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close this bookAccess of Girls and Women to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Africa (BREDA - UNESCO, 1999, 480 p.)
close this folderPART II
View the documentScientific, Technical and Vocational Education (STVE) for Girls in South Africa
View the documentParticipation of Girls and Women in Science, Technical and Vocational Education in the Republic of Benin
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Africa a Case Study of Burundi
View the documentSpecial Project on Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education for Girls in Chad
View the documentThe Participation of Girls and Women in Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Ethiopia
View the documentStatus Report Baseline Information on Girls in Science, Technical and Vocational Education in Ghana
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View the documentThe Status of Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education of Girls in Madagascar
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View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Mali
View the documentPromotion of the Equal Access to Girls in Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Republic of Namibia
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Niger
View the documentScientific, Technical and Vocational Education of Girls in Nigeria
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Science Education and Technical Education in Africa. Case for Uganda
View the documentThe Promotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Africa Case Study of Senegal
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Vocational and Science Education in Swaziland
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Science Education and Technical/Vocational Education in Africa: The Case of Tanzania
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access for Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Togo
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Zambia
View the documentPromotion of the Equal Access of Girls to Scientific Technical and Vocational Education in Zimbabwe

Status Report Baseline Information on Girls in Science, Technical and Vocational Education in Ghana

Georgina QUAISIE*

* Desk Officer, Science, Technology and mathematics education, Ghana Education service HQR, ACCRA.

THE STATUS OF GIRLS AND WOMEN IN THE SOCIAL LIFE

Ghana, like any other traditional African Society is known to hold on to certain traditional prejudices with regard to the perceived role of women in social life. In spite of significant changes in recent times, girls and women are still expected to perform certain roles and also get excluded from very important activities which are predetermined by custom.

However, the situation of the Ghanaian woman at home is now different from what used to be the case. The Government development projects, the use of the District Assemblies Common Fund, support from International and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have helped provide electricity, potable water, and day care centers for communities. These have greatly eased women's household chores. Some enlightened women and professionals have taken advantage of technological advancement and make use of home gadgets such as cooking stoves, washing machines, blenders, etc. Househelps are being used extensively to cut on down women and girls labour in the home.

In recent times, some parents, having been made aware of the benefits of girls education, have taken advantage of government equity programmes and are not only sending their girls to school, but also reducing their household chores to enable them to devote more time to learning. Analysis of recent examination results from one rural district shows that such girls are making a break-through. They are performing equally well as boys (Konadu, 1996), and some times even better (Quaisie, 1996).

Increasingly, women are being accepted as leaders, contributing to major decision making at the community level. A number of governmental and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs), notably the National Council on Women and Development (NCWD), 31st December Women Movement (31st DWM), Word Vision International (WVI) Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) among others, in playing the advocacy roles have helped in creating awareness among the women themselves and the general public on the potential role of women in community development. Consequently, a fair number of women are on the Council of State, increasing from 7% in 1980 to 17 % in 1996. In Parliament, women participation have gone up from 4% in 1980 to 9% in 1996 and in the District Assemblies 8% in 1996. Ministry of Information and Local Government, 1994,. There are moves to enhance the role of Queenmothers (Members of the Royal Family) in their localities.

Available statistics show that women are now found in all major employment sectors. Women also constitute a small percentage at the top management levels. Current trends show a break-through of what used to be the status quo. From his study of a break of females in trades traditionally occupied by men, Nyanteng conclude that “females are now venturing into these skills because of the need to diversify their skills in order to survive and support their families. Women are now found in every aspect of auto-industry, construction, welding, refrigeration, photography, tailoring, etc. Some have found their way into driving commercial vehicles (including “tro-tro”)” Nyanteng, (1996).

The Government's Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) of the Economic Recovery Programme (ERP) is known to have affected women directly as they are the ones who are normally found in the lower income group and it is they who were most affected by the retrenchment. Indirectly, women have suffered as wives of retrenchment men thus placing more domestic and financial burden from PAMSCAD and the World Bank-initiated programmes, even though they generally are covered under policies for poverty alleviation.

The National Council on Women and Development (NCWD). which advises the government on all matters relating to full integration of women in national development at all levels “ has been hampered by low commitment of state funds and problems with its institutional structure” “(Sutherland, et al. 95 pp.74-80).

Under the Educational Act of 1961, the fee-free compulsory education was to help improve access for girls. The objective of the 1987 Educational Reform, in addition to improving access, was also to provide equal opportunities for girls to prospect into male dominated area. (MOE, 1990). Disparities in educational participation of girls and boys have persisted over the years. The Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) was again launched in 1996 and the Government is determined to expand particular action-oriented programmes which have had positive impact, to address the various disparities. (MOE, 1996).

The Distance Education programme was to help provide “women who cannot combine work, marriage and child rearing with on-campus education” with the opportunity to raise their academic qualifications. (MOE, 1995). Though seen by some as not women-friendly, others look forward to benefiting from it.

The national Technical and Vocational Education and Training (NACVET), jointly set up by the Ministries of Education and Employment and Social Welfare is addressing the policy of systematic apprenticeship programme with specific activities directed at improving access for girls. The polytechnic and other tertiary institutions will soon be committed to specific affirmative actions on women. However, some informal intervention like the quota system have been in place for some time.

