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close this bookInvestigating Bilingual Literacy: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia - Education Research Paper No. 24 (DFID, 1998, 99 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentDepartment for International Development - Education Papers
View the documentList of other DFID education papers available in this series
View the documentOther DFID education studies also available
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contents1 Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2 Background: Malawi and Zambia
Open this folder and view contents3 Teaching reading in Malawi and Zambia
Open this folder and view contents4 Reading research: 1992
Open this folder and view contents5 The 1994 research
Open this folder and view contents6 Individual reading sessions
Open this folder and view contents7 Individual reading sessions
Open this folder and view contents8 Discussion
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix A - Approaches to teaching initial reading
View the documentAppendix B - Transcript of two lessons
View the documentAppendix C - Texts for two lessons
View the documentAppendix D - Extracts from English ''word find'' reading test, 1992
View the documentAppendix E - Extracts from Chichewa and Nyanja reading tests 1992
View the documentAppendix F - Extracts from English reading test, 1994
View the documentAppendix G - Extracts from Chichewa and Nyanja tests, 1994
View the documentAppendix H - Histograms of 1994 test results
View the documentAppendix I - Text for Chichewa/Nyanja individual reading

Appendix B - Transcript of two lessons

Transcript 1: Malawi, Rural School, Year 2
Number in class: 128

T: Now it's time for English. Class, who can remember to read this word?... Yes?
P: Any
T: Any. Very good. Clap hands for him. (Clapping)
T: What about this word. What does it say?
P: Tins.
T: Very good. Clap hands for... her (Clapping) and everybody say "tins".
Class: Tins.
T: Tins.
Class: Tins.
T: Who can read this word?... Yes?
P: Bottle.
T: Bottles. Very good. Clap hands for her. (Clapping) Now everybody read.
Class: Bottles.
T: Again.
Class: Bottles.
T: What does this say? Yes, Danzani?
D: Matches.
T: Matches. Very good. Clap hands for him. (Clapping)
T: Everybody, say after Dansani.
Class: Matches.
T: Again.
Class: Matches.
T: Now look here. Look on page 46. Everybody can see it? (repeat in Chichewa)
Class: (Yes: in Chichewa)
T: (Right: in Chichewa). Now, what can you see? What can you see? Yes, Kenneth?
K: I can see Timve.
T: You can see Timve. Yes. Noah, where is Timve? Where is Timve? Yes, Makanso?
M: (inaudible)
T: No, no. Yes, you.
P: Timve is wearing a shirt and shoes.
T: I said, I said, where is Timve? (Where is Timve? in Chichewa?) Where is Timve? Yes?
P: Timve is in the store.
T: Yes, Timve is in the store. Clap hands for her. (Clapping)
P: Now everybody say after her.
Class: Timve is in the store.
T: Again.
Class: Timve is in the store.
T: Now, who is that man? Who is this man? He's a.. He's... finish it...Yes?
P: That is a storekeeper.
T: Yes. That is a store keeper. Very good. Now this is a storekeeper. Now, what is his name? What is his name? Yes?
P: (indistinct)
T: Speak loudly.
P: (indistinct)
T: Speak loudly.
P: Can you hear her?
Class: His name is...
T: (In Chichewa: Did you hear what she said?)
Class: (Chichewa: Yes)
T: Say it loudly. Yes, speak it loudly. (Chichewa: Say it loudly)
P: His name is Mr Gondwe.
T: Very good. Say after him.
Class: His name is Mr Gondwe.
T: Now here I have written some words. Now the first words reads. "Buying, buying, buying. No, no no. Buying buying. No. Now class, read after me "Buying".
Class: Buying.
T: Again.
Class: Buying.
T: Again.
Class: Buying.
T: Now Botolan read it.
B: Buying.
T: Stand up and read it.
B: Buying.
T: Very good. You stand up. Read it.
P: Buying.
T: Everybody read it.
Class: Buying.
T: Here. Read after me. No.
Class: No.
T: No.
Class No
T: No.
Class: No.
T: Now, who can read it. Kanyada?
P: No.
T: Speak loudly.
P: No.
T: Yes, (inaudible)
E: No.
T: No. Very good. (Writes) What does it say? Yes?
P: No.
T: Very good. Clap hands for him. (Clapping) Yes. Juvis?
J: Buying.
T: Buying. Yes. Very good. Now you listen, I am going to read (Chichewa: I am going to read) "Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
They are buying things for mother.
Are they buying matches?
No, they are not.
They are not buying matches.
Are they buying bottles?
No, they are not.
They are not buying bottles.
They are buying sugar.
They are buying tea.
They are buying sugar and tea.
They are buying things for mother."
Now class, read after me.
T: Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
Class: Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
(Class continue repeating text after the teacher, as far as:
"They are buying things for mother.")
Now I would like boys to read after me. Girls, keep quiet.
"Timve and Tsala are inside the store."
(Boys repeat the text after the teacher.)
Now I would like that line at the back. Stand up. Quickly. Now read after me. And that one. (Chichewa: That one) Mmhmm.
Line: Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
T: No. Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
Line: Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
(The line read the whole text after the teacher.)
Good, sit down. Now, everybody read. I would like you to read alone (inaudible). Start.
Class: Timve -
T: Everybody, girls and boys. Start reading.

