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close this bookConducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries (UNU, 1999, 375 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentAbbreviations
close this folder1. Introduction
View the document1.1 The environmental movement
View the document1.2 Tracing the history of environmental impact assessment
close this folder1.3 Changes in the perception of EIA
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View the document1.3.1 EIA at the project level
View the document1.3.2 From project level to regional EIA
View the document1.3.3 Policy level strategic EIA
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close this folder2. Introduction to EIA
View the document2.1 What is EIA?
View the document2.2 Who is involved in the EIA process?
View the document2.3 When should the EIA be undertaken?
close this folder2.4 Effectiveness of EIA
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View the document2.4.1 Legal regulations
View the document2.4.2 Rational and open decision-making
View the document2.4.3 Project EIA sustained by strategic EIA
View the document2.4.4 Room for public participation
View the document2.4.5 Independent review and central information
View the document2.4.6 Scoping in EIA
View the document2.4.7 Quality of the EIA
View the document2.5 EIA and other environmental management tools
close this folder3. EIA process
View the document3.1 Introduction
close this folder3.2 Principles in managing EIA
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View the document3.2.1 Principle 1: Focus on the main issues
View the document3.2.2 Principle 2: Involve the appropriate persons and groups
View the document3.2.3 Principle 3: Link information to decisions about the project
View the document3.2.4 Principle 4: Present clear options for the mitigation of impacts and for sound environmental management
View the document3.2.5 Principle 5: Provide information in a form useful to the decision makers
View the document3.3 Framework of environmental impacts
close this folder3.4 EIA process in tiers
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close this folder3.4.1 Screening
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View the document3.4.1.1 Illustrations of screening
View the document3.4.2 Scoping
View the document3.4.3 The initial environmental examination
close this folder3.4.4 The detailed EIA study
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View the document3.4.4.1 Prediction
View the document3.4.4.2 Assessment
View the document3.4.4.3 Mitigation
View the document3.4.4.4 Evaluation
View the document3.5 Resources needed for an EIA
close this folder3.6 Some illustrations of EIA processes in various countries
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close this folder3.6.1 EIA system in Indonesia
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View the document3.6.1.1 Responsibility for AMDAL
View the document3.6.1.2 Screening: determining which projects require AMDAL
View the document3.6.1.3 AMDAL procedures
View the document3.6.1.4 Permits and licenses
View the document3.6.1.5 Public participation in AMDAL
close this folder3.6.2 EIA procedure and requirements in Malaysia
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View the document3.6.2.1 Integrated project-planning concept
View the document3.6.2.2 How is EIA processed and approved?
close this folder3.6.3 EIA in Canada
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View the document3.6.3.1 The process
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close this folder4. EIA methods
View the document4.1 Introduction
View the document4.2 Checklists
close this folder4.2.1 Descriptive checklists
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View the document4.2.2 Weighted-scale checklists
View the document4.2.3 Advantages of the checklist method
View the document4.2.4 Limitations of the checklist method
close this folder4.3 Matrix
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View the document4.3.1 Descriptive matrix
View the document4.3.2 Symbolized matrix
close this folder4.3.3 Numeric and scaled matrices
View the document4.3.3.1 Simple numeric matrix
View the document4.3.3.2 Scaled matrices
View the document4.3.4 The component interaction matrix
View the document4.3.5 Advantages of the matrix approach
View the document4.3.6 Limitations of the matrix approach
close this folder4.4 Networks
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View the document4.4.1 Advantages of the network method
View the document4.4.2 Limitations of the network method
View the document4.5 Overlays
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close this folder5. EIA tools
close this folder5.1 Impact prediction
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View the document5.1.1 Application of methods to different levels of prediction
close this folder5.1.2 Informal modelling
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View the document5.1.2.1 Approaches to informal modelling
View the document5.1.3 Physical models
View the document5.1.4 Mathematical models
View the document5.1.5 Modelling procedure
View the document5.1.6 Sensitivity analysis
View the document5.1.7 Probabilistic modelling
View the document5.1.8 Points to be considered when selecting a prediction model
View the document5.1.9 Difficulties in prediction
close this folder5.1.10 Auditing of EIAs
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View the document5.1.10.1 Auditing prediction in EIAs
View the document5.1.10.2 Problems in conducting predictive techniques audit
View the document5.1.11 Precision in prediction and decision resolution
