Cover Image
close this bookWater and Sanitation Technologies: A Trainer's Manual (Peace Corps, 1985)
close this folderSessions
View the documentSession 1 - Water and sanitation issues in third world countries
View the documentSession 2 - Introduction to the training program
Open this folder and view contentsSession 3 - Facilitation skills
Open this folder and view contentsSession 4 - Community mobilization
Open this folder and view contentsSession 5 - Math review
Open this folder and view contentsSession 6 - Concrete and reinforcement
Open this folder and view contentsSession 7 - Project documentation
View the documentSession 8 - Field demonstration: Formwork and pouring concrete
Open this folder and view contentsSession 9 - Introduction to environmental sanitation
View the documentSession 10 - Non-formal health education
Open this folder and view contentsSession 11 - Community water supply case study
Open this folder and view contentsSession 12 - Project planning and management
View the documentSession 13 - Community needs and resource assessment
Open this folder and view contentsSession 14 - Communicable diseases and control
Open this folder and view contentsSession 15 - Excreta disposal systems
View the documentSession 16 - Health education presentations
View the documentSession 17 - Basic drawing and blueprint reading
View the documentSession 18 - Field demonstration: block laying
View the documentSession 19 - Project planning: Latrine construction
View the documentSession 20 - Latrine construction
Open this folder and view contentsSession 21 - Women and water
Open this folder and view contentsSession 22 - Hydrology
View the documentSession 23 - Water supply improvements
View the documentSession 24 - Pumps: Installation, operation, maintenance
View the documentSession 25 - Field demonstration: Pump assembly and disassembly
Open this folder and view contentsSession 26 - Field demonstration: Pipework and plumbing
Open this folder and view contentsSession 27 - Principles of hand-dug shallow wells
View the documentSession 28 - Well site inspection and feasibility survey
View the documentSession 29 - Project planning: Well rehabilitation
View the documentSession 30 - Shallow well rehabilitation
Open this folder and view contentsSession 31 - Gravity water systems: Part I
Open this folder and view contentsSession 32 - Survey and measurement
View the documentSession 33 - Field demonstration: Surveying
Open this folder and view contentsSession 34 - Gravity water systems: Part II
Open this folder and view contentsSession 35 - Principles of spring development
View the documentSession 36 - Spring site feasibility survey and flow measurement
View the documentSession 37 - Project planning: Spring development
View the documentSession 38 - Spring development construction
View the documentSession 39 - Ferrocement technology and construction
View the documentSession 40 - Project planning: Ferrocement water tank
View the documentSession 41 - Ferrocement water tank construction
View the documentSession 42 - Constructing projects in a community
Open this folder and view contentsSession 43 - Proposal writing
View the documentSession 44 - Training review and assessment

Session 38 - Spring development construction


32 Hours


* Construct a spring development system consisting of a reinforced concrete spring box, water collection point, and adequate protection from potential sources of pollution


Rural Water and Sanitation Projects; USAID, pp. 59-78

Attachment 35-A: "Design Features of Springs Development"

Small Community Water Supply; IRC, pp. 75-88


Shovels, hammers, crosscut saws, keyhole saws, hacksaws, hoes, sledge hammers, trowels, picks, crow bars, brace and bit, mattocks, tape measures, T-squares, builders' level, line level, string, sight level, screwdrivers, woodrasp, buckets, wheelbarrows, wrenches, vice grips, pliers, wire cutter, bailing wire, reinforcement bar, 6" x 6" weld mesh, nails (#8, #12, #16), lumber, cement, sand, aggregate, GI pipe and fittings, pipe wrenches, pipe vise, pipe cutter, pipe threader, thread compound, screening, plastic sheeting, burlap sacks, and gloves


One or more trainers

Trainer Introduction

During this session, a simple spring box water system is built. The spring box should be approximately one cubic meter, in size, and constructed with reinforced concrete. The design should generally follow the example shown in Attachment 35-A. The exact design and specifications should be done by the trainees themselves. The number of trainees in the group should be between seven and ten. Trainers should serve as technical advisors during the design and construction phases. The resource books and attachment should serve as reference information for the trainees. The time set aside for each construction step is a close approximation based on past training experience. It does not include time spent on logistics or transportation. There is a variety of activities during this session. Make sure all trainees participate in all activities by having the project manager rotate trainees through the various tasks.

