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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 4: Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 95 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter 1: Principles and Rationale
View the documentChapter 2: Programme Framework
View the documentChapter 3: Organization and Implementation
View the documentChapter 4: Materials and Resources
View the documentChapter 5: Training of Personnel for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes
View the documentChapter 6: Monitoring and Evaluation
View the documentChapter 7: Challenges and Issues
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants

Chapter 2: Programme Framework

A. INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of five parts as follows:

- Common features of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs)
- A change model as the basis for QLIPs
- A curriculum framework for QLIPs
- Types and examples of specific programmes
- Delivery and integration of components

It is important to stress at the outset that QLIPs are aspects of development projects. They provide the education and training needed to bring about planned changes to meet the needs of a community in improving standards of living and degree of excellence of life styles.

B. COMMON FEATURES OF QLIPs

In examining Quality of Life Improvement Programmes it is evident that while programmes may vary in approach and emphasis, they share several common characteristics. These are outlined below:

a) All programmes are involved with a planned process of transformation from the present state of being to the more desirable state


Figure

b) The directions of such transformations are clearly identified and can be broadly categorized into five dimensions namely:

Biological
Social
Economic
Environmental
Humanistic

c) These dimensions are further elaborated in terms of indicators, targets to be reached within a certain time frame and criteria to be applied in determining whether the desirable target has been achieved.

Indicators, targets and criteria can be expressed in many ways as actual numbers, as percentage or as scores as shown in examples below (table 2.1).

Table 2.1: Selected Dimensions of QLIPs

Dimension

Indicator

Target to be reached

Criteria

Social

Levels of literacy

Over 20 per cent

People aged 7-40 who can read popular newspaper

Economic

Wage level in the community

Score more than 2

More than 50 dollars: score 3
Between 35-50 dollars: score 2
Less than 35 dollars: score 1

Biological

Malnutrition among children Rating 0-5

No malnutrition at dangerous levels 0-3

No children suffering from malnutrition at level 3 or below

It is noted that the clearer the indicators, targets and criteria, the more effective the programmes tend to be. Quantitative criteria are preferable to qualitative criteria.

d) The goals and targets for quality of life improvement can be set at several levels: national, provincial, district or even among small groups of local beneficiaries. The effectiveness of the programme, however, will depend on the extent to which these goals and targets are supported by national policy and by development agencies’ mandates and organisational objectives as well as the satisfaction levels of the majority of the intended beneficiaries. A process of dialogue between all levels and agencies is an important feature.

e) In bringing about the planned process of change, the following steps are generally undertaken (Figure 2.1):


Figure 2.1: Steps in Implementing Planned Development

The nature of intervention can take many forms: through changes in human capabilities (i.e. awareness, attitudes, values, knowledge and skills) environmental factors (i.e. physical environment, provision of services, legal measures), institutional factors (i.e. social and political mechanisms) or a combination of different factors. Training and education can be involved at all steps.

f) An integrated approach to quality of life improvement will try to tackle factors in tandem. Sectoral development programmes will focus on providing services in their area of speciality (e.g. health, agriculture) while education activities will emphasize the development of human potential and capability.

g) Within the above conceptual framework, quality of life improvement continuing education programmes (QLIP’s) serve two roles, namely,

i) They further enrich and upgrade the level of self-sufficiency and the learning capabilities of neo-literates, a mission which is common to all CE programmes, and

ii) They assist neo-literate improve their quality of life through intervention at different stages of the transformation process.

(h) In the context of this change model, QLIPs can be designed with the following general objectives in mind:

i) Assist the community formulate a desirable vision of the future through the understanding of the goals set by national policy and development agencies as well as the ones based on community needs and concerns. Facilitate the resolution of the differences, if any, among conflicting visions of the future.

ii) Enable the community to asses their own situation, and prioritize areas where intervention and future action are needed.

iii) Strengthen capabilities to formulate plans for intervention.

iv) Provide the necessary technical and financial assistances to bring about changes in the intervention inputs and processes.

v) Enable the community to monitor and evaluate outcomes, to understand how they have been brought about, to identify problems, strengths and weakness and to review future targets and intervention strategies.

vi) Broaden the community’s awareness of the outside world and alternative visions of the future.