PERSPECTIVE FOR THE ROLE OF GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The knowledge and understanding of the need to enlarge or intensify women's participation in socio-economic development is still scanty.

The serious problem of under-utilization of the women and the deep rooted attitudes and concepts, dictated by tradition and affecting the role of and place of women in the family, home and community was investigated among the Akan people of southern Ghana (Quaisie, 1993). In a focus group discussion it was revealed that in spite of the fact that traditionally, women are made queen mothers and consulted on important cultural issues, in general, females in the Fanti traditional society are looked on as being inferior to men in mental capacity: that is, they are considered naive, fickle-minded, narrow-minded, and easily deceived. As such women are, generally not involved in major decision-making and problem-solving processes of the society. Women are also considered ritually unclean and are excluded from certain activities, including the handling of men's working tools. Neither are this considered to be as strong as men, physically and therefore in need of protection.

These ideas about women make them engage in socio-economic activities that reinforce their traditional roles in society, thus limiting the variety of economic activities they undertake. The activities should not take them far from home, so they can take good care of their children. Women are therefore generally farmers (usually, farming near their homes), fishmongers, market traders of food processors in areas such as smoking and salting. Men, who are traditionally considered stronger, more courageous and wiser, engage in economic activities such as fishing, hunting and brewing.

The positive impact of the women who have ventured into certain careers has made the society more able to accept the changing role of the woman in socio-economic development. Participants at the focus group discussion cited examples of successful women and the confidence placed in them. These observations are supported by the research findings conducted on females in traditionally accepted male jobs (Nyanteng, 1996). Nyanteng concluded that the motivation has been the need to survive and support themselves and their families.

Ghanaian women have not only contributed to the well being of the family but also to the production of goods and services for the nation. The potential role of the woman in development has been a matter of concern to women themselves, as well as to the government and non-governmental agencies.

The country has over the past decade seen an influx of donors,' NGOs and development agencies involved in a number of projects, trying to integrate women's concerns in the development processes. This has resulted in the establishment of a number of Women in Development (WID) programs in Education, Health, Agriculture and Rural Development. Notable among these are the National Commission on Women and Development (NCWD), the thirty-first December Women's Movement (31st DWM) the Christian Council of Ghana, World Vision International, the United States of America Peace Corps, DANIDA, CIDA, the World Bank, FAWE, etc. A directory of some agencies working in the area of Women in Development is found in App. 1.

Theses agencies play advocacy roles, direct facilitation, evolve intervention strategies as well as develop projects for the economic empowerment of women

CURRENT TRENDS IN EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN

Studies conducted in the country indicate that most parents, especially in the rural areas, still choose the traditionally accepted female occupations for their daughters (Fiano et-al. 1994; Sutherland et. al, 1995, FEMSA studies 1996); and a good number of students still aspire to female jobs (STME, Reports 1987-1996, GES). The second Social Survey of all regions (except one) of Ghana indicated the career preference by parents for their daughters is in a descending order of: Nursing, Teaching, Medicine, Medical sciences. Accountancy and Management, Business/Commercial, Secretarial, Legal Agriculture, Politics, Paramedic, Petty Trading, Priesthood, Engineering and Science.

The actual distribution of men and women in the labour market is shown (Appen II). These figures seem to agree with traditional norms. However, in his 1996, study, Nyanteng discovered that economic circumstances in the country are modifying gender assigned roles both at home and in the labour market. Incidentally, women are limited due to inadequate educational qualification and skills. Other factors such as early marriages and teenage pregnancy also deprive them of opportunities to enter and survive in the restricted labour market. The informal sector has become an important source of employment for women in the country. Most young girls and women are therefore involved in small scale petty trading, cottage industry and traditional trade like dressmaking and catering. The study also indicated that increasing number of girls and women were entering non-traditional technical trades. At least thirty such vocations were identified in the survey. The main concentration is in Auto Industry, absorbing 53%. About 31% are in Auto Spray, 8 % in Auto Mechanics and 5% in Auto Electrical and upholstery. Other areas are Carpentry 4.3%, Plumbing 3.8%, Welding 3.8%, Weaving 3.3%, Tailoring, 3.3%, Painting/Decoration 3.3%.

The new educational reform is giving good exposure to students at Junior Secondary School (JSS) level and has become an important exit for apprenticeship training. This is also providing good opportunities for girls. Under the National Technical and Vocational Educational Training (NACVET), special effort is being made to introduce girls and women to emerging fields in science and technology such as Informatics, generic engineering, biotechnology and computer technology. The Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) Clinic for girls are now aspiring to career areas originally known to be occupied by men. Evaluation made at this year's STME Clinic for girls showed a percentage increase, of 75% of girls wanting to venture into fields of science and technology at the end of the program (STME Evaluation 1996).

