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close this bookAppropriate Building Materials: a Catalogue of Potential Solutions (SKAT, 1988, 430 p.)
close this folderExamples of wall materials
View the documentStone masonry blocks walls
View the documentRammed earth walls
View the documentCompressed soil blocks walls
View the documentBamboo reinforced earth walls
View the documentBurnt clay brick walls
View the documentConcrete hollow block walls
View the documentBamboo walls
View the documentTimber panel walls
View the documentSulphur concrete walls
View the documentWalls from agro-waste

Walls from agro-waste


Special properties

Promising use of local waste materials

Economical aspects

Low cost



Skills required

Average construction skills

Equipment required

Wooden hand mould, masonry equipment

Resistance to earthquake


Resistance to hurricane


Resistance to rain

Depends on stabilization

Resistance to insects


Climatic stability

All except very wet climates

Stage of experience



· The system described here, developed at the Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Philippines, uses hollow soil-cement blocks, which contain a certain amount of beach sand and agricultural wastes, such as rice husks, sawdust, wood chips and coconuttrunk particles.

· The blocks (10 x 20 x 40 cm with 3 rectangular holes) are made in wooden hand moulds. The raw mixture, with a moisture content similar to that for common soil cement blocks, is filled into the mould, tamped and levelled, after which the blocks can be demoulded and placed on their narrow sides for moist curing (about 10 days).

· Wall construction is the same as for concrete hollow blocks, and extremely rigid constructions are achieved by filling the cavities with steel reinforcement and concrete.

Further information: Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines; Bibl. 19.11.

The hand mould and finished hollow block; Construction and reinforcement of hollow block walls