(Class read the text, as far as "Are they buying bottles?")

T: Listen, "Are they buying bottles?"
C: Are they buying bottles?
T: Are they buying bottles?
C: Are they buying bottles?

(Class continue to end)

T: Children, now who can read for me? Yes, Konda.
K: Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
They are buying things
T: Things.
K: Things.
T: Things.
K: Things. (Continues text to "They are buying matches.")
T: Very good. Clap hands for... him. (Clapping)
Now girls. Yes. Start from here.
G: Are they buying bottles. No they are not. They are not buying bottles.
T: Very good. Clap hands for her. (Clapping)
T: Next. Yes.
P: They are buying sugar. They are buying tea. They are buying sugar and tea. They are buying things for mother.
T: Very good. Clap hands for him. (Clapping)
T: Now. Questions. What is Timve and Tsala buying? What is Timve and Tsala buying? Yes?
P: Timve and Tsala are inside the store.
T: Wrong, no. What are they buying? Or let me ask you this way. What are they buying? What are they buying? Yes?
P: They are buying some tea and sugar.
T: They are buying sugar and tea. Say it again.
P: They are buying sugar and tea.
T: Very good. Say it again.
T: Now, say after him. They are buying sugar and tea. Say it.
Class: They are buying sugar and tea.
T: Now, are they buying bottles? Are they buying bottles. Yes?
P: No, they are not.
T: Very good. Clap hands for her. (Clapping)
T: Are they buying matches? Are they buying matches? Yes?
P: No they are not.
T: Very good. Clap hands for her. (Clapping)
T: Now, who can come and write the word "buying"? Who can come and write the word on the chalk board. Violet. Yes, you? Take a piece of chalk.
P: (Writes)
T: Is he correct?
Class: No.
T: Now, who can come and correct it? Who can come and correct it? Yes? Come in. Yes, come in front. You. Write "buying". Is she correct?
Class: Yes.
T: Clap hands for her. (Clapping)
T: Now, who can come and write "No, no, no". Yes, Danfreda. Write "No". Is he correct?
Class: Yes.
T: Clap hands for him. (Clapping)

