|Globalization and Living Together: The Challenges for Educational Content in Asia (CBSE - IBE, 2000, 136 p.)|
This publication is divided into five parts. In Part One, entitled The impact of globalization on curriculum development, the keynote lecture by J. Hallak and M. Poisson outlines the implications for education of the phenomenon of globalization, and stresses the renewed urgency for curricula to promote peaceful coexistence and co-operation among pupils.
The subsequent round-table debate examines the relevance of new trends in the teaching of science, social science and the humanities to the challenge of globalization and the principle of learning together. The presenter for the humanities focuses on the primordial role of language instruction in the curriculum. The science presenter identifies the opening up of schools to society and a growing recognition of the need to develop scientific attitudes and behaviour in students as principal trends in science teaching. The final presenter stresses how the social sciences are an ideal medium for transmitting the values and attitudes necessary for harmonious existence within society and the natural environment.
In the following working group discussions, the science group addresses the following four issues: the adequate coverage within the curriculum of both basic scientific knowledge and ongoing scientific developments; the organization of experimental activities; the use of, and respect for, the environment; and bridging the gap between scientific and traditional knowledge. The humanities and social sciences groups discuss how both subject areas may support general education by defining new opportunities for curriculum design, teaching/learning methods, pupil assessment and implementation strategies.
Part Two, entitled Some challenges for the adaptation of content raised by the principle of learning to live together, is comprised of a number of presentations on various key current concerns in curriculum reform. R.H. Dave and J.S. Rajput stress the need for comprehensive reforms to existing approaches to teacher education, with the emphasis to be put on career-long education and training, and the development of a professional ethic among all teachers. J.-M. Sani and M.M. Pant outline the possibilities which information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer for innovating the educational process, underlining the need in this context for a redefinition of the role of the teacher while stressing that this role remains key to ensuring the effective exploitation of ICTs as tools for learning. The need for vocational education to meet the demands of globalization is stressed by Arun K.Mishra, who points out not only the economic, but also the social goals, of this essential area of education. His presentation indicates the possibilities which vocational education offers for promoting values of co-operation and respect for others.
Part Three, Interdisciplinarity, school-based management and non-school science education: a few topics for reflection by curriculum developers, includes three case studies from countries outside of the Asian region. Two cases examine major curriculum reforms, one at the national, and the other at the provincial level. E.M. Skaflestad discusses how the new national curriculum in Norway was designed as a connective model establishing clear links between all educational levels and emphasizing an interdisciplinary approach in subject teaching, with core values being taught across the curriculum. Though centrally prescribed, the curriculum provides for local and individual adaptation. Kenneth Ross describes the introduction of the most decentralized system of schooling in the history of public education in Australia, in the state of Victoria. Under this system, in which each school in collaboration with the community draws up its own charter outlining its particular vision and aims, institutions design their own educational programmes based on a core curriculum and standards framework established by the Department of Education. The final country study from France describes the valuable role played by one of the worlds major science and technology museums, La Cité des sciences et de lindustrie (La Villette), in making available a wealth of educational resources to the countrys schools. This study illustrates the importance of collaboration between non-school institutions providing learning opportunities and schools, stressing the need for schools to emerge from their traditional isolation and to become more involved in society.
In Part Four, Current trends in the adaptation of educational content in South and South-East Asia, U. Budes lecture focuses on the need for curriculum development to be a continuous holistic process aimed at real and meaningful change in the classroom. The importance of flexibility and openness in curriculum policy and design, permitting regional and local adaptation of a core document, based on the needs of diverse socio-cultural groups within a country, is emphasized. The advisability of providing for broad-based participatory approaches to the curriculum development process is stressed, with the fundamental importance of the teacher in successful curriculum design and implementation underlined.
The report concludes with an overview of the country reports on curriculum development presented in Part Five.