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close this bookVacuum Freeze-Drying, a Method Used to Salvage Water-Damaged Archival and Library Materials: A RAMP Study with Guidelines (UNESCO, 1987)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentForeword
close this folder1. Introduction
View the document1.1 Water: the ubiquitous hazard
close this folder2. Water-soaked paper
close this folder2.1 Associated problems
View the document2.1.1 Absorption and swelling
View the document2.1.2 Microbiological infection
View the document2.1.3 Adhesion of leaves
View the document2.1.4 Migration of inks and dyes
View the document2.1.5 Time
close this folder3. Stabilization by freezing
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close this folder3.1 Advantages
View the document3.1.1 Halts mold attack
View the document3.1.2 Stabilizes soluble inks and dyes
View the document3.1.3 Prevents adhesion of leaves
View the document3.1.4 Permits orderly, unhurried planning
close this folder4. Vacuum freeze-drying
close this folder4.1 A primer on freeze-drying
View the document4.1.1 Units of measurement
View the document4.1.2 Sublimation/evaporation
View the document4.1.3 Temperature-pressure values of water
View the document4.1.4 Vapor pressure
View the document4.2 Conditions required for freeze-drying
View the document4.3 The basic components of a freeze-dry system
View the document4.4 Degree of vacuum required for freeze-drying
close this folder5. Alternate methods of drying
View the document5.1 Vacuum drying
View the document5.2 Deep freeze drying
View the document5.3 Natural freeze-drying
View the document6. Vacuum freeze-drying vs vacuum-drying
close this folder7. freeze-drying is not a new process
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close this folder7.1 Examples of its use
View the document7.1.1 Pharmaceuticals
View the document7.1.2 Foodstuffs
View the document7.1.3 Biological specimens
View the document7.1.4 Archaeological artifacts
close this folder8. Early experiments in freeze-drying books and documents
close this folder8. 1 Precursors
View the document8.1.1 Canadian entities
View the document8.1.2 Smithsonian institution, Washington, D.C.
View the document8.1.3 Technical university of Denmark
close this folder9. The use of vacuum chambers for recovery of water-damaged archival and library materials
close this folder9.1 Case histories
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View the document9.1.1 Corning museum of glass library flood, corning, New York, June 22, 1972.
View the document9.1.2 Charles Klein library fire, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 25, 1972.
View the document9.1.3 National personnel records fire, St. Louis, Missouri, July 12, 1973.
View the document9.1.4 The Stanford Meyer library flood, Stanford, California, November 4, 1978.
View the document9.1.5 Taylor institution library flood, oxford university, January 1979
View the document9.1.6 Regional office of income security services fire, Winnipeg, Canada, January 22, 1981.
close this folder10. Other vacuum and freeze-drying activities
close this folder10.1 A selection by countries
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View the document10.1.1 Austria
View the document10.1.2 Canada
View the document10.1.3 England
View the document10.1.4 France
View the document10.1.5 Germany (FRG)
View the document10.1.6 Holland
View the document10.1.7 Norway
View the document10.1.8 USA
close this folder11. Commercial sources for freezing and drying
View the document11.1 Cold storage
View the document11.2 Freeze-drying
View the document11.3 Vacuum chambers
View the document12. Cost of vacuum-drying and freeze-drying
close this folder13. Low cost freezing and drying in an emergency
View the document13.1 General considerations
View the document13.2 Materials required
close this folder13 3 Recovery of water-damaged materials
View the document13.3.1 Handling wet materials
View the document13.3.2 Cleaning and washing
View the document13.3.3. Wrapping and packing
View the document13.4. Freezing
close this folder13.5. Air drying
View the document13.5.1. Picking a work area
View the document13.5.2 Drying documents
View the document13.5.3 Drying books
View the document13.6 Pressing
View the document13.7 Prevention of mold infection
View the document14. What freeze-drying will not do
close this folder15. Cooperative approach to the use of freeze-dry chambers
View the document15.1 General considerations
View the document15.2 Regional cooperation
View the document15.3 Cooperation with public institutions
View the document15.4 Commercial cooperation
close this folder16. An open forum on freeze-drying
close this folder16.1 Questions and answers
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View the document16.1.1 In simple terms, what is the difference between freeze-drying and plain vacuum-drying?
View the document16.1.2 Is freeze-drying expensive?
View the document16.1.3 What about the cost of vacuum-drying?
View the document16.1.4 Can wet (non-frozen) materials be freeze-dried, and conversely, can frozen materials be vacuum-dried?
View the document16.1.5 Which is the better system, freeze-drying or vacuum-drying?
View the document16.1.6 Shouldn't time be taken to sort or weed out wet materials prior to wrapping and crating for freezing?
View the document16.1.7 Shouldn't wet materials be cleaned of soilage prior to freezing?
View the document16.1.8 What is the best way to wrap wet materials for freezing?
View the document16.1.9 At what temperature should water-damaged materials be frozen and stored?
View the document16.1.10 Vet books and documents undoubtedly swell and expend with freezing. doesn't that cause damage?
View the document16.1.11 Do you deed a special chamber for-freeze-drying books and documents?
View the document16.1.12 Bow do you know when the materials in a chamber are dry?
View the document16.1.13 Is there a risk of overdrying and, as a consequence, run the risk of damage to the materials?
View the document16.1.14 Can parchment and leather be freeze-dried?
View the document16.1.15 In the freeze-drying process, heat is sometimes applied to the frozen materials. first of all, why is it done and doesn't the heat harm the materials?
View the document16.1.16 Once the materials come out of the freeze-drying chamber can they go straight back to their shelves?
View the document16.1.17 Would it not be less costly to replace water-damaged materials than freeze-dry?
View the document16.1.18 It is generally knows that freeze-drying will not destroy mold spores, but what about insects?
View the document16.1.19 How do you go about freezing insects?
View the document16.1.20 Why weren't the infested books fumigated?
View the document16.1.21 What should you do ii mold is widespread before the wet materials can be frozen?
View the document16.1.22 Can mold-infected materials be fumigated in the same chamber where freeze-drying takes place?
View the document16.1.23 It freeze-drying seems to destroy the visible growth caused by mold spores, why is it 80 necessary to sterilize and fog with a buffers? Why not put the dry materials in proper storage?
View the document16.1.24 Some institutions hare photographic materials in their holdings. can they be frozen and freeze-dried?
close this folder17. A final word: disaster preparedness planning
View the document17.1 Why prepare for a disaster?
View the document17.2 What a disaster preparedness plan contains
View the document17.3 Prevention: central to disaster preparedness
View the document18. References