Not all QLIP’s need to aim to achieve all of these objectives in one single programme but can seek to tackle the areas which are in the greatest need. They may also share responsibility with other development sectors. The design of curricula and delivery systems, therefore, needs to be flexible and take into into account the diverse nature of QLIP’s and their target groups

C. A CHANGE MODEL AS THE BASIS FOR QLIPs.

The proposed model for change providing the context for QLIPs is based on a number of assumptions. They are as follows:

a) It is assumed that humankind is rational and being rational and intelligent will endeavor to improve in all aspects of life when put in a conducive environment.

b) It is also assumed that poverty is closely linked with illiteracy. This implies that an illiterate is normally economically poor. This assumption is built on his or her inaccessibility to knowledge which is considered as a factor of production.

c) It is also assumed that education and development serve the same goal i.e. to improve quality of life.

d) It is further assumed that education involves formal, non-formal and informal systems within the context of life-long education.

The various assumptions above can be illustrated in the following figures (figure 2.2):


Figure 2.2: Factors leading to the development of QLIPs

Humankind being intelligent and rational, plans for change. Most of the energy is used to improve quality of life. Change processes can be self-directed, planned by others or a mixture of both. In QLIP (CE) the change process is a combined effort of the planner and the beneficiaries. A proposed model of change as the basis for QLIPs is illustrated below (figure 2.3).

PROPOSED MODEL OF CHANGE FOR QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMMES


Figure 2.3: Aproposed model of change providing the context for Quality of Life Improvement Continuing Education Programmes

D. A CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK FOR QLIPS

a) A curriculum framework for QLIPs brings together the various elements discussed above in sections B and C. The framework should include two types of educational activities, general and specific. The general activities should include education and training about managing and implementing development projects. Areas to be covered could include the following:

Leadership
Project Planning
Project Implementation
Monitoring
Evaluation

Specific activities should relate to the specific elements to be covered by a particular programme and to the specific indicators and targets to be addressed. The emphasis should be on how to translate national or provincial level indicators to local level indicators and targets. The following diagram illustrates how a national set of indicators could be translated into an action curriculum at the local level. (Figure 2.4). The present and targeted standards could in practice be shown in several ways (ratings, percentage of population, percentage yield, numbers of people or services provided and so on). In the exemplar the standards are shown as percentages only. The figures shown are of course arbitrary but in practice would be derived from a careful analysis of the present situation and by the setting of realistic targets.

I. NATIONAL INDICATORS AND TARGETS
(perhaps a rive year plan)

Element and Indicator

Present level
(%)

Development Stage

Target level
(%)



1

2

3

4

5


Biological









Food availability

60

60

65

70

75

80

80


Air cleanliness

40

40

45

50

55

60

60


Clean water

50

50

55

60

65

70

70


Freedom from illness

etc.

etc.





etc.


Quality of housing









Level of sanitation








Social









Parenting Quality









Level of socialization









Degree of freedom









Level of participation









Absence of discrimination









Access to social services









Access to cultural activities









Degree of law and order








Economic









Opportunity to work









Financial security









Equity









Improved Infrastructure








Humanistic









Level of happiness









Degree of harmony









Spiritual fulfilment









Contentment









Loyalty, ethics








Environmental









Natural









Human








II. SELECTED LOCAL PROJECTS

Element and Indicator

Present level

Development Stage

Target level


(%)

1

2

3

4

5

(%)

1. Biological









Rice Yield

40

40

50

50

70

80

80

2. Social









Parenting









% in programme

10

10

20

30

40

50

50

3. Economic









% in jobs

30

30

35

40

45

50

50

4. Humanistic









% claiming to be content

20

20

22

25

27

30

30

5. Environmental









% clean and tidy compounds/houses

50

50

55

60

70

80

80

III. GENERAL SKILLS OF LOCAL IMPLEMENTERS

Element and Indicator

Present level

Development Stage

Target level


(%)

1

2

3

4

5

(%)


Quality






Quality

Leadership

60

60

65

70

75

80

80

Project Planning

40

40

50

60

70

80

80

Project Implementation

10

10

30

50

70

90

90

Monitoring Skills

0

0

20

40

60

80

80

Evaluation Skills

10

10

15

30

60

80

80

Figure 2.4: A possible curriculum framework for Quality of Life Improvemement Programmes.

