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close this bookWater and Sanitation Technologies: A Trainer's Manual (Peace Corps, 1985)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentTraining staff contributors
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentTraining program textbooks
View the documentTraining subject areas
View the documentProgram goals
View the documentBehavioral objectives skill sheet
View the documentBlock schedule
Open this folder and view contentsSessions
View the documentSession assessment
View the documentCritique sheet for trainers using this manual*
View the documentBibliography
View the documentPeace corps water and sanitation sector background

Behavioral objectives skill sheet

Listed below, by subject area, are the skill objectives contained in this training program. By the end of the training program, all trainees should be able to perform with at least a minimum level of proficiency, as determined by the training staff, the following skills:

Community Development

SESSION #1 Water and Sanitation Issues in Third World Countries

1. Articulate important issues, concerning water and sanitation, in third world countries.
2. Discuss various methods of dealing with water/sanitation problems on the Volunteer level.

SESSION #4 Community Mobilization

3. Describe various strategies that a Volunteer could use to mobilize a community for a development project.

4. Practice the group decision making process.

SESSION #11 Community Water Supply Case Study

5. Identify criteria necessary for development of a community water supply system in terms of quality, quantity, and convenience.

SESSION #13 Community Needs and Resource Assessment

6. Describe the role of community survey and assessment in the development process.

7. List information that would be needed to assess a community and various ways to gather that information.

8. Practice developing survey questions and informal interviewing.

SESSION #21 Women and Water

9. Clarify views, expectations, and assumptions concerning the relationship between women and water/sanitation problems in developing countries.

10. State various ways Peace Corps Volunteers can include women in the development process.

11. Discuss ways in which community development can improve the living conditions of women in third world countries.

SESSION #42 Constructing Projects in a Community

12. Examine and evaluate the construction of community projects as a cross-cultural experience.
13. Relate the construction of community projects during training to future Peace Corps service.

Project Management

SESSION #3 Facilitation Skills

1. Define participative and directive training styles.
2. Identify criteria necessary for evaluating facilitation skills.
3. Design and carry out an activity using effective facilitation techniques.

SESSION #7 Project Documentation

4. Discuss project documentation as a learning tool used in the training program.
5. Relate project documentation to the development process during Peace Corps Service.
6. Identify methods of documentation and their applications.
7. Demonstrate the ability to document a construction activity during training.

SESSION #12 Project Planning and Management

8. Analyze factors which influence the management of development projects.

9. Identify practices and procedures which can assist in the management of water/sanitation projects in rural communities.

10. Learn and practice simple methods of managing one's time spent on a project.

11. Demonstrate the ability to manage a small-scale project from design through implementation.

SESSION #43 Proposal Writing

12. Evaluate proposal writing as a method of procuring funds for development projects.
13. Identify and discuss various components of a small-scale proposal.
14. Practice writing a sample proposal for a development project.

General Construction

SESSION #6 Concrete and Reinforcement

1. List the principle steps in making good concrete.

2. Define the component parts of concrete and demonstrate how they mix together.

3. Discuss water/cement ratios and their effect on concrete strength.

4. Explain the importance of reinforcement in concrete and demonstrate tension and compressive forces.

5. Describe proper curing procedures for concrete.

6. Identify some typical concrete and mortar mixes and ways to estimate proportions.

SESSION #8 Field Demo: Form work and Pouring Concrete

7. Construct proper form work for a concrete slab.
8. Practice mixing concrete, in correct proportions, and pouring a slab.

SESSION #17 Basic Drawing and Blueprint Reading

9. Learn to represent objects by freehand sketching and dimensional drawing.
10. Practice reading and interpreting blueprints.

SESSION # 18 Field Demo: Block Laying

11. Articulate the basic characteristics of three types of masonry bricks: adobe, soil/cement, concrete.

12. Practice correct block laying, using appropriate mortar.

SESSIONS # 26 Field Demo: Pipework and Plumbing

13. Articulate the basic characteristics and correct uses of three types of pipes: GI, PVC and PE.
14. Demonstrate correct methods of cutting and joining different types of pipe, including the assembly of proper fittings and valves for a simple rural standpipe.

Environmental Sanitation

SESSION #9 Introduction to Environmental Sanitation

1. Discuss the relationship between the environment and disease through an understanding of the disease cycle.

2. Identify the causes of water-related disease, common means of transmission, preventative measures, and general treatments.

3. Define several important epidemilogical concepts.

SESSION #10 Non-Formal Health Education

3. Articulate concepts and characteristics of non-formal education.
4. Discuss non-formal health care practices in developing countries.
5. List techniques and tools useful in non-formal health education.

SESSION #14 Communicable Diseases and Control

6. Describe, in detail, various communicable diseases, and effective means to control them.

SESSION # 15 Excreta Disposal Systems

7. Identify factors influencing the selection of a community excrete disposal system.
8. Describe various types of latrine design and evaluate their relative strengths and weaknesses.
9. List the construction steps for a ventilated pit latrine.

SESSION # 16 Health Education Presentations

10. Prepare and deliver a health education skit or role play, using appropriate visual aids.

SESSIONS # 19 Project Planning: Latrine Construction

11. Formulate a plan for a latrine construction project including a satisfactory design for all components of the latrine, a list of materials and tools necessary, and a construction schedule for the project.

