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close this bookReport on Reading in English in Primary Schools in Zambia - Education Research Paper No. 05 (DFID, 1993, 55 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentOverseas development administration
View the documentSummary and recommendations
View the document1. Introduction: English and primary education in Zambia
Open this folder and view contents2. Zambia: Primary education
Open this folder and view contents3. Reading and language learning
Open this folder and view contents4. Description of the project
Open this folder and view contents5. Resources in schools visited
Open this folder and view contents6. Approaches to reading in Zambian primary schools
Open this folder and view contents7. Results of English reading test ''Word Find'' and Nyanja test
Open this folder and view contents8. The read aloud tests
Open this folder and view contents9. Reading comprehension tests in Zambian primary schools
Open this folder and view contents10. Conclusion and suggestions for improvements
View the documentAppendix A - Structure of education system: Zambia
View the documentAppendix B - Methods of teaching initial reading
View the documentAppendix C - The testing of reading abilities
View the documentAppendix D - Read aloud test
View the documentAppendix E - Word find reading test: Extracts
View the documentAppendix F - Nyanja reading test: Extracts
View the documentAppendix G - Texts for two lessons
View the documentAppendix H - Transcript of a lesson
View the documentAppendix I - Descriptive statistics for English word find reading test
View the documentAppendix J - Descriptive statistics for Nyanja reading test V.01
View the documentAppendix K - Significance testing of the results of the reading tests
View the documentAppendix L - Reading aloud: assessment results for all schools
View the documentAppendix M - Extract: Draft teaching syllabus, functional objectives, reading, grade 7
View the documentAcknowledgements

Appendix H - Transcript of a lesson

Zambia: Lusaka Rural. School I, Grade 3.

Number in class = 45 (20 boys, 25 girls)

T: English reading. We are going to read the story that is Chuma and the Rhino. That is paragraph 3 and 4, which has been written on the board. Who can read the first sentence in paragraph 3? Yes, (??)

P: Look at that hippo's mouth father

T: Read aloud.

P: Look at that hippo's mouth father.

T: Once more.

P: Look at that hippo's mouth father.

T: Yes. The sentence is "Look at that hippo's mouth father".

Class: Look at that hippo's mouth father.

T: Look at that hippo's mouth father.

Class: Look at that hippo's mouth father.

T: Yes. (Points) What is that sentence? Who can read the next sentence? Simon?

P: It is very big isn't... isn't it, said Chuma.

T: Again.

P: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.

T: Thank you. The sentence is: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma. Read.

Class: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.

T: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.

Class: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma. T: Big. Class: Big. T: Big. Class: Big.

T: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.

Class: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.

T: OK. (moves desk) Who can read the next sentence? Navis(?)

P: Now, hippos have very-

T: Is this word "now"?

P: Now -

T: No, no, no, no...

P: Yes, hippo have very big... Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his mother.

T: Thank you. Uh, what's that word?

P: Father.

T: OK. Yes, hippos have very big mouths said his father. Read.

Class: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.

T: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.

Class: Yes, hippos have very big mouths said his father.

T: Say mouths.

Class: Mouths.

T: Don't say "mouths", say "mouths".*

P: Mouths.

T: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.

Class: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.

T: The next sentence. Musa.

P: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

T: Again.

P: Crocodiles have very big mouth too.

T: Mmm. Who can - who can help him??

F: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

T: Thank you. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

Read. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

Class: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

T: Crocodiles.

Class: Crocodiles.

T: Crocodiles.

Class: Crocodiles.

T: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

Class: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

T: OK. Paragraph four. The first sentence.

P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.

T: Again.

P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.

T: Yes, that is the sentence. Chuma and his father walked away from the river. Read.

Class: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.

T: Walked.

Class: Walked.

T: Walked.

Class: Walked.

T: Read the sentence.

Class: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.

T: Next sentence? Then...

P: They... they walked away from the crocodiles.

T: Yes. They walked away from the crocodiles. Read.

Class: They walked away from the crocodiles.

T: Read this word as "walked." Say "walked."*

Class: Walked.

T: Now read the sentence.

Class: They walked away from the crocodiles.

T: Now this.

P: They walked away from the hippos.

T: Again.

P: They walked away from the hippos.

T: They walked away from the hippos. Read.

Class: They walked away from the hippos.

T: Next sentence.

P: (Inaudible) Now they.. now they... now they were walking between the trees.

T: Again.

Class: Now they were walking between the trees.

T: OK, that is correct. Now they were walking between the trees. Read.

