In this survey, both direct and indirect environmental impacts are
dealt with. It is often difficult to distinguish clearly between these two types
of impacts. Causes of direct environmental impacts can be linked to certain
features of the project as such. Indirect environmental impacts can result from
other types of activities and processes which the project generates, ea.
industrialization and urbanization. Indirect environmental impacts can also
occur if the project alters socio-cultural conditions in the local community,
ea. by migration or changed power structures.
This survey also presents recommendations for mitigative measures
that can reduce prospective environmental