|Prospects - Quarterly Review of Education, Vol. 04, No. 2, 1974 (Issue 10) - International aid for educational development (UNESCO, 1974, 164 p.)|
|Notes and reviews|
The Ford Foundation
Educational researchers and planners in less-developed countries perform a variety of functions. They prepare the education sector of national development plans, make studies of educational costs, analyse student performance, and assess ways to improve curriculum. A major objective of Ford Foundation assistance abroad is to strengthen these capacities in ministries of education and other bodies concerned with educational development. Among recent actions for this purpose:
A $324,000 two-year foundation-managed project for continued advisory and training assistance to the Educational Planning and Research Division of the Malaysia Ministry of Education. With the assistance of three foundation advisers, the division over the last two years established a data bank of enrolments, teachers, facilities and finance, and developed a comprehensive educational plan for the Pahang Tenggara area, focus of Malaysia's largest regional development programme. In a report on school dropouts, the unit found that school leaving is closely related to poverty, that educational finance is weighted in favour of the well-to-do, and that university graduates earn eight times as much, and secondary-school graduates four times as much, as persons with only primary schooling. It recommended more spending for primary education, compensatory education, and consolidation of small rural schools.
A $335,000 two-year grant to the Government of Indonesia for experimental projects in educational planning and management in West Sumatra and East Java. The decision to emphasize provincial planning coincides with the government's intention to spread more equally the benefits of economic progress. Earlier the foundation bad aided Indonesia's first comprehensive survey of the educational system; the new funds will support training of Indonesians in planning and research techniques.
A $90,000 three-year supplement for staff development and consultants for the Fund for Assistance to Private Education, a trust fund (derived from United States war damage payments) which aids the development of Philippine private education. Under a contract from the government, the fund is developing a national qualifying examination for entrance to colleges and universities. It also supports projects in accreditation, guidance and counselling, curriculum development, and national planning.
Worker participation in management has become increasingly popular in some Third World countries. In Peru, reforms of private and public enterprises give workers a say and a share of profits and ownership in industry, fishing, mining and telecommunications. The changes extend to farming, where production co-operatives, 'agricultural societies of social interest', and soon-to-be-launched 'enterprises of the social property sector' are giving workers a greater stake in agricultural enterprises.
To complete a study of various forms of worker participation in Peruvian firms, the foundation has granted $70,000 to the Graduate School of Business Administration in Lima. The grant will also support the preparation of teaching materials for courses focusing on management problems in the 'reformed' sectors and visits by the school's professors to Yugoslavia and other Eastern European countries to study developments in worker management, financial and accounting control, and planning for economic development.
Grants have also been given to the following:
Brazilian social science research training, $370,000 two-year foundation-managed project, for fellowships and research projects in the social sciences in Brazil.
Brazilian Society for Instruction, $62,000 two-year supplement, for social science research and master's degree programmes at the society's University Institute of Research.
Center for Educational Research and Development (Chile), $80,500 over two years, for development of research on education, including support for staff training, research expenses, and overseas doctoral fellowships.
Central American Institute of Administration of Enterprises (Nicaragua), $75,000 over two years, for partial support of the institute, which is a graduate school of business administration. Income from Nicaraguan sources was lost as a result of the 1972 earthquake in Managua.
Educational Planning and Research Division (Ministry of Education, Malaysia), $4,570 over three months, for calculating and library equipment for the Ministry of Education.
Graduate training in West Africa, $116,000 one-year foundation-managed project, for continued support of fellowships in agriculture, population, development planning and management, economic planning and education. National Council of Peruvian University, $75,000 two-year supplement, for seminars and training abroad of council staff in educational planning and development. The council is responsible for planning and co-ordination of the development of Peru's university system.
Population research in Turkey, $56,500 two-year foundation-managed project, for a national demographic data system, research awards on demographic and social science aspects of population in Turkey, and a workshop on migration and employment.
The Bernard van Leer Foundation
The Bernard van Leer Foundation is sponsoring a pilot English course in the Windward Islands. During the school year 1973/74 each of the Windward Islands (St Maarten, Saba and St Eustatius) has a first-grade pilot class working in English. New project materials have been prepared for use in these classes. A new curriculum has been designed and a new approach to the learning tasks these children will undertake is being introduced gradually. This new programme aims to involve teachers as directly as possible in helping to create classroom situations in which children will be able to initiate activities out of their own interests. This is no more than the recognition of the fact that the teacher is the keystone in the educational process and that materials and methods can do little on their own. The design of the new programme has taken into account the need to avoid applying imported practices but rather to discover how educational theories can be translated into terms that attempt to solve the problems of these islands. To impose English or Dutch solutions on these island classrooms would be illogical and irrelevant.
The first few months are deliberately oriented to helping these children as pupils to learn a new role and to taste success in their undertakings. The curriculum will enable teachers to extend children's notions of what school is for and to introduce them to a gradually expanding discourse.
The second clear point follows from what is known about the poor motivation to learn that results from assuming that each classroom consists of a homogeneous group; from the resulting class teaching and rote learning. The differences in ability and talent which exist in all groups of children will be looked for and the work of the classroom will be organized to enable these differences to be accepted as natural and inevitable. Thirdly, the project materials already prepared and those which are being planned will swing things over from teaching - from the giving of instruction - to learning to the absorption of ways in which principles are seen to apply; will try to encourage verbal involvement of the pupils; and to provide materials of a high visual quality and highly relevant to the culture and the environment of the children.
The Canadian International Development Agency
The Canadian International Development Agency announces more than thirty students are taking advanced courses at the Asian Institute of Technology's Bangkok campus this year. The funds - U.S. $101,066 from the Government of Canada and $Can.37,565 from British Columbia - will enable students from eight countries throughout Asia to work towards the regional institution's M.Eng. programme or obtain a graduate diploma.
The German Foundation for Developing Countries
The German Foundation for Developing Countries (DSE) established 1959 by the parliamentary groups of the German Federal Parliament in collaboration with the German Federal Government, is an integral part of the development aid programme of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its work is financed by funds of the federal government and financial contributions from various federal Länder.
Education and Science Branch. The Education and Science Branch of the German Foundation for Developing Countries co-operated in the elaboration of the development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany in the field of education and science, as delineated in the Educational and Scientific Aid Programme, adopted in 1971, which is to serve the Federal Republic as a guideline for its activities in the field of education and science.
Main emphasis will be given in 1973 to the dialogue with education and science specialists from developing countries. Of the six events scheduled, five will be devoted to this purpose. They will be organized as international expert meetings of two weeks' duration and in principle will be prepared and conducted in co-operation with partner institutions in developing countries. Priority will again be given to basic problems of educational reform, the development and production of teaching materials, educational technology, further training via universities, and functional literacy.
In addition to the seminars and conferences, the branch will carry through a number of training courses and study tours for experts from developing countries. Outgoing German experts will be briefed on problems of educational and scientific assistance.
The branch maintains documentation on problems of education and science within the development process and undertakes regular updating and evaluation. This documentation is placed at the disposal of competent agencies in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The World Council of Comparative Education Societies
The World Council of Comparative Education Societies publishes an international newsletter, through which it tries to establish a relationship between persons devoted to comparative education and to put them in contact with each other.
The newsletter contains news from the World Council of Comparative Education Societies; national and regional comparative education societies; the International Bureau of Education; seminars of special interest to comparatists; and book reviews.
The World Council's newsletter is sent on request addressed to the Secretary General of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies, Palais Wilson, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland).