|GATE - 1986/2 - Rural Crafts (GTZ GATE, 1986, 56 p.)|
Examples of GATE's Work
Innovation Advisory Service
Meeting of Stove Specialists
Environmental Protection and Projects for Women Are Nothing New to Us
Examples of GATE's Work
Ever since it was founded in 1978, GATE has conceived itself as a centre for the dissemination and promotion of appropriate technologies for developing countries. We have selected a number of areas from this broad field of activity which we would like to describe In greater depth in this issue.
In 1984 GATE set up a coordinating agency for ecology and environmental protection. Its job is to process relevant measures in GTZ as a whole, and to coordinate them with the divisions concerned.
The kind of measures that GATE coordinates include, for instance, conservation of nature and endangered species. This finds its expression in particular in the promotion of organizations for nature conservation in Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Tanzania, and Zaire. The primary concern is to safeguard the gene potentials of animals and plants.
Other measures include assistance to research projects undertaken by national herbaria, as a basis for protecting vegetation in Benin and Tunisia, and the establishment of environmental protection organizations in Morocco and Madagascar.
However, the work also includes integrating various aspects of environmental protection into project counseling, and carrying out environmental impact assessments of certain projects. The assistance given to self-help groups which tackle problems of environmental protection and hygiene should not be forgotten, either - such as the construction of simple latrines in Zimbabwe. Last but not least, the support given by GATE for preparing relevant publications, in Cameroon and Senegal, deserves mention.
Biogas Dissemination Programme
The aim of the Biogas Programme, which has been running since 1980, is to develop initiatives for independent, self-perpetuating dissemination of biogas technology in various countries, in some of which requirements and conditions are very different. Dissemination will later be continued either by the countries themselves or as a part of further development cooperation.
In order to achieve this, planning of the projects has included the development of packages of measures appropriate to the respective regional situations; the individual measures are coordinated as far as possible. Implementation of these measures is the responsibility of the teams of advisors working in the countries concerned. These teams are made up of specialists in various fields, usually socio-economists, engineers, and agricultural experts. Their job is to ensure that the general conditions and local requirements are taken into account as far as possible, so that locally appropriate solutions can be found.
At present there are four biogas teams at work, two of them in Africa, in Tanzania and Burundi.
Sufficient experience has meanwhile been gathered with cooperation partnerships to enable the number of cooperation partners to be increased from the present 15 to about 100. The purpose of these cooperation agreements, and the implementation agreements which follow on from them, is to enable GATE and the partner organization in the developing country in question to collaborate in developing and disseminating technologies that satisfy requirements. In doing this, the prime objective is to build up a technological capability in the countries in question and to support the technological centres in such a way that they become the technological advisory and development centre for their country or region. At some point in the future these centres should take over the work which has hitherto been done by GATE, in particular through its Question-and-Answer Service.
While the main emphasis is initially on intensive information interchange, and this forms an integral part of the contractual agreement, the partner organization will later provide practical services, such as preparing and translating information material, handling enquiries which are relevant to the region, carrying out studies and researching technological requirements, implementation methods and dissemination strategies, and, last but not least, also implementing small-scale appropriate technology and rural development projects. We have of course published many reports in "gate" on the projects being carried out together with partner organizations.
Projects involving women
For some time now, all the projects involving women which are being implemented as a part of GTZ's work have been coordinated by GATE. In order to help women, just as much specialist knowledge - essentially sociological - is required as in other fields of activity; however, the present staff cannot be expected to have this knowledge.
For assistance to women to become an integral part of projects in practice, the staff assigned to them for both project planning and implementation - must be specially qualified to help women. GATE selects female experts and awards contracts, as well as advising on the selection of overseas female employees.
In this context, the fundamental and structural tasks associated with assisting women should continue to be handled by the section of GATE which is at present responsible for them. In addition, GATE should continue to carry out pilot projects aimed at assisting women.
Innovation Advisory Service in Brazil and Indonesia
This GATE model project is intended to strengthen small. and medium-scaie enterprises and is carried out in cooperation with the Fundaçao Nucleo de Tecnologia Industrial (Industrial Technology Centre) In the northeastern Brazilian city of Fortaleza, and with the Balal Logam (Materials Testing Centre) in Medan in the Indonesian Province of North Sumatra.
The advisory team in each location is made up of two German and two local experts/consultants and started its work in February this year.
Innovation advice is given to assist in the introduction of new products and appropriate production techniques, and in the fields of management and marketing. At the same time the Service Centre is intended to serve as an active technology transfer link between local production/ manufacturing enterprises and research and development institutions.
The project falls into the category of those aimed at assisting in the structural improvement of rural regions through the establishment of efficient infrastructures and decentralized producing / manufacturing enterprises. i.
Meeting of Stove Specialists
From 1 to 6 June 1986 GATE held a conference in Bad Orb on the subject of stove dissemination. The aim of the participants, project workers from various countries in Africa, from Pakistan and Ecuador, was to process and exchange the information they had gathered on the development and dissemination of fuel-saving stoves, in order to draw conclusions from it for their future work.
The individual topics of the conference were techniques of economizing fuel wood, improving stove design, different testing methods, dissemination concepts, and questions of economy.
As of 1 January 1986 UNIDO, which was founded in 1966, has been an autonomous special organization of the United Nations with control over its own budget.
Its principal tasks are to promote industrial cooperation, to implement development projects in the field of technical aid, to coordinate and carry out all UN activities connected with industry, and to advise partner countries in the Third World on industrialization strategies. The organization's ordinary budget for 1986/87 is US $ 113 million, a good 8 per cent of which is provided by the Federal German Government. In addition, the Federal Government is making direct contributions to projects in the current year.