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close this bookBioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities (UNU, 1979)
close this folderIndian experience with treated straw as feed
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentExperience with straw treatment
View the documentField testing and demonstration of straw treatment
View the documentGeneral considerations
View the documentSummary
View the documentAnnex 1. The energy efficiency of the two-stage, feed-fuel processing of straw in indian villages
View the documentAnnex 2. Method of calculating the value presented in table 2 for the efficiency of naoh energy usage
View the documentAnnex 3. Recommendations to farmers on the treatment of straw
View the documentAnnex 4. Calculated efficiency of milk production by straw-fed village buffaloes
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion summary


1. J.J. Patil, "The Gobar Gas Plant: Its Development, Present Status and Future,' paper presented to the ESCAP/NCST Seminar on Biogas Utilization and Technology, held in New Delhi 25 July to 2 August 1975.

2. A. K.N. Reddy and K. K. Prasad, "Technological Alternatives and the Indian Energy Crisis," Economic and Political Weekly. Special Number, pp. 1465 - 1502. August 1977.

3. H.R. Srinivasan, "Biogas (Gobar Gas) and Manure from the Waste of Farm Animals," paper submitted to the UNEP/FAO Seminar on Residue Management - The Management of Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Wastes, held in Rome, 18 - 21 January 1977.

4. M.G. Jackson, "Treating Straw for Animal Feeding: An Assessment of Its Technical and Economic Feasibility," FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 10, FAO, Rome, 1978.

5. K.C. Sen, S.C. Ray, and S.K. Talapatra, "The Nutritive Value of Alkali-Treated Cereal Straws," Indian J. Vet. Sci. 12: 263 (1942).

6. S.J. Watson, "Increasing the Feeding Value of Cereal Straws," J. Royal Agric. Soc. England 101 (Part II): 37 (1941).

7. T. Homb, "Norwegische Erfahrungen bei der strohaufschliessung nach dem Beckmanschen Verfahren," Futterkonservierung, Frankf./Main 2: 129 (1956).

8. N.D. Kehar, "Effect of Feeding Aikali-Treated Straw on the Growth of Young Cattle," Indian J. Vet. Sci. 24: 189 (1954).

9. Chandra, Suresh, and M.G. Jackson, "A Study of Various Chemical Treatments to Remove Lignin from Coarse Rough-ages and Increase Their Digestibility," J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 77: 11 (19711.

10. M. Singh and M.G. Jackson, "The Effect of Different Levels of Sodium Hydroxide Spray Treatment of Wheat Straw on Consumption and Digestibility by Cattle," J. Agric. Sci Camb. 77: 5 (1971).

11. M. Singh, M.L. Verma, M.G. Jackson, and K.V. Pitchaiah, in Improved Utilization of Agricultural Waste Materials and Industrial By-products as Livestock Feed Research Progress Report 1969 - 1974, pp. 92 - 102, G.B. Pant University, Pantnagar, India, 1975.

12. U.S. Agrawal, P.C. Sah, and R.C. Jakhmola, in Investigations on Agricultural By-products and Industrial Waste Materials for Evolving Economic Rations for Livestock. Research Progress Report 1976 - 1977, pp. 26 - 37, G.B. Pant University, Pantnagar, India, 1977.

13. J.A. Kategile, "Factors Affecting the in vivo Digestibility and the Voluntary Feed Intake of Sodium Hydroxide-Treated Maize-Cob Diets and the Performance of Heifers Fed on Sodium Hydroxide-Treated Maize-Cob-Based Diets," Ph.D. thesis, University of Dar-esSalaam, 1977.

14. A.F.E. Palmer, "An On-Farm Research System: Two Papers on Maize Research in Pakistan," Asian Report Series No. 4, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre, New Delhi.

15. J. Krummel and W. Dritschilo, "Resource Costs of Animal Protein Production," Wld. Anim. Rev. 21: 6 (1977).

16. U.I. Oji and D.N. Mowat, "Breakdown of Urea to Ammonia for Treating Corn Stover," Abstract Am. Anim. Sci. Soc., 1977.

17. J. Keran, E. Coxworth, H. Nicholson, and R. Chaplin, Ammoniation of Straw to Improve Its Nutritional Value as a Feed for Ruminant Animals, University of Saskatchawan Agricultural Extension Publication 329, 1977.

18. J. A. Tatchel I, The Energy Input into a Bag of Fertilizer, I Cl Agricultural Division, Birmingham (cited by K.I. Blaxter, "The Energetics of British Agriculture," J. Sci. Food Agric., 76: 1055 [1975]).

19. K.L. Blaxter, The Energy Metabolism of Ruminants p. 169, Hutchinson, London, 1962.

20. V.N. Amble, V.V.R. Murthy, K.V. Sathe, and B.B.P.S. Goel, "Milk Production of Bovines in India and Their Feed Availability, " Indian J. Vet Sci. Anim. Husb. 35: 22 (1965).

21. Government of India, Indian Livestock Census. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, New Delhi, 1972.

22. K.V. Pitchaiah and M.G. Jackson, in Improved Utilization of Agricultural Waste Materials and Industrial By-products as Livestock Feed, Research Progress Report 1969 1974, pp. 102 - 108, G.B. Pant University, Pantnagar, India, 1975.

23. J.W. Meilor and B. De Ponteves, "Effect of Growth in Demand for Milk on the Demand for Concentrate Feeds: India, 1951 - 76," Indian J. Agric. Econ. 19: 131 (1964).

24. G. Leach and M. Slesser, "Energy Equivalents of Network Inputs to Food Producing Processes," report of Strathclyde University, Glasgow, 1973 - cited by E. Owen, in A. N. Duckham, J.G.W. Jones, and E.H. Roberts (eds.), Food Production and Consumption: The Efficiency of Human Food Chains and Nutrient Cycles, pp. 289 - 318, North Holland, Amsterdam, 1976.