|Hydropolitics along the Jordan River. Scarce Water and Its Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict (UNU, 1995, 272 pages)|
|2. Hydrography and history|
|History - Water conflict and cooperation|
|The emergence of agriculture and nationalism|
|Pre-1923: The shaping of modern nations|
|1923-1948: Nationalism, immigration, and "economic absorptive capacity"|
|1948-1964: Unilateral development and the Johnston negotiations|
|1964-1982: "Water Wars" and territorial adjustments|
|Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza|
|1982-Present: Hydrologic limits and peacemaking|
|Hydroconspiracy theories: The "hydraulic imperative," and "hydronationalism"|
|Conclusions: Historic summary and lessons for the future|
|3. Towards an interdisciplinary approach to water basin analysis and the resolution of international water disputes|
|3.2. The nature of water conflicts|
|3.3. Paradigms for analysis of international water conflicts|
|3.3.1 Physical sciences and technology|
|3.3.3 Political science|
|3.3.5 Game theory|
|3.3.6 Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)|
|3.4. An interdisciplinary approach to water basin analysis and conflict resolution|
|3.4.1 Summary of disciplinary survey|
|3.4.2 Towards an interdisciplinary approach|
|3.4.3 Water and its evaluation|
|4. Interdisciplinary analysis and the Jordan River watershed|
|4.2. Preliminary watershed analysis|
|4.2.1 Survey of hydropolitical positions|
|4.2.2 Goal statement and planning horizon|
|4.2.3 Future water supply and demand, "water stress" index|
|4.3. Evaluation framework|
|4.3.1 Options and viability|
|4.4. Cooperation-inducing implementation: Three examples|
|4.4.1 Towards an agreement for sharing existing resources|
|4.4.2 Negotiations over the mountain aquifer|
|4.4.3 A Med-Dead or Red-Dead Canal as a cooperation-inducing desalination project|
|4.5. Conclusions: Water basin analysis and the Jordan River watershed|
|5. Summary and conclusions|
|Afterword: Parting the waters|
|Appendix I: Maps|
|Appendix II: Zionist boundaries, 1919|
|Appendix III: Hydronationalism|
|Appendix IV: PRINCE political accounting system|
|Appendix V: JRDNRVR. BAS projection model|
|Appendix VI: Med-Dead/Red-Dead desalination project|
|Interviews Interviews (carried out 1989-1992)|
In chapter 2, I described the long and contentious hydropolitical history of the Jordan River watershed. I concluded with several policy recommendations informed by the lessons of history. In chapter 3, I suggested an interdisciplinary analytical framework for water conflict analysis, using precepts from the physical sciences, law, political science, economics, game theory, and alternative dispute resolution. In this chapter, I bring the sitespecific lessons from history together with the general guidelines from the analytical framework, in an attempt to address the problems of the Jordan River watershed.
There are actually two distinct problems in the Jordan River watershed. The first is a "water crisis" - too little water supply for too much demand similar to that in many water basins throughout the region and the world. The second problem is the "water conflict" the political tensions brought about by a water crisis in this particular international water basin, which is shared by riparians who have deep and long-standing enmity towards each other.
My approach in this chapter is to address the water crisis by formulating a water development plan for the Jordan basin, using the general guidelines of my analytical framework. In the process, by keeping in mind the lessons of the history of this particular watershed, I may be able to offer suggestions for alleviating some aspects of the water conflict as well.
The general process is as outlined in chapter 3:
- Survey of hydropolitical positions.
- Goal statement and planning horizon.
- Future water supply and demand, water stress.
- Options and viability.
- An agreement for water sharing.
- The mountain aquifer.
- A Med-Dead or Red-Dead Canal.