|Adapting Working Hours to Modern Needs (ILO, 1977, 66 p.)|
|VII. PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT|
The scope for the development of part-time employment depends, of course, upon a number of factors, such as current pay, social security and taxation systems and the facilities for vocational training and retraining.
If part-time employment is to be acceptable from a social and economic point of view, however, it must include certain guarantees under the law or collective agreements as regards job security, fair remuneration, weekly hours of work and other generally accepted advantages in employment, including the right to participate in the general life of the enterprise. Specific provision for part-time workers to receive family allowances and health, disability, old-age and unemployment benefits is also needed. Problems arising under social security as regards admission of part-time workers to existing schemes, entitlement to benefit and rate of benefit must be overcome, since it is almost impossible for part-time workers to meet some of the conditions for entitlement (e.g. length of employment and contribution period).1
1 Cf. ILO Committee of Experts on Social Security: "Women and social security in Latin America" (doc. CSSE/D.5, 1975).
There is no doubt that the flexibility provided by part-time work arrangements is attractive in industrial countries where the desire for greater freedom of individual choice is constantly growing. It must be recognised, however, that any increase in part-time employment will mainly depend on population trends, on economic and technological progress which determine the number and nature of the jobs to be filled, on employment policies in regard to the different classes of workers and population groups, and on the degree to which society as a whole accepts the principles of the right to work, job security and full participation in all spheres of life, both public and private, without discrimination of any kind.