This session begins with actual construction. It is assumed that the preliminary survey and flow measurement was completed during Session 36. Finally, proper construction safety practices should be followed at all times. Trainers should take the time to explain such practices and make sure that they are followed throughout the exercise.


Step 1

8 hours

Begin excavation of spring area. Divert spring flow. Form and pour lid for box adjacent to site. Construct spring box forms.

Trainer Note

Care should be taken during the excavation so as not to disturb the primary flowing point of the spring. The trainees should dig down to a solid impermeable layer of ground on which to pour the box. They should also dig out enough around the site to allow the forms for the box to fit easily. The spring should be diverted to allow the pour to take place. Pouring the box is much easier if careful excavation and diversion are done beforehand. The lid for the box should also be made at this time. Make sure the dimensions are correct. The spring box forms are often difficult to construct, and the trainees may need assistance. The forms should be three (or three and a half) sided, and the inside form should be shorter than the outside, by the thickness of the floor. This will allow the floors and walls to be poured at the same time. Make sure that holes are cut properly for the pipe fitting. Step 2 may follow the next day.

Step 2

8 hours

Complete all excavation and diversion. Set the spring box forms in place. Lay in reinforcement and pipe fittings. Pour the box.

Trainer Note

Getting the forms in place properly is always a difficult task. Provide assistance to the trainees, if necessary. The forms must be braced securely on all sides before the pour. Make sure the pipes (delivery, scour, overflow, and vent) are placed properly. This is especially crucial for the overflow pipe; it must be at the level of the spring, or slightly below it, to prevent backup of the water. To pour the floor and walls at the same time, the outside form must be set in place first and then, the floor poured. Immediately set in the inside form (supported by cross braces on the outside form), and continue pouring up the wall. A strong workable mix, using small to medium size aggregate, should be used to pour the box. The box should be allowed to sit for two to three days before Step 3 begins. A curing schedule should be maintained.

Step 3

8 hours

Remove forms and inspect for structural integrity. Plaster the walls if necessary, and slope the floor to scour. Place rocks tightly in place on the backside of the box. Pour wing walls on both sides of the box.

Trainer Note

Care should be taken when removing the forms so as not to damage the box. Only plaster the walls if it is necessary to ensure a water-tight seal. The floor should be sloped towards the scour to allow easy maintenance. When placing the rocks, select those that fit tightly together. The trainees should take the time to construct the wall properly. Once the large rocks are in place, put in progressively smaller rocks, moving back from the box. If pea gravel is available, use that to fill the final space. Next, divert the spring back into the box and excavate out from each front corner of the box for placement of short wing walls. The walls may be constructed of concrete, using rocks or rough lumber for form work, or alternatively, soil/cement or packed clay may be used for the walls. Step 4 may begin the following day.

Step 4

8 hours

Place the lid. Backfill around the box. Place sanitary seal over the spring. Dig a diversion ditch. Perform all other needed tasks. Clean up the site.

Trainer Note

A good job of backfilling should be done around the box. Make sure the backfill is packed tightly. Use an impermeable material to seal the spring, such as concrete, soil/cement, or clay. Dig the diversion ditch and line it with rocks to prevent erosion. If time allows, other tasks may be done as well, such as constructing a drainage trench for the scour or a splash pad for the delivery pipe or overflow. Leave the site clean and in good order. Lastly, the entire group should review the construction procedures and processes that went into the project. Discuss positive and negative aspects. Ask what could have been done differently to improve the construction. Ask about the group dynamics of the exercise. What improvements could have been made? What work particularly well? Point out the importance of hard work, flexibility, and cooperation throughout such an activity.