|Animal Husbandry - Initial Environmental Assessment Series No. 2 (NORAD, 1994)|
|Part I: General account|
|1 Characteristics of animal husbandry projects|
Projects and activities within animal husbandry can generally be placed in one or more of the following categories:
· Production of livestock products such as milk, meat, eggs,
fibre and furs, as well as draught.
· Initiatives within:
- nutrition and feeding,
- health and veterinary medicine,
- breeding and genetics,
- conservation and management, and
· Technical, professional and financial strengthening of institutions and authorities in order to ensure long-term functioning of animal husbandry activities.
· Assistance in connection with legislation, development of strategies, training and research.
Animal husbandry can also be made an integral part of other agricultural activities, aquaculture and integrated rural development programmes. Establishment of a major livestock project may generate a series of related activities, ea. enterprises providing contributory products such as feed, additives, chemicals and drugs, as well as veterinary services and artificial insemination.
Many industrial and business enterprises may be based on animal husbandry, ea. dairies, slaughterhouses, tanneries, spinneries, preservation factories, etc. These are often prerequisites for an adequate processing and marketing of livestock products. In addition, animal husbandry and related activities, as well as the products yielded by these, may create a need for special transport measures (cf. initial environmental assessment booklets 8 Transport and 9 Industry and energy).
In many developing countries, little has yet been done concerning conservation of genetic material of local livestock. This is likely to be an important task in the near future. Sperm and embryos can be frozen and stored to ensure that valuable genetic material does not disappear for good (gene bank).
This booklet will cover most aspects of animal husbandry. The focus, however, will be on small and medium sized projects and activities practicing extensive and semi-intensive/intensive modes of production based on grazing (cf. chapter 1.3).