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close this bookPeople's Participation in Managing Common Pool Natural Resources : Lessons of Success in India (IRMA, 1992, 26 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbstract
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentA theoretical framework
View the documentMethodology
View the documentIndia's experience
View the documentThe Parwara van (forest) panchayat experience
View the documentThe Arabari experiment in joint forest management
View the documentThe Ralegan Siddhi project experience
View the documentThe Sukhomajri project experience
View the documentThe Mohini water co-operative experience
View the documentLessons and directions for future
View the documentAcknowledgement
View the documentReferences

A theoretical framework

There is no universally valid theory of people's participation in development programmes. What we have is a set of propositions stating the conditions under which people participate and do not participate in collective action. Since all development programmes in general and watershed development programmes in particular entail some collective action on the part of their target group, factors affecting collective action are also relevant for people's participation. In other words, determinants of people's participation constitute a bigger set of which determinants of collective action are a subset. We shall use the theoretical approaches to collective action developed by Olson (1971) and Buchanan and Tullock (1965). According to these and other similar frameworks, people will participate in collective action when they are organised in small groups; when the expected private benefits from the collective action exceed the expected private costs of participation; and when rules for preventing free riding and shirking and ensuring equitable sharing of benefits and costs of the collective action exist and are enforced and monitored by the people themselves (Singh, 1991, Ch. 2). In this paper, we seek to generalise and expand this theoretical approach using the case study method of research.