The development stages in the figure are intended to show two things (i) sub-targets for development within a specified time frame and (ii) levels of objectives to achieved in the educational or training programme required to achieve the sub-targets.

E. TYPES AND EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC QLIPS

a) General Categories

It is a massive social undertaking to improve the quality of life. To reach this goal, concrete specific development plans involving educational activities must be formulated. Since QLIPs are programmes which aim to improve well-being in biological, social, economic, humanistic and environmental areas, it is essential that QLIPs be designed to help certain target groups solve certain specific problems. As the target groups include people of all walks of life of both sexes, the approach and resources of QLIPs must vary considerably for various groups. To highlight this, the following table (table 2.2) of just a few possible programmes is presented. Before formulating actual programmes in reference of the table certain points should be considered:

1. Target group, their needs and requirements;
2. Dimensions, indicators, aspects, time, and method;
3. Resources and facilities available and needed;
4. Delivery system and implementation agencies.

b) Specific Examples

When designing a programme for the improvement of Quality of Life, certain essential elements of the programme should be considered. Before drafting the programme the following questions should be answered:

1. Why launch this programmes? (rationale)
2. Who are the beneficiaries? (target group)
3. How to motivate participants? (income generating components and community benefits)
4. When is the programme to start and its duration? (time)
5. By whom the programme will be implemented? (responsible bodies)
6. Where? (location and scope)
7. How? (procedures)

To answer these questions, one has to be very clear about the objective of the programme. The following are four exemplar programmes. The Reference codes refer to specific cells of table 2.2.

Table 2.2: Examples of Specific QLIPs



For people below Poverty Line

For people above Poverty Line

Dimension

Aspects

A. Very Poor

B. Poor

C. Comfortable

D. Affluents

1. Biological

a. Food
b. Clothing
c. Basic shelter

a. Enough food
b. Adequate clothing
c. Healthy shelter

a. Food security
b. Suitable clothing
c. Healthy shelter

a. Balanced diet
b. Wise selection of clothing
c. Adequate and comfortable home

a. Health/diet
b. Wise selection and use of clothing
c. Improving the home

2. Social

a. Parenting
b. Women and technical innovation
c. Participation

a. Child Development
b. Simple technologies involving women
c. Awareness of law and order

a. Child Development
b. Women coping with new technology
c. Understanding basis for law and order

a. Adolescent adjustments
b. Learning about new technologies
c. Safeguarding law and order

a. Tactful family leadership
b. Making the most of new technologies
c. Personal roles in law and order

3. Economic

a. Work
b. Income
c. Service facilities

a. Job hunting
b. Increasing income
c. Basic physical facilities

a. Job security
b. Further increasing income
c. Better physical facilities

a. Improving working conditions
b. Receiving satisfying income
c. Priority planning

a. Creative work
b. Sensible use of income
c. Sensitive use of facilities

4. Humanistic

a. Moral values
b. Attitudes to development
c. Contentment of mind

a. Honesty
b. Urge to change
c. Basic satisfaction with life

a. Honesty
b. Development perspective
c. Satisfaction with life

a. To be concerned about others
b. To be concerned with helping in development
c. To be healthy, happy and comfortable in life

a. To have high social awareness
b. To contribute to development
c. To share happiness with others

5. Environment

a. Pollution
b. Resource protection
c. Population

a. Awareness of dangers
b. Awareness I of needs
c. Family planning

a. Problems and affects
b. Meeting needs
c. Advantages of small family

a. Awareness and civic duties
b. Rational use of resources
c. Healthy children and proper education

a. Contributions to solve the problem of pollution
b. Planning for wise use of resources
c. Social consequences of over population

Exemplar 1: INCOME GENERATING PROGRAMME

Reference Code: 3.A.b

1. Rationale: Poverty has been the major problem which hinders the improvement of people’s life in a rural area. Something must be done to eliminate poverty.