Class: Now they were walking between the trees.

T: Now they were walking between the trees.

Class: Now they were walking between the trees.

T: Next sentence. (Nyanja: Don't look at the white man.) Look at the board. Look at the board. Look at the board.

P: (??)

T: (Writes on the board).

T: Yes.

P: Chuma likes to walk between the trees.

T: Again.

P: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

T: Thank you. Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

T: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

T: Liked

Class: Liked

T: Liked

Class: Liked

T: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

T: Liked, liked. You're still saying "liked". Say "liked".* Read the word as "liked". Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

T: Next sentence. What are they doing? (Nyanja)

P: They walked ..they walked slowly and quietly between the trees.

T: No.

P: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.

T: Again. They-

P: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.

T: OK. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. Read.

Class: They walked walked slowly and quietly between the trees.

T: Again.

Class: They walked walked slowly and quietly between the trees.

T: Yes.

P: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.

T: (??) Read the sentence.

P: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.

T: Yes. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. Read.

Class: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.

T: They. Say they.

Class: They.

T: They.

Class: They.

T: Now read the sentence once more.

Class: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.

T: Yes. Segono. (??) The last sentence.

P: (??)

T: (Nyanja) Right.

P: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.

T: Thank you. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass. Read.

Class: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.

T: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.

Class: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.

T: OK. Now who can read paragraph three? Paragraph three. Ben.

P: Look at ..Look at that...that...that...that hippo mouth Father.

T: Hippo's. Hippo's.

P: Hippo's mouth father. It is very big.. it.. it... isn't it?

T: Isn't it?

P: Isn't it said Chuma.

T: Start again. Start again.

P: Look at... look at that hippo's mouth father. It is very big isn't it, said Chuma. Said hippos....

T: No, no, no. What's the word. Not said.

P: (Whispers: Yes)

P: Yes, hippos... hippos have very big mouth.. mouths said his father. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

T: OK, that's alright. It's alright. Let's see, yes, Samuel.

P: Look at that hippo's mouth. Father. It is very big... it... it is very big isn't it, said Chuma. Yes... yes... hippos very big...

T: Have

P: Yes hippos very very big mouth said his father. Yes hippos very...

T: Have very big mouths.

P: Yes, hippos have very big mouths said his father. Crocodiles, crocodiles have very big mouths too.

T: Thank you. OK. Look at that hippo's mouth father. It is very big isn't it? said Chuma. Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
Together read that paragraph.

Class: Look at that hippo's mouth father. It is very big isn't it? said Chuma. Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.

T: OK. The fourth paragraph. You.

P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos. Now they were walking between the trees. Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

Y: OK that's very nice. Another one? (???) Musa.

P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away.

T: They walked.

P: They walked away from the river, and they walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos. Now they were walking between the trees. Chuma liked to walk between the trees.

T: Thank you. Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos. Now they were walking between the trees. Read the sentences.

Class: Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away from the crocodiles.

T: They walked away from the crocodiles.

Class: They walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos.

T: They walked away from the hippos.

Class: They walked away from the hippos.

T: You mustn't say "walked", "walked". Say "walked".*

Class: Walked.

T: Walked.

Class: Walked.

T: They walked away from the hippos.

Class: They walked away from the hippos.

T: The next sentence.

Class: Now they were walking between the trees.

T: Thank you. The next sentences (writes). Try.

P: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.

T: (Nyanja) Read.

P: They...

T: They walked slowly.

P: They walked slowly between the trees.

T: Come in. Come in. (A pupil enters).

P:... the trees.

T: Sit down. Sit down. Sit down. Sit down. Sit down. Yes, (??)

P: (???) They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.

T: OK. Thank you. Now... They were... Sorry. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass. Read the sentences.

Class: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.

T: OK.

END OF LESSON

* I could not perceive any difference between teacher's and pupils' pronunciation of these words.

Informal Assessment of Understanding

After the lesson a brief informal assessment of the pupils' understanding was conducted, as follows:

EW draws a hippo on the board. 5 pupils raise hands to name it in English. First pupil says "Rhino". Second "It's hippo."

Teacher and EW ask for crocodile in Nyanja (or any Zambian language). 6 pupils with raise hands. One girl gives correct answer. One pupil, Rose says "something similar" (according to T).

EW: Writes on board: "The hippo is walking to the river" and asks for volunteers to read it. About 10 people put up hands. First reads it successfully.

EW & Teacher ask for river in any language. 4 pupils raise hands. First gives the word for "damn". Second gives word for river.