Cover Image
close this bookWater and Sanitation Technologies: A Trainer's Manual (Peace Corps, 1985)
close this folderSessions
close this folderSession 9 - Introduction to environmental sanitation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAttachment 9A: Water-related diseases

Attachment 9A: Water-related diseases

DISEASE: AMEBIASIS (A MEBIC DYSENTERY)

Infectious Agents:

Entamoeba histolytica; a protozoon

Vector/Vehicle:

Fecal-Oral by water, food, flies, utensels, food handlers

Host:

Humans

Reservoir:

Humans, usually a chronically ill or asymptomatic cyst passer

Symptoms:

Intestinal disorder, chills, fever, blood/mucoid diarrhea often occuring in cycles of attack and remission

Treatment:

Drug treatment; flagyl. Fluid rehydration for 18-24 hours, then rice/bread, etc. Avoid milk products.

Prevention:

Sanitary disposal of feces, clean water supply, personal hygiene, fly control

Long Range Effects:

Dissemination via blood stream can produce liver abscess.


Ulceration of skin from intestinal lesions


Chain of Infection: AMEBIASIS

DISEASE: SCABIES

Infectious Agents:

Sarcoptes scabiel: a microscopic mite

Vector/Vehicle:

Direct contact, garments, bedclothes

Host:

None

Reservoir:

Humans

Symptoms:

Intense itching, lesions

Treatment:

Cleansing bath followed by ointment

Prevention:

Sanitary hygiene, bathing, cleaning of garments/ bedclothes.

Long Range Effects:

Repeated scratching can cause secondary infection


Chain of Infection: SCABIES

DISEASE: MALARIA

Infectious Agents:

Plasmodium Vivax, P. Malariae, P. Falciparum, P. Ovale

Vector/Vehicle:

Infective female anopheline mosquito

Host:

Humans

Reservoir:

Humans

Symptoms:

Cycle of chills, profuse sweating, rapid rising temperature, headaches, nausea

Treatment:

High doses of suppressive prophylaxis. Fluid rehydration.

Prevention:

Regular use of suppressive prophylaxis, mosquito control, insect repellents, use of screens and bed nets, control of mosquito breeding habitats.

Long Range Effects:

If untreated, can cause irreversible complications and death


Chain of Infection: MALARIA

DISEASE: SCHISTOSOMIASIS (BILHARZIASIS)

Infectious Agents:

Larval eggs of Schistosoma mansoni, haematobium, and intercalatum

Vector/Vehicle:

Water

Host:

Appropriate Freshwater Snail Intermediate Host

Reservoir:

Human

Symptoms:

Chronic infection, stomach pains, blood in urine

Treatment:

Long-term intramuscular drug injections

Prevention:

Disposal of feces/urine, snail control, protective clothing, brisk toweling after contact.

Long Range Effects:

General debilitation, death


Chain of Infection: SCHISTOSOMIASIS