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close this bookGuide to the Development of On-site Sanitation (WHO, 1992, 245 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentPreface
Open this folder and view contentsPart I - Foundations of sanitary practice
Open this folder and view contentsPart II - Detailed design, construction, operation and maintenance
Open this folder and view contentsPart III - Planning and development of on-site sanitation projects
View the documentReferences
View the documentSelected further reading
View the documentGlossary of terms used in this book
View the documentANNEX 1 - Reuse of excrete
View the documentANNEX 2 - Sullage
View the documentANNEX 3 - Reviewers


The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations with primary responsibility for international health matters and public health, Through this organization, which was created in 1948, the health professions of some 170 countries exchange their knowledge and experience with the aim of making possible the attainment by all citizens of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life.

By means of direct technical cooperation with its Member States, and by stimulating such cooperation among them, WHO promotes the development of comprehensive health services, the prevention and control of diseases' the improvement of environmental conditions, the development of human resources for health, the coordination and development of biomedical and health services research, and the planning and implementation of health programmes.

These broad fields of endeavour encompass a wide variety of activities, such as developing systems of primary health care that reach the whole population of Member countries; promoting the health of mothers and children; combating malnutrition; controlling malaria and other communicable diseases including tuberculosis and leprosy; coordinating the global strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS; having achieved the eradication of smallpox, promoting mass immunization against a number of other preventable diseases; improving mental health; providing safe water supplies; and training health personnel of all categories.

Progress towards better health throughout the world also demands international cooperation in such matters as establishing international standards for biological substances, pesticides and pharmaceuticals: formulating environmental health criteria; recommending international nonproprietary names for drugs; administering the International Health Regulations; revising the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems; and collecting and disseminating health statistical information.

Reflecting the concerns and priorities of the Organization and its Member States, WHO publications provide authoritative information and guidance aimed at promoting and protecting health and preventing and controlling disease.

WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Franceys R

A guide to the development of on-site sanitation R Franceys,
J Pickford & R Reed

1 Sanilation
2 Toilet facilities
3 Waste disposal, Fluid
- methods I Pickford, J 11 Reed, R IlI.Title

ISBN 92 4 154443 0
(NLM Classification WA 778)

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Publications of the World Health Organization en joy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention All rights reserved.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country territory, city or area or of its authorities' or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries,

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters

The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed In this publication

91/8829 - Macmillan/Clays - 7000

Safe disposal of excrete is of fundamental importance, not only for the health of the community, but also because of the social and environmental benefits it brings. However, for many low-income communities, particularly in developing countries, installation of; i a sewerage system, with its high cost and need for a piped water supply, is not a feasible option. For such communities, on-site disposal - dealing with excrete where they are deposited - offers a hygienic and affordable solution.

This book provides in-depth technical information about the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the major types of on-site sanitation facility, from simple pit latrines to aqua privies and septic tanks, with numerous practical design examples. Recognizing that the introduction of on-site sanitation system) involves considerably more than the application of simple, engineering techniques, the authors describe in detail the planning and development processes, and the financial and institutional factors that will need to be taken into account. Particular emphasis is given to the need to involve the community at all stages from planning to evaluation, to adapt projects and programmes to the local situation, and to provide continuing support to the community after the system is installed.

Based on the authors' experiences in a number of developing countries, this book will be of interest to a wide range of readers, from engineers and sanitarians to health personnel, administrators, planners and others concerned with improving sanitation in poor communities.

Price: Sw. fr. 47.- ISBN 92 4 154443

Price in developing countries: Sw. fr. 32.90