|GATE - 1986/4 - Draught Animal Power (GTZ GATE, 1986, 52 p.)|
Source: International Herald Tribune, April 1983.
Twenty Five Years of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation: An Interim Stocktaking
by Karl Zawadzky
Ten days after he was appointed the first Federal Minister for Economic Cooperation in Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer's last cabinet on 14 November 1961, 25 years ago, Walter Scheel had a ministry with a staff of 34, but no powers. These lay with the Foreign Office, with the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs, and with the Federal Treasury.
In the time up to then, too, there had been a considerable
struggle over the establishment of the new ministry, especially in the case of
Prof. Ludwig Erhard, the Minister for Economic Affairs, who, fearing a loss of
his powers, put up strong resistance. However, in the 1961 Bundestag elections,
the CDU and CSU had lost their absolute majority and now depended on a coalition
with the FDP; Walter Scheel insisted that the Bundesministerium fur
wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit (Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation;
hereafter referred to as the BMZ) be created for him. As a result its first
years were marked less by development aid, where Scheel could only coordinate,
than by quarrels with other departments. In 1964, responsabiIity for Technical
Cooperation was transfered to the BMZ, but it was not until 1972 that Erhard
Eppler secured responsibility for Financial Cooperation.
To date, the BMZ has had more ministers than was good for the continuity of its task. However, each minister left his mark: Walter Scheel stage-managed the organizational structuring of the Ministry and attempted in vain, by means of the Hallstein Doctrine, to prevent recognition of the GDR by Third-World states. Hans-Jurgen Wischnewski tried to link development aid to job creation. Erhard Eppler formulated the first development-political concept, freed development policies from the East-West conflict, and put an end to quarrels about powers of responsibility. Egon Bahr had little success with his idea of three-way cooperation with OPEC countries, but increased aid to the poorest countries, and intensified the North South dialogue. Marie Schlei concerned herself particularly with southern Africa and the role of women in the development process. Rainer Offergeld's main concern was the fulfillment of basic needs. Key words for Jurgen Warnke might one day be: further concentration on aid for the poorest countries, political dialogue, job creation, Central America.
Looking back, one can see not only the effect of fashionable trends, but that these especially affect development policies. Here industrialization was attempted, here large scale agriculture, here support for women. The salutary effect of small projects was emphasized, basic needs were fulfilled, and the damaging influence of elites discussed equally as much as the pointlessness of the whole thing; each in its own period, and sometimes with only limited effect on concrete project work. Nevertheless, the achievements, not only of a financial nature, are nothing to be ashamed of. The work has not been without result, even if it was often the case here that mistakes had to be made first which then started off painful learning processes. The accusation of harmful or even fatal aid does not hold water.
What can probably be said is that the scope of the task has been underestimated over the years. Above all, the fact that the structures of the world economy and of the international money flow force developing countries into a new dependence was ignored for a long time. Although we can meanwhile look back on 25 years, it is still too early to take stock. An inter) m stocktaking reveals great efforts and admirable commitment in certain public quarters; for example, successes in food production cannot be ignored.
The worldwide economic development and the internal structures of many developing countries, however, have either destroyed a large part of these efforts or not even allowed them to flourish. Seen from this aspect, a carefree "carry on!" is out of place; rather, what is needed is reflection, a quest for the causes of faulty developments, and willingness to take appropriate action.
In its two sections :''Animal Traction " and "Tractor Power
Mechanization" ,the Agricultural Engineering Training Centre (AETC). In Harare
Zimbabwe, runs courses for both extension staff as well as farmers and machinery
operators. When the centre was established it turned out to be relatively
difficult to integrate the two section and their respective courses. However,
difficulties were no more than a true reflection of the situation confronting extension staff and farmers in their dally work.
Le centre technique de formation agricole (Agrlcultural, Engineering Training Centre) de Harare au Zimbabwe offre dans ses départements "Attelage d'animaux" et "Mécanisation de l'attelage", des cours destinés aussi bien aux consultants qu'aux paysans et aux conducteurs d'engins. Lors de la création du centre il s'avéra relativement dlfficile: d'harmoniser les deux départements et les cours correspondants. Ces difficultés traduisaient cependant la situation dans la quelle le centre d'entraînement se trouvait a ses débuts.
El centro de formacíon técnica agrícola (Agricultural Engineering Training Centre)de Harare en Zimbabwe ofrece en sus dos secciones de "Tracción animal" y "Mecanizacion con tractores" cursos para asesores y para campesinos y tractoristas. Durante la fundacion Fidel Centro se comprobó que resultaba difícil incluir ambas secciones respectivos cursos bajo una dirección. No obstante, estas dificultades eran expresión de la situación en la que se encontraba el Centro en sus comienzos.