals in transports
· densities for transports and its relationship to length of trip, fish species, temperature, etc.
· types of transport containers (tanks, drums, jerry-cans, plastic bags, etc.)
· explain how transporting fry, fingerlings, foodfish, brooders differ
· set up a truck with tanks and aerators;

23. Intensive/extensive systems

· Define the terms

· Discuss the factors that vary with level of intensity (time, labor, cost, inputs)


· Explain reasons for choosing a particular level, i.e., purpose, goals (fish for food or fish for profit), diminishing returns;

24. Level of complexity

· Describe cases in which each of the following would be appropriate or inappropriate:

· single species crop, mixed sex, no population control
· stock young, grow out, harvest completely - stock mixed sizes, continuous cropping
· single species crop, mixed sex, with population control
· use of predator fish (not for harvest)
· monosex

· polyculture (all for harvest)
· use of different food niches
· predator as a second crop;

25. Integrated Systems

· Discuss methods and the appropriateness of:
· rice/fish
· large animals/fish, especially swine
· poultry/fish
· small animals/fish
· fish/gardens integrated farms
· multiple pond systems
· rotating harvest;

26. Culture Systems

· Design and explain the use of:
· cages
· raceways
· hapas
· pens
· tanks
· others;

27. Basic Management Strategy for Oreochromis niloticus

· Describe a step-by-step plan for simplest effective production of this species

· Explain biological and economic principles for each step;

28. Maintenance

· Perform all required pond maintenance tasks, including:
· erosion control
· care of vegetation
· water management
· care of inlet/drainage structures, emergency spillways, screens on inlets, drain, spillways;

29. Accounting

· Develop a budget for a fish farm
· Explain fixed and variable costs
· Explain amortization, depreciation
· Discuss considerations for maximizing profits;

30. Economics

· Define diminishing returns
· Define economy of scale
· Determine the economic feasibility of a project
· Discuss funding sources and methods of finding them;

31. Marketing

· Define supply and demand
· Explain the role marketing plays in stocking and harvesting decisions
· Discuss determining market needs, i.e., size of fish
· Discuss various marketing strategies
· Discuss price-setting
· Explain the need for advertising and presentation of product;

32. Extension

· Define extension

· Discuss extension education as opposed to giving instructions

· Discuss how psychology and sociology are part of extension

· Discuss "intensive" vs. "extensive" extension

· Discuss the importance of the following characteristics of a good extensionist:
· professionalism
· technical credibility
· active listening
· cultural/social sensitivity
· communication skills
· interpersonal skills
· powers of observation/perception
· recognition that extension is a 24 hour a day, 7 days a week job

· Effectively gather and assess information

· Set appropriate goals for an extension program

· Explain farmer selection
· setting criteria
· innovator, early adapter, etc.
· "dropping" farmers, saying "no"

· Discuss and/or use the following methods/techniques:
· farmer visits
· meetings
· contact farmers
· developing a feeling of community
· cooperative projects, possible advantages/disadvantages/problems

· Common extension tools
· appropriateness/effectiveness of each in different situations/local cultures
· advantages/disadvantages, possible hidden problems with some of these tools:
· analogies
· visual aids
· songs
· role plays
· field trips
· workshops/seminars
· games
· incentives (awards, "decorations", etc.)

· Define "model farmer" and explain its importance

· Define and employ appropriate technology;

33. Administration

· Explain and/or be effective at the following:
· Considerations for working within a bureaucracy
· Chain of command, organizational structure
· Motivating others
· Communication
· Program planning and evaluation
· Writing project proposals
· Record keeping and report writing.

Behavioral Objectives - Non-Technical:

In addition to the above technical behavioral training objectives, there are additional skills, traits and abilities that play a key role in the degree of effectiveness which a volunteer experiences overseas. By giving careful attention to these non-technical objectives during design, facilitation and assessment activities, the training staff can have a major impact on volunteer productivity and satisfaction. However, these non-technical areas must be addressed with extreme sensitivity and a heightened sense of responsibility. Suggestions can be found throughout this manual. The following non-technical behavioral training objectives are particularly critical:

· Professionalism (conduct, appearance);

· Goal setting;

· Assessment of one's own work;

· Dealing with frustration/ambiguity (remaining job-oriented);

· Interviewing/Assessing credibility/Information gathering;

· Looking at things in a critical way;

· Cross-cultural sensitivity;

· Self-awareness;

· Working in groups/organizational skills;

· Leadership;

· Taking advantage of opportunities/initiative;

· Get a feel/eye (practice, hands-on experience);

· Enthusiasm;

· Problem-solving (brainstorming, creative thinking, analytical thinking);

· Observation skills;

· Development of selfconfidence;

· Writing skills;

· Taking/accepting responsibility;

· Working independently;

· Tenacity, perseverance;

· Self-assessment.