CURRENT TRENDS IN THE PARTICIPATION OF GIRLS IN SCIENCE SUBJECTS AT SCHOOL

By 1987, girls constituted only 11% and 5% of females studying Science and Mathematics, respectively, at the final levels in secondary school (Andam, 1988). In 1992, girls made up 23% of total enrolment of student in science in Senior Secondary School (SSS) level, 13% at Lower six, 15% at Upper six. From the 1992-1993 participation rate of girls in programme offered at SSS level (National and Regional, Appendix III), it can be inferred that technical subjects are least preferred by girls (2.4%). Girls' participation rate in Agriculture is 19.2, and Science is 22.3%. In educationally more endowed regions, the statistics show that girls enrol the least in technical programmes. (App. III).

At the tertiary level, three out of seven Polytechnic institutions have women studying Engineering. In 1994, Applied Science and Mathematics departments of the Kumasi Polytechnic had a ratio of 6:34 females to males 4:8 in Accra, 3:10 in Tamale and 1:21 in Ho. In the same year 1994, women constituted 5.8% in science related departments in the University of Ghana (UG), 11.5% in the University of Science and Technology (UST), 4. 7% in the University of Cape Coast (UCC) and 7.5% at the University College of Education, Winneba (UCEW).

On the average, the actual figures show slight increase in the enrolment over the years. There are. however, slight fluctuations in some of the institutions in the last two years (UCC and UG); UST. however, shows consistent increase in the intake of women in the Engineering Department, from 0.4% in 1989 to 1.3% in 1993/1994 academic year, a percentage increase of 76.5%. This, however, is unfortunately at the cost of a percentage reduction of 17.3% in the Science Department in UST.

The general picture nationally is that more students-both boys and girls are avoiding the study of science at the secondary school level but that the enrolment of girls in science is going up, though at a very slow pace. Some have attributed current improvement of choice of girls in science to the positive impact of the STME Clinic and of role models like Professor Marian Addy who has been appearing regularly on Ghana Television (GTV). There is, however, no empirical evidence to prove this point.

CURRENT TRENDS IN ENROLMENT OF GIRLS AND WOMEN ON TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

There are about 1000 Vocational Institutions in Ghana. About 900 are privately owned. Only 68 are under the Ghana Education Services. Nyanteng in his National Survey discovered 57 government. 19 private and 3 NGO owned Technical and Vocational Institutions where women were studying non-traditional vocations.

In the technical and vocational education system, measures instituted in the Africa Region have proved successful as in all cases the number of women intake has more than doubled (App. IV).

Under the Commonwealth Association of Polytechnic in Africa Program (CAPA), Accra and Takoradi Polytechnic have created programs aimed at:

a. Sensitizing Heads and Senior Women lecturers in polytechnic about constraints on women preventing them from getting enrolled;

b. Developing Modules for leadership roles;

c. Preparing women for leadership roles;

d. Achieving Gender Participation so that males will also take their share of responsibilities.

A Female Senior Secondary School was identified in Takoradi where the advocacy program will begin.

With support of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Technical Institutions launched a pilot advocacy program for attracting females into non-traditional trades. The main features of the programme are as following:

1. Liaising with JSS students and forming clubs which undertake excursions to explore facilities at the technical institutions.

2. Giving talk to Parent-Teacher Associations

3. Mounting workshops to sensitize technical and polytechnic teachers.

4. Providing support systems at the institutions for enrolled females in the form of toilets and changing rooms as well as guidance and counselling services.

5. Mounting week-end remedial classes in Mathematics, Science and English

6. Giving out incentives such as fee-free special classes and tools.

7. Media advocacy through write-ups in new papers.

8. Sending students from technical and vocational institutions to STME Clinic for girls.

9. Using graduates of technical schools as role models at STME Clinics and other functions.

These initiatives have helped increase the female enrolment in the technical schools.

FACTORS (BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE) DETERMINING THE ORIENTATION OF GIRLS TOWARDS SCIENCE EDUCATION AND TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

A. Economic (trends in economic development)

Ghana has achieved an average annual increase in its GDP of 5% since 1983 and has reversed the economic decline of the previous decade with the present per capita GDP of US $ 379 (Ghana's vision 2020 - the first step 1996-2000, 1995). In 1995 one-third of the population lived below the national poverty line and the population growth rate was just above 3% per annum. The poor constituted 36% of all households and 43% in rural households. Ghanaian spend 67% of their income on food. Like many developing countries, Ghanaian women make up the greater percentage of the poor in society.

Although Agriculture, where women are mostly found, has traditionally been the dominant sector in the economy, there has been a steady decline over the past five years. This is at variance with the government stated policy on Medium Term Agricultural Development Program (MTADP) of 1990 to achieve food security.

Everything being equal, parents will still send their sons to school rather than their daughters, when money is scarce. Many parents and some girls do not see much prospect in white-collar-jobs which are offered to the girls at the end of their long years in school. They see more results in their daughters being engaged in trading and other “ female jobs “ like dressmaking, hair dressing and catering. However, as cited earlier, Nyanteng observed that the changing roles of women, (especially being single mothers and heads of the home), poverty and economic pressures have forced some women to venture into jobs believed to be the domain of men. Most of the women in the survey (67.8%) entered these vocations without parental influence, yet 94.2% of them would encourage their daughters to pursue the non traditional women vocations.