close this folder5.2 Geographical information system
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View the document5.2.1 Data overlay and analysis
View the document5.2.2 Site impact prediction
View the document5.2.3 Wider area impact prediction
View the document5.2.4 Corridor analysis
View the document5.2.5 Cumulative effects assessment and EA audits
View the document5.2.6 Trend analysis
View the document5.2.7 Predicting impacts in a real time environment
View the document5.2.8 Continuous updating
View the document5.2.9 Multi attribute tradeoff system (MATS)
View the document5.2.10 Habitat analysis
View the document5.2.11 Aesthetic analysis
View the document5.2.12 Public consultation
View the document5.2.13 Advantages of the GIS method
View the document5.2.14 Limitations of the GIS method
close this folder5.3 Expert systems for EIA
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View the document5.3.1 Artificial intelligence and expert systems
View the document5.3.2 Basic concepts behind expert systems
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close this folder6. Environmental management measures and monitoring
View the document6.1 Introduction
close this folder6.2 Environmental management plan (EMP)
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close this folder6.2.1 Issues and mitigation measures
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View the document6.2.1.1 Project siting
View the document6.2.1.2 Plant construction and operation
close this folder6.2.2 Illustrations of guidelines for mitigation measures for specific projects
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View the document6.2.2.1 Fertilizer industry
View the document6.2.2.2 Oil and gas pipelines
View the document6.2.2.3 Water resource projects
View the document6.2.2.4 Infrastructure projects
View the document6.2.3 Development of a green belt as a mitigation measure
View the document6.3 Post-project monitoring, post-audit, and evaluation
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close this folder7. EIA communication
View the document7.1 Introduction
View the document7.2 What is expected from the user of EIA findings?
close this folder7.3 Communication to the public
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close this folder7.3.1 Factors that may result in effective public participation
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View the document7.3.1.1 Preplanning
View the document7.3.1.2 Policy of the executing agency
View the document7.3.1.3 Resources
View the document7.3.1.4 Target groups
View the document7.3.1.5 Effective communication
View the document7.3.1.6 Techniques
View the document7.3.1.7 Responsiveness
View the document7.3.2 Overview of the roles of the public
close this folder7.3.3 Public participation techniques
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View the document7.3.3.1 Media techniques
View the document7.3.3.2 Research techniques
View the document7.3.3.3 Political techniques
View the document7.3.3.4 Structured group techniques
View the document7.3.3.5 Large group meetings
View the document7.3.3.6 Bureaucratic decentralization
View the document7.3.3.7 Interveners
View the document7.3.4 Implementing public participation
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close this folder8. Writing and reviewing an EIA report
close this folder8.1 Writing an EIA report
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View the document8.1.1 Guidelines for preparing EIA reports
View the document8.1.2 Comparison of guidelines of suggested/required components of an EIA report
close this folder8.2 Review of an EIA report
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View the document8.2.1 Purpose of the review
View the document8.2.2 Information and expertise needed for review
View the document8.2.3 Strategy of the review
close this folder8.2.4 Approach
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View the document8.2.4.1 Independent analysis
View the document8.2.4.2 Predetermined evaluation criteria
View the document8.2.4.3 Ad hoc review
View the document8.2.5 Specific document review criteria
close this folder8.3 Preparing terms of reference for consultants or contractors
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View the document8.3.1 Checking out the consulting organization
View the document8.3.2 Strategy for formulating TOR
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close this folder9. Emerging developments in EIA
View the document9.1 Introduction
close this folder9.2 Cumulative effects assessment
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close this folder9.2.1 Concepts and principles relevant to CEA
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View the document9.2.1.1 Model of causality
View the document9.2.1.2 Input-process-output model
View the document9.2.1.3 Temporal and spatial accumulation
View the document9.2.1.4 Control factors
close this folder9.2.2 Conceptual framework
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View the document9.2.2.1 Sources of cumulative environmental change
View the document9.2.2.2 Pathways of cumulative environmental change
View the document9.2.2.3 Cumulative effects
View the document9.2.3 Conclusion
close this folder9.3 Sectoral environmental assessment
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View the document9.3.1 Need for SEA
View the document9.3.2 Differences between project level EIA and SEA
View the document9.3.3 Methodologies for SEA
View the document9.3.4 Status of SEA
View the document9.3.5 Effectiveness of SEA
close this folder9.4 Environmental risk assessments
View the document9.4.1 What is environmental risk assessment?
