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close this bookAgricultural Development and Vector-Borne Diseases (FAO - HABITAT - UNEP - WHO, 1996, 91 p.)
close this folderTopic A: Vector-borne diseases of relevance to agriculture
View the documentList of slides
View the documentI. About PEEM (Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control)
View the documentA.1 Table of diseases
View the documentA.2 Global status of major vector-borne diseases
View the documentA.3 Global distribution of schistosomiasis: S. mansoni and S. intercalatum in Africa and the Americas
View the documentA.4 Global distribution of schistosomiasis: S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mekongi in Africa and Asia
View the documentA.5 Children infected with schistosomiasis
View the documentA.6 Global distribution of malaria
View the documentA.7 Number of malaria cases reported by WHO Region
View the documentA.8 Girl suffering from malaria, the Gambia
View the documentA.9 Distribution of yellow fever in Africa
View the documentA.10 Distribution of yellow fever in the Americas
View the documentA.11 Distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Africa and the Americas (WHO map 92353)
View the documentA.12 Distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Asia (WHO map 92354)
View the documentA.13 Distribution of onchocerciasis in Africa, with an indication of the area covered by OCP (WHO map 94910)
View the documentA.14 Distribution of onchocerciasis in the Americas (WHO map 94911)
View the documentA.15 A victim of river blindness (onchocerciasis)
View the documentA.16 Aerial view of an abandoned village in an area affected by onchocerciasis in West Africa
View the documentA.17 Distribution of Old World and New World visceral leishmaniasis (WHO map 89963)
View the documentA.18 Distribution of cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World (WHO map 891104)
View the documentA.19 Distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. tropica and L. aethiopica in the Old World (WHO map 89962)
View the documentA.20 Distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major in the Old World (WHO map 891105)
View the documentA.21 A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis
View the documentA.22 A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis
View the documentA.23 Oriental sore (cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Eastern Mediterranean)
View the documentA.24 Distribution of Japanese encephalitis cases by endemic country over the period 1986-1990
View the documentA.25 Distribution of sleeping sickness foci in West and Central Africa
View the documentA.26 Distribution of sleeping sickness vectors Glossina morsitans and G. pallidipes in East and southern Africa
View the documentA.27 Distribution of sleeping sickness vectors G. palpalis, G. fuscipes and G. tachinoides in West Africa
View the documentA.28 An example of sleeping sickness vector ecology in southern Africa

A.7 Number of malaria cases reported by WHO Region


Slide A.7 Number of malaria cases reported by WHO Region

With respect to the global distribution of malaria, several issues should be borne in mind:

· the distribution map indicates risk and does not indicate intensity of transmission. Malaria has a patchiness in time and location, except in the so-called holo-endemic and hyper-endemic areas (epidemiological terms relating transmission intensity to clinical patterns) of sub-Saharan Africa.

· the majority of malaria cases in the world (90%) occur in sub-Saharan Africa

· the map does not distinguish between the various parasite species, the most important of which are the virulent Plasmodium falciparum and the more benign P. vivax. The latter predominates in the Eastern Mediterranean and in South Asia, even though the proportion of P. falciparum cases in the latter area is increasing.

· the map does not indicate the problems of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, spreading in South East Asia and in Africa

· malaria was successfully eradicated from Europe, parts of the Eastern Mediterranean, parts of North, Central and South America, and parts of the Western Pacific, mainly through the spraying of residual insecticides. These were without exception areas of unstable vivax malaria.

· current important malaria foci are associated with areas of rapid economic development, with demographic and environmental change, and areas characterized by civil strife or refugee problems. Urban malaria is gaining importance.