B. Sociological (cultural, religions, etc, including social attitudes towards science, technology/vocational education

From several attitudinal studies in the country, science is perceived by the girls themselves, their parents and the society as so difficult, physically and mentally demanding that even when girls pursue them they give up on the way (Quaisie, 1993, Sutherland-Addy 1995; STME Clinic, 1995 FEMSA 1996). Our documentary video on STME Clinic brings this out vividly. Some of the girls who attended the clinic were interviewed to find out the impact of the program. (IV)

Over the years technical education has been seen as less dignifying and vocational education only suitable for drop-outs from school and children of low income groups (Quaisie, 1993). In Ghana, the trend has been that any boy whose parents are poor or fails to gain admission to traditional secondary schools because of poor grades gets enrolled in a technical school. Such a girl, however, gets enrolled in “ vocational “ school. There is even a wrong perception of technical and vocation. Technical training is used when referring to girls. Quaisie (1993), believes that when introducing these subjects to students at JSS level, the teacher should take the time to explain them so students can have an appreciation of the study of technical and vocational skills at these levels.

FEMSA studies indicate that “even” though there has been much awareness campaign for girls' education, traditional attitudes still persist and work against any far reaching changes in the status quo”. (FEMSA Progress Report, Dec, 1996).

It was revealed that some parents-both literate and illiterate-believe that Science and Mathematics are difficult and therefore girls cannot study them. They encourage them to study Arts or Business subjects. Other reasons advanced were:

- inability to find husband
- inability to give birth
- science and mathematics are male domain
- girls in science will not be submissive in marriage

C. Technological (related to the changes in the world of work)

Like any other traditional society, the priority of the mother is to get the girl child well groomed for marriage. Training at home includes the proper use of traditional tools such as the use of the grinding stone, the mortar and pestle, etc. Despite of the introduction of electrical gadgets due to modern technology, some of these traditional attitudes still remains. There are some wrong notions such as these:

- the blender does not grind very smoothly
- the washing machine does not make the articles clean
- the toothbrush will not clean very well
- water from the fridge does not taste nice. The traditional earthen pot which is smoked offer a better taste and smell to the water
- the introduction of the fufu machine was an outright failure.

Even though some of these attitudes still persist, a cursory survey indicated that a good number of girls (in boarding schools and University campuses) and women use modern household gadgets and machines at home and in their places of work. The reason has been convenience and time and in their places of work. There is, however, a need to study further the change in attitudes towards the use of modern machines. Most women also find technology expensive. Some husbands have an attitude that discourages their wives from touching some modern equipment due to fear that the wife may damage them. Some women also keep their modern gadgets in safe places where children and especially maids in the house will not have frequent access to, for fear of damage. The same attitudes are observed with teachers. Science equipment and technical tools supplied to schools at the onset on new educational reforms were found hidden in the headteacher's office well sealed in cupboards or under his bed at home.

In all cases suffer limitations, as traditionally it is a taboo for girls to handle “men's tools”.

A cursory look at Accra and most big towns and cities today shows an upspring of hotels, communication centers and computer firms. These have brought modern technology to the door step of the ordinary Ghanaian. Many girls and women work in these social services departments. Indications are that there will be more job openings for girls and women in the field of science and technology.

D. Employment related (Employability, labour market structure, wages)

It is generally an accepted fact that Ghanaian women as workers have equal rights as men. In the government establishments, men and women of the same rank have always earned the same salaries. Ghana ratified the International Labour Organization (ILO) Equal Remuneration Convention in 1951. Legislation dealing with the legal status of women includes the statutes requiring industrial and commercial employees. However, a study carried out by the NCWD on the conditions of women workers with respect to maternity protection and medical facilities in the collective agreements of the major private and quasi-government establishments found that only 44.7% of the agreement were consistent with the Standards of Labour Law in Ghana (Oppong and Abu, 1987). This was also confirmed at a workshop on NTV held at Aburi in March 1996. At that workshop it was observed that there was a disparity in salary structure in private sectors.

Most women in Ghana are engaged in small-scale, low-productivity and low-income generating activities, all of which used to have little benefit from government loan schemes (Ewusi, 1982).

By 1997, it was established that only 6.4% of members of national-boards and national local councils were women (Ameyaw, 1977, as in Oppong et. al) {This is in contrast to the parallel and complementary roles of females in traditional society} and 6% of senior civil service posts were held by women. These women were mainly in the lower administrative sectors. Relatively more recent figures show that women now form 25% and 34% and junior civil servant positions, respectively. (Sutherland-Addy & Co., 1995).

Data from employment centers indicate that employments practice favours men rather than women. Some labour laws have not proved favourable to women. At the Aburi workshop on female in non-traditional vocations (March 1996) a case which was brought up was a situation in which a woman could not be employed in an industry because the labour law does not allow women to work on night duties in industries. At the same workshop a participant from the labour department brought out a document on labour laws which had it clearly stated that “No person shall employ a female in night work”. {Labour decree, 1977, NLCD 157, Paragraph 41 (1). Participants argued that women should be left to make their own decisions on job preferences.