SESSION #20 Latrine Construction

12. Construct a ventilated pit latrine using reinforced concrete, adobe block walls, stucco finish, and framed roof.

13. Formulate a maintenance plan for the latrine.

Water Resource Development

SESSION #22 Hydrology

1. Describe the hydrologic cycle.

2. Analyze groundwater hydrology, including aquifers, permeable, and impermeable earthen strata.

3. Identify groundwater and surface water characteristics of a watershed.

SESSION #23 Water Supply Improvements

4. Articulate basic standards for the quality, quantity, and convenience of a water supply system in a rural community.

5. State common techniques used in the field to improve the potability of water in third world countries.

6. Describe the basic characteristics and methods for implementation of four water supply sources: well water, rain water, surface water, and spring water.

SESSION #24 Pumps: Installation, Operations, and Maintenance

7. Discuss manual and power driven pumping mechanisms and evaluate their applications in rural communities.

8. Describe the basic characteristics and applications of four types of pumps: piston (suction lift, force), rotary, centrifugal, and hydraulic ram.

SESSION #25 Field Demo: Pump Assembly and Disassembly

9. Disassemble and reassemble a pump head and cylinder for a shallow and deep well hand pump.

SESSION # 27 Principles of Hand-Dug Shallow Wells

10. Identify factors that determine a suitable site for a hand-dug shallow well.
11. Explain, in detail, various methods of constructing shallow tube wells.
12. List proper safety practices that should be followed during well construction.
13. Describe the construction steps necessary for a shallow well project.

SESSION #28 Well Site Inspection and Feasibility Survey

14. Become familiar with shallow hand-dug wells through a tour of existing well sites.
15. Describe the relative strengths and weaknesses of each site with regard to method of construction, safety considerations, sanitary protection, method of retrieving water, and steps for possible rehabilitation.

SESSION #29 Project Planning: Well Rehabilitation

16. Formulate a plan for a shallow well rehabilitation project including: a satisfactory design for all components of the well, a list of materials and tools necessary, and a construction schedule for the project.

SESSION #30 Shallow Well Rehabilitation

17. Rehabilitate a hand-dug shallow well by constructing a solid inner well foundation, reinforced concrete lining, reinforced concrete sanitary seal, and installation of a method for retrieving water.

SESSION # 31 Gravity Water Systems: Part I

18. Define pressure, head, and hydraulic gradient in relation to a gravity water system.
19. Analyze friction loss factors influencing the selection of pipe size and type, and calculate pipe flows in a system.

SESSION #32 Survey and Measurement

20. Demonstrate approximate methods of surveying and taking measurements in the field using simple instruments.

21. Define profiling and explain its applications for the design of piped water systems.

SESSION #33 Field Demo: Surveying

22. Practice leveling a survey instrument, reading a rod, and taking notations in the field.
23. Complete a ground level traverse using a survey instrument.

SESSION #34 Gravity Water Systems: Part II

24. Discuss the following design considerations for a gravity water system: project life, growth rate, consumption figures, and source identification.

25. Describe some common design layouts for a simple rural system with these basic components: source intake, storage, distribution, and operation and maintenance plan.

26. Design a sample gravity water system.

SESSION #35 Principles of Spring Development

27. Identify potential sources of pollution and methods to protect a spring water source.

28. Describe two methods of developing a spring water system: simple spring box and infiltration gallery.

29. List the construction steps necessary for spring development.

SESSION #36 Spring Site Feasibility Survey

30. Using geographic factors and topographical information, find a suitable spring, trace back to its source, and determine spring type.

31. Measure the flow of the spring and determine if water quantity and quality is sufficient for development.

SESSION #37 Project Planning: Spring Development

32. Formulate a plan for a spring development construction project, including a satisfactory design for all components of spring development, a list of materials and tools necessary, and a construction schedule for the project.

SESSION #38 Spring Development Construction

33. Construct a spring development system consisting of a reinforced concrete spring box, water collection point, and adequate protection from potential sources of pollution.

SESSION #39 Ferrocement Technology and Construction

34. Discuss the theories and principles of Ferrocement technology as applied to the construction of water tanks.

35. Describe the building sequence of a Ferrocement water tank.

SESSION #40 Project Planning: Ferrocement Water Tank

36. Formulate a plan for construction of a Ferrocement water tank, including a satisfactory design for all components of the tank, a list of materials and tools necessary, and a construction schedule for the project.

SESSION #41 Ferrocement Water Tank Construction

37. Construct a water storage tank using reinforced concrete for the foundation, Ferrocement for the tank walls, and corrugated galvanized iron for the form work.

Other Sessions

SESSION #2 Introduction to the Training Program

1. Familiarize the trainees with the program goals, behavioral objectives, and the training schedule.

2. Review the trainee's strengths and weaknesses with regard to co-facilitation of sessions.

3. Explain the organizational framework that will be used for construction projects during training.

SESSION # 5 Math Review

4. Review simple mathematical formulas, applicable to water and sanitation projects.

5. Practice solving math problems.

SESSION #44 Training Review and Assessment

6. Review and answer questions concerning any information presented during the training program.

7. Evaluate the overall effectiveness of the training program.

8. Assess the progress each trainee has made during the program in relationship to future Peace Corps Service.