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close this bookRural Women and the Environment: Shared Concerns? (IRMA, 1994)
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1.On an environmentalist critique of development, see Redclift (1987), Adams (1990). On gender and development issues see Moser (1991).

2.For broad overviews of women-development-environment interventions see Dankleman and Davidson (1989), Rodda (1991), Sontheimer (1991), Venkateswaran (1992).

3.Anthropologists maintain that the nature-culture divide is not universal across cultures and that Ortner has not looked at non-European societies (tribal, matriarchal) where women's roles are differently perceived and valued.

4.The post-Ayodhya (December 6, 1992) communal rioting in India, showed a rather alarming incidence of participation by women in perpetrating violence on both their physical and social environments, including other (minority) women (Setalvad 1993). Whether the reinterpretation of Shakti has been done largely by men to mobilise women's participation, it must be recognised that there are a few strong leaders at the forefront of the various (majority) political parties involved in religious fundamentalism. Both these issues raise significant questions about women's perceived role as nurturers of life.

5.There is little information on women and rights over livestock. For a general review of women's participation in the dairy sector, see Benett 1991: 47-56.