Another factor identified which adversely affects women in the labour market was sexual harassment, especially from male employers, trainers and counterparts. In an interview with an official at the Regional Maritime Academy in Accra, it was brought to light that a girl who performed brilliantly at a selection interview would not be taken because “ She will have to stage on sea for long days with men and they could sexually harass her “. Participants also cited inequalities in promotion and exposure opportunities as important contributing factors affecting women in the labour market.

Participants were also concerned about the fact that both male and female employers do not have confidence in women - they show neither understanding nor support for them due to the fact that women are more frequently absent from work and because of major events like pregnancy, which tend to reduce productivity.

E. Educational (in general education, science education and technical/vocational education

Being basically an agricultural country, until quite recently, Ghana has not seen much growth in its industries for many years. Antwi has identified the slow pace of the industrial growth as one of the factors accounting for negative attitudes of students (both boys and girls) towards the educational system in the country. This equally affects their orientation towards science and technology education.

Education has long been viewed as unimportant, particularly for girls, who eventually get married. Among the northern people of Ghana and in predominantly Moslem communities, the bridal price, which is the prerogative of the father, is an important determining factor. Most girls are withdrawn from school for early marriage. This is partly due to the fear of losing the bridal price due to teen age pregnancy. Enrolment of girls in school in these areas is particularly low. Scholarship for girls, instituted by the USAID in four such districts in the form of provision of school uniform and stationery amounting to 12,000.00 (twelve thousand cedis) or a little below $ 8.00 (eight US dollars) improved the enrollment of girls. (MOE)

In southern Ghana, the idea of trading, especially in the market, as lucrative venture is still prevalent among the people. The large number of people engaged in trading in the country (buying and selling) has a very strong appeal for the younger generation. It is considered that women in particular do not need much education to do well in trading. These ideas still contribute subsequentially to disparities among boys and girls in school. Even though the trend has improved in recent years, it is still believed basic education is enough for women to survive in the trading business. This may be contributing to the larger gap one finds at higher levels of education.

Government policies and laws have not discriminated against girls and boys and yet disparities in educational participation of girls and boys have persisted over the years. The impact of programs directed at this problem is yet to be realized. The issue of equity, quality, access and relevance which will contribute to effective solution of the problem remain unresolved. The gender gap widens from Primary through Junior Secondary School, Secondary to Tertiary Education. Available statistics indicate that, in the 1994/1995 academic year, females constituted forty-six per cent (46%), forty three per cent (43%), thirty five (35%), and twenty-five per cent (25%) at Primary, J.S.S., S.S.S. and Tertiary levels of education, respectively.

Enrolment, retention, transition and achievement rates for girls are always lower than for boys. Fewer girls than boys are enrolled in Primary one each year, yet more girls drop out. Fewer girls continue to higher levels and comparatively fewer still achieve higher grades during their final examinations.

In 1994/95, the national Gross Admission Rate (gar) for boys was 84,56% and only 71.4% for girls. Attribution rates of a 1000 girls admitted into Primary One (PI) in 1986/87 academic year, 670 and 530 reached P6 and JSS 3 in 1991/92 and 1994/95 respectively. The corresponding figures for boys at the same period were 755 and 634. Regarding transition rates from J.S.S 3 to S.S.S 1, the corresponding figures for girls, was only 32,8%.

In recent times, a number of interventions and practices have been put in place to ensure that the girl child goes to school, in order to pursue careers out of good, intelligently guided choice. A fuller incentive package reached through the affirmative actions was developed by the NCWD for Cabinet after the return from Beijing.

The National Plan of Action on Girls' Education launched in June 1995 (MOE, 1995) is yet to take off. In his end of year address to the staff of the Ghana Education Service, the Honourable Minister for Education promised that the coming year would see much action in science Education and the improvement in the status of girls' education.

Every day in the National newspapers, there is some job vacancy advertisement in the area of Business Management, Administration and Accounting. It is believed that this account for the decline in enrolment of students in science and technologically related subjects in schools. In certain cases both parents and students believe that there are not many prospects in science related jobs, especially for girls.

The introduction of the New Educational Reforms in 1987, (MOS, 1987) brought about much focus on providing equal opportunities for girls in science, technical and vocational education at basic education levels. Both boys and girls study the same subjects irrespective of their sexes (MOE, 1990). The equity improvement program (MOE, 1993) has offered girls the opportunity to increase their level of participation in education. However, disparities still exist in enrolment and particularly performance in national examinations.

Enrolment in Business and Administration has gone up. For the 1992/93 academic year; national participation rates of girls in programs offered by SSS were as follows:

Home Economics

80.7%

Business

39.7%

General Arts

29.7%

Visual Arts

29.0%

Science

22.3%

Agriculture

19.2%

Technical

02.4%

At the University levels figures were as follows:

Humanities

18.4% in 1992/93 and 19.9% in 1993/94

Science

5.8% in 1992/93 and 5.6% in 1993/94

The government quota system in the Universities is now 40:60 Arts and Humanities to Science. There are still further provisions made at the universities and polytechnic for increase in enrolment of women. However, within the years 1995 and 1996, there was some progress in Building, Manufacturing, Hotel Industries and Computer Technology. It is expected that this will create an appreciation for science and technology related jobs. Salaries are already quite good and several young people are going into the computer market.