2. Target groups: Agricultural community in poverty- stricken area. Neo-literates with limited skills.

3. Expected Duration of the Programme: 2 years.

4. Responsible bodies: Joint Efforts - Education Sector, Agriculture Sector, Science and Technological Sectors, Social forces (NGOs, Volunteers), Governmental bodies at various levels.

5. Input: Financial assistance from governmental bodies, Technical assistance from all concerned bodies.

6. Procedures

a) Problem identification

- Traditional concept of farming; backward agriculture production techniques; lack of skill; shortage of facilities and funds;

b) Possible solutions:

- New concept and ways of farming; new skills; technical and financial assistance.

c) Entry point: Education

Activities

Delivery System

Training of personnel (practical skill in improving income)

Long-term and short-term courses; dialogues and discussion; workshops; working-camp; mass media; distance education; learning groups.

d) Participation of other related bodies — agriculture ministry; provincial and local government; science and technology ministry, non-governmental bodies; volunteer organisations.

Roles of various bodies:

Education

- Training and material development. Provide teachers and training bases (schools and adult learning centres, etc.)

Agriculture

- Provide technicians, professional staff, materials(seeds, experimental site).

Science body

- Technology/consultancy service,

Governmental bodies

- Loans, funds, materials such as fertilisers, pesticides, breeding stock.

NGOs

- Publicity, mobilisation tasks, voluntary campaigns.

7. Evaluation, feedback and expansion

All phases to be evaluated and action plans formulated for future development.

Exemplar 2: HEALTHY EDUCATED CHILDREN

Reference: 5.C.c

This programme is to enable the learner to acquire the concept of population quality and to understand the relationship between population size and quality of life so as to urge the learner to follow the practice of «Quality Birth and Proper Education».

1. Objective:

1992-93:

Implement a family planning programme by means of raising awareness of need and methods.

1994-98:

Reach the goal of "Quality of birth" and proper standards of education for the children".

2. Bodies involved in the programme:

Governmental bodies at all levels; Education Sector; Health Sector: Family Planning body (if already exists); Women’s Federations.

3. Division of Work:

All the above cited bodies would contribute within their field of competence and pay attention to inter-sectoral collaboration.

4. Target Groups: young couples (below 40 years old) whose living standard is above average. They are to receive 20 hours of education. Out of this 20 hours, 10 hours will be group study.

5. Content:

a) Advantage of family planning, and the harm of not practicing family planning.
b) Most appropriate age of breeding and pregnancy.
c) Do’s and Don’ts during pregnancy.
d) Baby’s food and nutrition.
e) Early childhood education.

6. A teaching manual of about 10,000 -20,000 words would be compiled by experts.

7. Training of the trainers would be undertaken including the production of teaching plans

8. Choice of appropriate delivery method

1) Radio and T.V. courses;
2) Correspondence;
3) Self-study, group study with regular tutoring;
4) Classroom teaching, lectures, reports and consultancy;
5) Learning through recreational activities.

9. Resource:

Government, collective, individual.

10. Assessment and Evaluation

1) On organisation and management (of the programme).
2) On the effect of the programme.

Exemplar 3: HEALTHY DIET

Reference: 1.D.a

Economic development has enabled many people to become rich. As a negative byproduct of a comfortable lifestyle, many kinds of disease appear as the result of too much good food. High blood pressure, obesity and coronary heart disease are diseases that endanger people’s life and cast a shadow on the quality of life. Programmes should be implemented to solve this problem.

Bodies and institutions that can be involved in healthy diet programme are hospitals, medical colleges, research bodies, popular science associations and the mass media.