END OF LESSON

Transcript 2: Zambia, Rural School, Year 3.
Number in class: 45

T: English reading. We are going to read the story that is Chuma and the Rhino. That is paragraph 3 and 4, which has been written on the board. Who can read the first sentence in paragraph 3? Yes?
P: Look at that hippo's mouth father
T: Read aloud.
P: Look at that hippo's mouth father.
T: Once more.
P: Look at that hippo's mouth father.
T: Yes. The sentence is "Look at that hippo's mouth father".
Class: Look at that hippo's mouth father.
T: Look at that hippo's mouth father.
Class: Look at that hippo's mouth father.
T: Yes. (Points) What is that sentence? Who can read the next sentence? Simon?
P: It is very big isn't... isn't it, said Chuma.
T: Again.
P: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.
T: Thank you. The sentence is: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma. Read.
Class: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.
T: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.
Class: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.
T: Big.
Class: Big.
T: Big.
Class: Big.
T: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.
Class: It is very big isn't it, said Chuma.
T: OK. (Pause) Who can read the next sentence? Navis?
P: Now, hippos have very -
T: Is this word "now"?
P: Now -
T: No, no, no, no...
P: Yes, hippo have very big... Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his mother.
T: Thank you. Uh, what's that word?
P: Father.
T: OK. Yes, hippos have very big mouths said his father. Read.
Class: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.
T: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.
Class: Yes, hippos have very big mouths said his father.
T: Say mouths.
Class: Mouths.
T: Don't say "mouths", say "mouths".
P; Mouths.
T: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.
Class: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father.
T: The next sentence. Musa.
M: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
T: Again.
M: Crocodiles have very big mouth too.
T: Mmm. Who can - who can help him??
F: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
T: Thank you. Crocodiles have very big mouths too. Read. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
Class: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
T: Crocodiles.
Class: Crocodiles.
T: Crocodiles.
Class: Crocodiles.
T: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
Class: Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
T: OK. Paragraph four. The first sentence.
P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.
T: Again.
P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.
T: Yes, that is the sentence. Chuma and his father walked away from the river. Read.
Class: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.
T: Walked.
Class: Walked.
T: Walked.
Class: Walked.
T: Read the sentence.
Class: Chuma and his father walked away from the river.
T: Next sentence? Then...
P: They... they walked away from the crocodiles.
T: Yes. They walked away from the crocodiles. Read.
Class: They walked away from the crocodiles.
T: Read this word as "walked." Say "walked."
Class: Walked.
T: Now read the sentence.
Class: They walked away from the crocodiles.
T: Now this.
P: They walked away from the hippos.
T: Again.
P: They walked away from the hippos.
T: They walked away from the hippos. Read.
Class: They walked away from the hippos.
T: Next sentence.
P: (Inaudible) Now they.. now they... now they were walking between the trees.
T: Again.
Class: Now they were walking between the trees.
T: OK, that is correct. Now they were walking between the trees. Read.
Class: Now they were walking between the trees.
T: Now they were walking between the trees.
Class: Now they were walking between the trees.
T: Next sentence. (In Nyanja: Don't look at the white man.) Look at the board. Look at the board. Look at the board.
P: (Inaudible)
T: (Writes on the board. In Nyanja: Look at the board.)
T: Yes.
P: Chuma likes to walk between the trees.
T: Again.
P: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
T: Thank you. Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
T: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
T: Liked
Class: Liked
T: Liked
Class: Liked
T: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
T: Liked, liked, You're still saying "liked" Say "liked". Read the word as "liked". Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
Class: Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
T: Next sentence. What are they doing?
P: They walked ..they walked slowly and quietly between the trees.
T: No.
P: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.
T: Again. They-
P: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.
T: OK. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. Read.
Class: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.
T: Again.
Class: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.
T: Yes.
P: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.
T: (Inaudible) Read the sentence.
P: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.
T: Yes. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. Read.
Class: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.
T: They. Say they.
Class: They.
T: They.
Class: They.
T: Now read the sentence once more.
Class: They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino.
T: Yes. Segono. (Inaudible) The last sentence.
S: (Inaudible)
T: (In Nyanja: Right.)
P: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.
T: Thank you. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass. Read.
Class: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.
T: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.
Class: The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.
T: OK. Now who can read paragraph three? Paragraph three. Ben.
P: Look at ..Look at that...that...that...that hippo mouth Father.
T: Hippo's. Hippo's.
P: Hippo's mouth father. It is very big.. it.. it... isn't it?
T: Isn't it?
P: Isn't it said Chuma.
T: Start again. Start again.
P: Look at... look at that hippo's mouth father. It is very big isn't it, said Chuma. Said hippos....
T: No, no, no. What's the word. Not said.
P: (Whispers) Yes
P: Yes, hippos... hippos have very big mouth.. mouths said his father. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
T: OK, that's alright. It's alright. Let's see, yes, Samuel.
S: Look at that hippo's mouth, Father. It is very big... it... it is very big isn't it, said Chuma. Yes... yes... hippos very big...
T: Have
P: Yes hippos very very big mouth said his father. Yes hippos very...
T: Have very big mouths.
P: Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father. Crocodiles, crocodiles have very big mouths too.
T: Thank you. OK. Look at that hippo's mouth father. It is very big isn't it? said Chuma. Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father. Crocodiles have very big mouths too. Together read that paragraph.
Class: Look at that hippo's mouth father. It is very big isn't it? said Chuma. Yes, hippos have very big mouths, said his father. Crocodiles have very big mouths too.
T: OK. The fourth paragraph. You.
P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos. Now they were walking between the trees. Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
Y: OK that's very nice. Another one? (Inaudible) Musa.
P: Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away.
T: They walked.
P: They walked away from the river, and they walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos. Now they were walking between the trees. Chuma liked to walk between the trees.
T: Thank you. Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos. Now they were walking between the trees. Read the sentences.
Class: Chuma and his father walked away from the river. They walked away from the crocodiles.
T: They walked away from the crocodiles.
Class: They walked away from the crocodiles. They walked away from the hippos.
T: They walked away from the hippos.
Class: They walked away from the hippos.
T: You mustn't say "walked", "walked". Say "walked".
Class: Walked.
T: Walked.
Class: Walked.
T: They walked away from the hippos.
Class: They walked away from the hippos.
T: The next sentence.
Class: Now they were walking between the trees.
T: Thank you. The next sentences. (writes) Try.
P: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees.
T: (In Nyanja: Read) Read.
P: They...
T: They walked slowly.
P: They walked slowly between the trees.
T: Come in. Come in.
P:... the trees.
T: Sit down. Sit down. Sit down. Sit down. Sit down. Yes, (Inaudible)
P: (Inaudible) They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.
T: OK. Thank you. Now... They were... Sorry. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass. Read the sentences.
Class: They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They walked slowly and quietly between the trees. They were walking slowly and quietly when they saw a very big rhino. The rhino was near a tree and he was eating grass.
T: OK.

END OF LESSON