CONCLUSION

It is therefore evident that much effort has been invested in promoting girls' participation in science, technical and vocational education. The country has also recorded some encouraging results from the initial investment.

However the full impact of the policies, measures and strategies adopted so far are yet to be realized. Besides, traditional and societal restrictions on the girl-child are still strong factors to contend with.

Nevertheless, with adequate support and resources from both the Government and Private Sector, Ghana is capable of achieving her ultimate goal.

ANNEX I
Interagency Dialogue on women in development - Ghana on 22/11/95 at FAO-RAF, Accra.

Agency/Organization

Type of Work

Target Group

Collaborators

Brief Description

1 S.N.V. Netherlands Development Organization

Integrated

(Urban Poor) Women. Youth unemployed. Street Children

S.T.M.A., Department of Social Welfare, CEDEP, Response

Sustainable Improvement of the living conditions of the urban poor

2 World Health Organization (WHO

Health

Women

Nutrition Division of MOH, Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Authority, Sale Motherhood International

Promoting health through Women's functional literacy and inter-sectorial action

3 Japan International Co-operation (J.I.C.A)

Integrated

Girls and Women

Women Training Institution. Vocational Institution National Technical and Vocational Institute

Training of girls to acquire skills to he self reliant

4 P.N.U.D. Programme des Nations-Unies pour le Développement

Holistic and Integrated

National Priorities

Several - Netherlands Embassy, UNFPA, FAO, etc..

Assist activities linked to National Development goals and co-ordinate UN Development assistance. Goals - Poverty éradication-job creation, Sustainable livehood advancement of women, Environmental Management

5 United Nations Fund for Population (F.N.U.A.P)

Population and Family Life

Women. Youth

N C W D. PAMSCAD. MOE. MOH. 31st December Market Women

Addresses reproductive health issue as at affects women, the disadvantaged, and underprivileged communities

6 Save the Children Fund

Social Work Transportation and Health

Government Officials

Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare, Ministry of Health, NGO's, District Assemblies

Organizations of workshops with different WID Agencies

7 British Council

Integrated

Officials of WID

Ghana Institute of Journalism, UNIWA, WILDAF, CUSO, CENSUDI

Promotion of female apprenticeship in traditional male trades

8 British Volunteer Services Overseas

Mainly Education Integrated

Girls. Women and Youth

MOE. District Development Programme. MOH

Committed to developping opportunities for the women and enhancing women skills

9 Ghana Regional Appropriate Technical Institute

Technology

Women

Intermediate Technology Transfer (ITTU), Aid to” Artisans, Ghana (ATAG) UNDP, ILO, GTZ, 31st DWM, CRS, Nkulenu Industries

Apprentice Training, Agro-Processiong, Textiles. Bookeeping, Entrepreneurial Development and instutional collaboration in technology diffusion

10 U.S.A.I.D USA Agency for International Development

Major areas. Non traditional export, reproductive heath. Primary education

Both sexes

NCWD. NGOs, MOE

The new Gender and Development (AGAD) approach aimed at achieving increased participation with enhanced opportunities and benefits for women and disadvantaged groups

11 German development Service D.E.D.

Education and business promotion

Young Girls and Women

NBSSI, VOLU, LHL, GHACOE, CEDEP

Promotion of female apprenticeship in traditional male trades

12 Data Bank financial Service Service LTD)

Economic Empowerment

Women

Ghanaian Women Entrepreneurs

Advisory and financial support for development of the Hotel project - Hotel Cultural Village in the Volta Region

13 Konrad Adenauer Foundation

Educational Social and economic

Women's Groups

Christian Mothers Association, Asamankese Women's Vocational Training Center

Assistance in institutional Buildings and leadership training programme and providing vocation to girl drop-outs

14 United Slates Peace Corps

educational Health Environment, Business and Youth Development

Jeunes files et femmes

MOE, MOH. Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation ONG

Provide technical supper through volunteer service in leaching mathematics and science. Visual Art. Technical subjects, using practical hand-on demonstrations with locally available materials. Buildd Kilns, work in Health clinics, environmental Clubs, sex education, afforestation, water and sanitation

15 National Council on Women $ Development(NCWD)

Integrated, Co-ordinating activities of women's group

Women's Groups

Many women's groups. government house, National and International organizations

Serve as the national official body for co-operating and liaising with national and international organizations on matters relating to the status of women and advising the government on all matters relating to full integration of women in national development at all levels

ANNEX II

Table 1: -Ghanaian Women in Selected Occupations - 1984

Occupational Groups

Employed males
& Female

Percentaje
of Total

Female Participation
Rate

1

2

3

4

Professional. Technical and related workers

221.704

4.09

35.68

Administrative and Managerial Workers

16.246

0.30

8.85

Clerical and related Workers

127.575

2.35

29.81

Sales Workers

750.179

13.84

88.97

Service Workers

130.736

2.4147.32

34.74

Agriculture Animal Husbandry

3.288.808

60.65

47.32

Production and related Workers, Transport equipment, Labourers

887.232

16.36

44.84

All Occupations

5 422 480

100

51.37

Sources: Government of Ghana, 1984 Population Census of Ghana, Advanced Report. Census Office, 1987, pgs 46-53.

