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close this bookWater and Sanitation Technologies: A Trainer's Manual (Peace Corps, 1985)
close this folderSessions
View the documentSession 1 - Water and sanitation issues in third world countries
View the documentSession 2 - Introduction to the training program
Open this folder and view contentsSession 3 - Facilitation skills
Open this folder and view contentsSession 4 - Community mobilization
Open this folder and view contentsSession 5 - Math review
Open this folder and view contentsSession 6 - Concrete and reinforcement
Open this folder and view contentsSession 7 - Project documentation
View the documentSession 8 - Field demonstration: Formwork and pouring concrete
Open this folder and view contentsSession 9 - Introduction to environmental sanitation
View the documentSession 10 - Non-formal health education
Open this folder and view contentsSession 11 - Community water supply case study
Open this folder and view contentsSession 12 - Project planning and management
View the documentSession 13 - Community needs and resource assessment
Open this folder and view contentsSession 14 - Communicable diseases and control
Open this folder and view contentsSession 15 - Excreta disposal systems
View the documentSession 16 - Health education presentations
View the documentSession 17 - Basic drawing and blueprint reading
View the documentSession 18 - Field demonstration: block laying
View the documentSession 19 - Project planning: Latrine construction
View the documentSession 20 - Latrine construction
Open this folder and view contentsSession 21 - Women and water
Open this folder and view contentsSession 22 - Hydrology
View the documentSession 23 - Water supply improvements
View the documentSession 24 - Pumps: Installation, operation, maintenance
View the documentSession 25 - Field demonstration: Pump assembly and disassembly
Open this folder and view contentsSession 26 - Field demonstration: Pipework and plumbing
Open this folder and view contentsSession 27 - Principles of hand-dug shallow wells
View the documentSession 28 - Well site inspection and feasibility survey
View the documentSession 29 - Project planning: Well rehabilitation
View the documentSession 30 - Shallow well rehabilitation
Open this folder and view contentsSession 31 - Gravity water systems: Part I
Open this folder and view contentsSession 32 - Survey and measurement
View the documentSession 33 - Field demonstration: Surveying
Open this folder and view contentsSession 34 - Gravity water systems: Part II
Open this folder and view contentsSession 35 - Principles of spring development
View the documentSession 36 - Spring site feasibility survey and flow measurement
View the documentSession 37 - Project planning: Spring development
View the documentSession 38 - Spring development construction
View the documentSession 39 - Ferrocement technology and construction
View the documentSession 40 - Project planning: Ferrocement water tank
View the documentSession 41 - Ferrocement water tank construction
View the documentSession 42 - Constructing projects in a community
Open this folder and view contentsSession 43 - Proposal writing
View the documentSession 44 - Training review and assessment

Session 10 - Non-formal health education


Two Hours


* Articulate concepts and characteristics of non-formal education

* Discuss non-formal health care practices in developing countries

* List techniques and tools useful in non-formal health education


Helping Health Workers Learn; Werner/Bower, Chapters 1-7

"Health Care by the People;" a Hesperian Foundation film


Newsprint and felt-tip pens, as many health education tools as


possible, such as chalkboard, flannel board, posters, flash cards, slides, flip charts, and games, film projector and screen


One or more trainers

Trainer Introduction

This session is designed to illustrate the importance of non-formal education in rural health care. Facilitate an exchange of ideas among the group during each step of the session. Have the film on hand for the session, or substitute another appropriate visual aid. Also, the reading assignment is long and trainees should be told well in advance.


Step 1

5 minutes

Present the objectives and format for the session.

Step 2

15 minutes

Ask the group for some ideas on the definition and characteristics of "non-formal education."

Trainer Note

The following is a possible definition:

"Education that takes place primarily outside of school's formal hierarchy, uses nonacademic teaching techniques, tries to provide understanding rather than transfer information, promotes expression rather than reception, and focuses on nonacademic subjects, such as farming, nutrition, health, technical skills, and literacy."

Listed below are some characteristics:

- deals with students in the context of their experience, i.e., their problems and needs
- curriculum is designed to solve those problems
- curriculum must have value for community in which it is taught
- it is usually part-time, short-term, and specific
- flexible and varied in content and learning techniques
- rewards are tangible and should improve student's well-being
- tends to motivate others to actively participate
- uses local skills, knowledge and resources

Step 3

15 minutes

Present four non-formal education criteria, and the six step problem solving technique.

Trainer Note

The criteria focus on what a person would want to know or do in order to utilize effective non-formal education. The four criteria are:

- Self concept of the learner: This would be the learner's self-image and his/her perceptions of education in general.

- Utilize learner's experience: This promotes participation and effective sharing of information.

- Readiness to learn: This measures the participants' commitment to the education process.

- Time perspective and orientation to learning: This would be an analysis of the format for the education and its perspective.

The six step problem-solving technique is as follows:

1. Ask a relevant question
2. Document what people already know
3. Present new information
4. Compare steps 2 and 3
5. Develop a generalization or action plan
6. Demonstrate the generalization or carry out the activity

Discuss each step individually and the importance of the sequencing.

Step 4

45 minutes

Show the film, "Health Care by the People."

Trainer Note

Give a brief introduction to the film. Mention that it uses a non-formal approach to health care in rural areas of developing countries. Ask the trainees to make note of development strategies used in the film.

Step 5

15 minutes

Have the trainees give their impressions of the film, and identify some of the non-formal education strategies illustrated in the film.

Trainer Note

Some points emphasized in the film are:

- Medical knowledge should be shared, not hoarded. People have a right to the medical knowledge which leads to self-care.

- Health care should be promoted through cooperation with local citizens on a self-help basis. They can and should be responsible for their health care.

- Lasting improvements come from building on strengths of the community,

- Trust is the best foundation for the relationship between health workers and their community.

- Seek out local knowledge and resources to aid in health education and care.

- Lasting change comes through cooperation and education.

- Total health care is a combination of three factors: prevention through care, treatment and education.

Step 6

10 minutes

Brainstorm various techniques and tools which could be used in health presentations.

Trainer Note

Helping Health Workers Learn has helpful descriptions of techniques and tools. Facilitate a discussion on the effectiveness of: chalkboards, flannel boards, posters, flash cards, slides, flip charts, games, role plays, demonstrations, story telling, photos Show examples of the tools if you have them on hand.

Step 7

15 minutes

Allow the trainees to divide into groups of four to five, and begin planning their health education presentations for Session 16. Review the objectives and conclude the session.

Trainer Note

If possible, give the groups scheduled time to plan their presentations after this session. Be available during the time between this session and Session 16 to advise the trainees on their presentations. Encourage them to be creative in their ideas, and serious in their approach. They should follow the guidelines for non-formal education set out during this session. The presentations should be 10 to 15 minutes in length.