close this folder9.4.2 Terminology associated with ERA
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View the document9.4.2.1 Hazards and uncertainties
View the document9.4.3 ERA and the project cycle
View the document9.4.4 ERA builds upon EIA
View the document9.4.5 Basic approach to ERA
View the document9.4.6 Characterization of risk
View the document9.4.7 Risk comparison
View the document9.4.8 Quantitative risk assessments
View the document9.4.9 Risk communication
View the document9.4.10 Risk management
close this folder9.4.11 Guidelines for disaster management planning
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View the document9.4.11.1 Specification
View the document9.4.11.2 Plot plan
View the document9.4.11.3 Hazardous area classification
View the document9.4.11.4 P & I diagrams
View the document9.4.11.5 Storage of inflammable liquids
View the document9.4.11.6 Risk assessment
close this folder9.5 Environmental health impact assessment
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View the document9.5.1 Need for EHIA
close this folder9.5.2 Potential methodologies and approaches for addressing health impacts
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View the document9.5.2.1 Adapt EIA study activities
View the document9.5.2.2 Integrate health impacts into EIA
View the document9.5.2.3 Use a targeted approach
View the document9.5.2.4 Probabilistic risk assessment
close this folder9.5.3 Proposed methodology
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View the document9.5.3.1 Determining the need for health impact assessment
View the document9.5.3.2 Identify health impacts
View the document9.5.3.3 Prediction of health impacts
View the document9.5.3.4 Interpreting health impacts
View the document9.5.3.5 Mitigation, monitoring, and reporting
close this folder9.6 Social impact assessment
View the document9.6.1 What is SIA? Why SIA?
View the document9.6.2 Identifying social impact assessment variables
View the document9.6.3 Combining social impact assessment variables, project/policy stage, and setting
close this folder9.6.4 Steps in the social impact assessment process
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View the document9.6.4.1 Public involvement
View the document9.6.4.2 Identification of alternatives
View the document9.6.4.3 Baseline conditions
View the document9.6.4.4 Scoping
View the document9.6.4.5 Projection of estimated effects
View the document9.6.4.6 Predicting response to impacts
View the document9.6.4.7 Indirect and cumulative impacts
View the document9.6.4.8 Change in alternatives
View the document9.6.4.9 Mitigation
View the document9.6.4.10 Monitoring
View the document9.6.5 Principles for SIA
View the document9.6.6 TOR for consultants
View the documentFURTHER READING
View the documentAnnex 9.1: Case study for risk assessments
close this folder10. Case studies to illustrate environmental impact assessment studies
View the documentCase study 10.1 Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant, Leyte, Philippines
View the documentCase study 10.2 Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme
View the documentCase study 10.3 Tin Smelter Project in Thailand
View the documentCase study 10.4 Thai National Fertilizer Corporation Project
View the documentCase study 10.5 Map Ta Phut Port Project
View the documentCase study 10.6 EIA at Work: A Hydroelectric Project in Indonesia
View the documentCase study 10.7 The Greater Cairo Wastewater Project