Table 2: Women Participation in Politics

Level of Participation

1980

1985

1990

1994


T

F

F

T

F

F

T

F

F

T

F

F

Government

17

1

6

16

1

6

16

0

0

19

2

11

Council of Slate

15

1

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

24

4

17

Minister of State

26

1

4

29

1

6

29

0

0

35

3

9

Deputy Minister

24

1

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

45

5

1 1

Member of Parliament

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

200

16

8

Members, District Assembly

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6448

486

8

Chief Directors

-

-

-

-

-

-


-

-

16

1

6

Source: Ministry of Information and local Government

Table 3: Women in District Assemblies by Region, 1990-94

Region

Number of Districts

Total Membership

Female Membership




Number

%

# Elected

%

All Region

110

6448

486

8

152

31

Western

11

641

41

7

16

17

Central

12

548

48

7

17

36

Greater Accra

5

342

24

7

5

21

Eastern

15

990

65

7

24

37

Volta

12

742

67

9

18

27

Ashanti

13

822

56

7

14

25

Brong Ahafo

13

822

62

8

19

11

Northern

13

770

57

7

9

16

Upper East

6

388

27

7

4

15

Upper West

5

283

17

6

6

16

Source:

Table 4: Women in Public Bodies

Public Body

Total

Women

% women

Total

2.423

246

9

Government Administration

1.416

190

13

Managing Directors

715

42

6

Legislative Bodies

236

11

5

Others bodies

56

3

6

Source: PANDIT. N.N et al. Second report for Economic and Manpower Requirement for Economic Development of Ghana, 1989.

Table 5: Women in Selected Professions

Profession

Total

Female

% Female

Chartered Accountants

656

8

1

Doctors

588

102

17

Pharmacists

1030

168

16

Dental Surgeons

*34

11

32

Engineers

1373

11

1

Journalists

480

89

19

Source: Secretariat to the Professional Bodies and Ministry of Health, Doctors and Surgeons under Ministry of Health

Table 6: Women in the Civil Service by category

Category

1990

1992

1993


TOT.

FEM.

%FEM

TOT.

FEM.

%FEM

TOT.

FEM.

%FEM

Total Civil Servants

86.730

28.455

33

76.797

25.330

33

80.209

26.001

32

Dis/Metro Servants

-

-


-

-

-

17.342

4.135

24

Directors

-

-


-

-

-

66

6

9

Senior Civil Servants

-

-


9.301

2.486

27

9.911

2.474

25

Junior Civil Servants

-

-


67.496

22.844

34

70.287

23.527

33

Source: Office of the Head of Civil service, 1994; Excludes data from two departments

Table 7: Female Representation on the Executive Board & National Executive Councils (NEC of the GTUC)

GTUC/National Unions

EB/NEC

# of Fem. Reps 1990

Total Rep.

Total Repre.
Feb. 94

% Females




H

E



1. Ghana Trade Union Congress

ExBoard

0

66

4

70

4.2

2. General Agric Workers' Union

NEC

11

44

6

50

12.0

3. Public Service Workers Union

NEC

5

46

16

62

25.8

4. Health Services Workers Union

NEC

1

18

3

21

14.0

5. Teachers $ Educ. Wks Union

NEC

1

36

4

40

10.0

6. Timber $ Wood Workers Union

NEC

3

10

3

13

23.0

7. Local Government Wks Union

NEC

1

33

2

35

5.7

8. Maritime $ Dockworkers

NEC

0

31

6

37

16.2

9. Ind. $ Commercial Workers Union

NEC

4

55

9

64

14.0

10. Communication Workers Union

NEC

9

13

3

16

18.0

11. Const. $ Building Workers Union

NEC

4

35

1

36

2.8

12. Ghana Mineworkers Union

NEC

1

38

0

38

-

13. Public Utility Worker's Union

NEC

0

48

0

48

-

14. Gen. Tran. Petro & chem Wk.U

-

0

32

2

34

5.9

15. Railway & Ports Workers' Union

-

-

*

*

*

*

16. National Union of Seamen

-

0

31

1

32

3.1

17. Railway Enginemen Workers 'U.

-

0

-

-

*1

-

18. Ghana Private Road Tran Union

-

0

40

0

40

-

TOTAL

-

40

578

60

636

9.49%

Data Definition


*:-unavailable

*I: Solely Male Membership

F:- Female

Ex Board - Executive Board

M:- Male

ExBoard: Executive Board

Table 8: Female participation in Science Teaching/Research at UCC.

