|Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries (UNU, 1999, 375 pages)|
|6. Environmental management measures and monitoring|
|6.2 Environmental management plan (EMP)|
Usually EMPs are evolved following the processes of scoping, IEE, and/or detailed EIA, and consist of identification, prediction, and assessments.
· Identification of mitigation as well as enhancement measures based on the speculation of the issues emerging out of the implementation of the project (as well as associated sub-projects). For example, if air pollution due to particulate emissions is considered critical to the environment, measures such as electrostatic precipitator (ESP), fabric filter, Venturi scrubber, etc., may be identified as candidate mitigation measures.
· Detailing the possible mitigations/enhancement measures such that a cost-effective selection is made while ensuring that the objectives, legal regulations, etc., are satisfactory met. If the former example is extended, this would mean identification of the technology, that is ESP, filter, or scrubber, based on cost effectiveness. If a filter is found to be the appropriate or the cost-effective option, its minimum particulate removal efficiency should be considered.
· Implement the identified mitigation in terms of physical as well as human resource-based requirements. In the case of a fabric filter, the developer would need to estimate the location as well as the area required by the filter house, show the same in the factory map or layout, account for the power requirements in the overall energy requirements, explore the possibility of recovery of any valuable fractions from the filtered material, and provide for the disposal of the waste either on-site or off-site. The issue here is not really the technical design (i.e., what type of filter material or what would be the critical pressure drop) but to carry out an exercise of "accounting for the mitigation measure'' in the overall resource requirements to ensure implementability. Additional considerations would include, hiring the required manpower who could operate the filter to the required efficiency to ensure a proper treatment/handling/disposal of any waste.
· Develop appropriate monitoring mechanism and in-plant institutional/reporting systems which would provide a regular and continuous assessment of the functioning of the mitigation system. In the case of the "filter'', this step would involve setting up a system for monitoring of particulates at the inlets and outlets at specified intervals (e.g., once in 24 hours) as well as specifying inspection visits to the disposal sites of the waste, if any.
EMP can thus include several technological and managerial interventions such as:
· recycling and conservation of resources;
· pollution control measures;
· phased implementation;
· personnel training;
· landscaping (e.g., inclusion of a plan for developing a green belt around industry);
· devising compensatory measures for restoration of damaged resources;
· monetary compensations for affected persons;
· off-site programmes to enhance some other aspects of the environment or quality of life for the community.
As stated in the description of EMP, the starting point of establishing an EMP is always a list of critical issues and associated list of mitigation measures. Once such an identification is done, then steps detailing the mitigation measures with the required monitoring, and human resources needs, etc., can be identified.
Some of the relevant issues for which mitigation measures are generally required in industrial projects are compiled in detail below. In addition to this, certain project issues and the relevant mitigation measures for the fertilizer industry, oil and gas pipelines, water resources projects, and infrastructure projects (ports and harbours), are also given.