The target groups of the programme are those comfortably off people with high risk of obesity and heart trouble.

The content of education should include aspects of physiology and nutrition as well as correct diet behaviour such as cooking and using nourishing food. The harm of eating and drinking too much at one meal, the effect of partiality for a particular kind of food and of excessive drinking of alcoholic spirits should be reviewed.

The methods of delivery are: mass media, printed materials, popular readers on healthy diet, articles, newspaper and magazines on diet, posters, leaflets, consultancy, and short courses.

Exemplar 4: WOMEN COPING WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Reference: 2.B.b

1. Rationale: Women do not have the same opportunity as men to become familiar with new technologies in employment and in society in general (e.g. new manufacturing techniques, computing and so on). Special programmes are needed to address this.

2. Target group: Women in the clothing industry.

3. Expected Duration of the Programme. 6 months.

4. Responsible bodies - Joint effort by the private sector, ministries of education, industry, trade and employment.

5. Input. Financial assistance, materials and equipment from the private sector. Training expertise provided by Ministry of Education. Training resources provided by both private sector and other ministries.

6. Procedures

a) Review of current manufacturing practice
b) Review of a new manufacturing technology
c) Training in the application of the new technology.

7. Monitoring and evaluation of progress of participants in mastering the new technology.

F. DELIVERY AND INTEGRATION OF COMPONENTS

As previously mentioned the target for QLIPs should be a specific community group and the scope should deal with issues of concern to all adult citizens in that group. Delivery systems should be of a broad out-reach type with a public education focus. Since each line of the exemplar curriculum grid is independent of each other line and has at least some of the characteristics of a minicourse, the delivery system should have the following characteristics.

· Capable of reaching all adult citizens in the target group
· Sufficiently flexible to accommodate a variety of presentation methods
· Cost effective in terms of personnel and material resources
· Linked to and emerge from national development planning.

The following are possibilities:

a) Structured courses. These could be offered by both learning centres and the formal education system in their own right and/or as components of other types of continuing education such as post-literacy programmes or equivalency programmes. Since the aim, however, is to reach all citizens this approach would not be sufficient and would need to be associated with other forms of delivery.

b) Carefully structured and sequenced information presented through the mass media, especially newspapers, radio and broadcast TV.

c) A poster campaign highlighting the main issues involved in each line of the curriculum framework. Posters should be designed to correlate with courses and mass media programmes but also to be self contained and self explanatory.

d) Publication programmes of reading materials especially developed in a structured sequence to he placed in libraries, reading centres and learning centres to correlate with the other elements of the delivery system but also to be self-explanatory.

e) Public relations and public education campaigns involving displays, talks, cultural programmes, public meetings, contests and competitions, production of pamphlets, booklets, wall newspapers and so on by each relevant government and non-government agency and instrumentality. Each of these campaigns would need to be carefully correlated with the other components of the delivery system.

f) A political campaign to advertise, promote and foster each unit or "line" of the curriculum framework.

Ideally each type of delivery system described above should be part of a carefully coordinated programme over a defined period. There should be one such programme for each line of the curriculum but each programme should be repeated indefinitely with appropriate modifications as standards improve. There is no upper limit to improvement of the quality of life, just the attainment of specified targets along a continuous path of development. Therefore there should be no thought of terminating this type of programme but repeating each «line» over and over with a gradual build up of standards from repeat to repeat.

The type of overall coordination that would be desirable between the various components and types of delivery system is shown in the following diagram (figure 2.3).

In the figure (figure 2.3) the numbers along each horizontal row represent different activities arranged in a time sequence and the duration of each activity is shown by the length of each numbered line. While each «strand» and each unit in each strand could be designed to stand alone, this type of arrangement allows a sequential build up of ideas and skills from week to week or month to month and also enables each activity in each row to complement the activities of the other rows and in some case to provide resources for the other activities.


Figure 2.3: Correlation between activities provided by different delivery systems for one QLIP