Areas of Specialization

Total No. of staff

Total No. of female

%

Highest Status of Women

Home Economy

4

3

75.0

Snr. Eect (2) Lecturer (1)

Science Education

7

1

14,3

Asst. Lect (1)

Health Science

2

1

50.0

Professor

Botany

8

2

25.0

Snr. Lect (1) Lecturer (1)

Zoology

9

I

11.1

Snr. Lect (1)

Agriculture

27

1

3.7

Lecturer (1)

Chemistry

11

0

0


Physics

9

0

0


Mathematics

4

0

0


TOTAL

81

9



Source: Complied from the University of Cape Coast Gazette, vol. 26, No. 39. 1995;S

ANNEXE III

Participation rate of girls in programmes offered by SSS3 Students - National & Regional - 1992/93

SUBJECTS

NAT

ASH/R

B/A

CENTRAL

EASTERN

GEACC

NORTHEN

U/EAST

U/WEST

VOLTA

WESTERN

Agric.

19.2

17.4

24.8

19.8

14.1

14.7

11.8

40.9

19.5

17.6

18.0

Business

39.7

41.1

46.7

43.6

42.3

40.0

26.4

23.9

24.4

44.4

33.0

Technology

2.4

1.7

4.2

0.6

1.3

0.8

1.2

8.2

3.3

5.0

2.0

Vocational

29.0

34.9

22.1

28.3

22.5

36.0

23.2

60.3

20.4

25.4

28

Visual Arts

80.7

79.0

83.5

82.7

84.8

93.5

60.4

64.9

26.5

78.2

86.0

Home Econo.

29.7

24.8

23.9

24.6

35.9

47.8

16.7

40.4

31.7

26.7

30.0

Gen. Arts

22.3

22.0

18.7

25.4

24.6

25.0

6.8

25.4

22.9

21.3

24.0

Sciences

32.3

30.3

30.0

33.2

33.3

88.6

21.5

36.8

32.4

32.0

32.0

Total












Source: PBME. MEN. Accra

ANNEXE IV

Table 1: Percentage student enrolment by gender. Polytechnic and subject

POLYTECHNIC

1989/90

1990/91

1991/92

1992/93

1993/94


G

F

T

G

F

T

G

F

T

G

F

T

G

F

T

KUMASI
















ENGINEERING

14

1.3

15.3

27.9

0.1

28

20.4

0.1

20.5

25.3

0.1

25.4

28.2

2.6

30.8

APP. MATHS (Sc.

3.5

13.4

16.9

0.1

11.2

11.3

0.1

15.8

15.9

16

25.8

41.8

10

16.7

25.7

MGT/BUS.STUDlESce

28.3

39.5

67.8

30.5

30.2

60.7

27.2

36.5

63.6

15.3

17.4

32.8

23.6

18.9

42.5

TOTAL

45.9

54.2

100

58.5

41.5

100

47.7

52.4

100

56.6

43.3

100

61.8

38.2

100

CAPE COAST
















ENGINEERING

-

-

-

11.4

0

11.4

100

0

100

16

0

16

29.7

0.4

10.1

APP. MATHS (Sc.

56.3

43.7

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

MGT/BUS.STUDIESce

-

-

-

44.3

44.3

88.6

0

0

0

45.1

39.9

84

34.1

35.9

69.9

TOTAL

56.3

43.7

100

55.8

44.3

100

100

0

0

61.1

39.9

100

63.8

36.3

-

ACCRA
















ENGINEERING

31.7

0.1

31.8

47

0 1

47.1

45

2.6

45.6

32.5

0.6

32.9

39.3

0

39.3

APP. MATHS (Sc.

20.7

24

44.7

15.6

1.3

28.6

-

22.4

32.9

28.1

16.6

44.7

1.8

12.8

14.6

MGT/BUS.STUDIESce

15.3

6.2

23.5

6.8

7.5

24.3

-

15.4

22.5

6.1

16.3

22.4

24.3

21.8

46.1

TOTAL

67.7

32.3

100

69.4

30.6

100

-

29.4


66.7

33.1

100

65.4

34.6


TAMALE
















ENGINEERING

31

3.6

24.6

95

-

100

-

-

220

95.9

4.1

100




APP. MATHS (Sc.


-

15,4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-




MGT/BUS.STUDIESce


-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-




TOTAL

-

3.6

100

95

32.5

100

-

-

-

95.9

4.1

100




Table 2: Percent student enrolment by Faculty and gender (all students) - UG -1989-90 et 1993-94

FACULTY

1989/90

1990/91

1991/92

1992/93

1993/94


G

F

T

G

F

T

G

F

T

G

F

T

G

F

T

BASE: SCIENCES










8.7

1.8

10.5

9

1.8

108

SCIENCES










7.7

2.4

10.1

5.9

2.1

8

MEDECINE










5.8

1.6

7.4

5.1

1.7

6.8

AGRICULTURE










22.2

5.8

28

20.1

5.6

25.7

1° TOTAL
















Lettres et Sc. Hum.
















ARTS/Sc.SOC,










45.5

16.1

61.6

46.5

17.3

63.8

LAW










0.3

0.5

0.8

0.3

0.5

0.8

ADMINISTRATION










7.8

1.8

9,6

7.6

2.1

9.7

1° TOTAL










53.6

18.4

72

54.4

19.9

74.3

GRAND TOTAL










75,8

24.2

100

74.5

25.5

100

Source: PBME, MOE, ACCRA.