|Forestry - Initial Environmental Assessment Series No. 3 (NORAD, 1994)|
1. Lead to higher degree of felling than the natural rate of growth?
· Will forest operations (in modified natural forests and plantations) be based on principles and guidelines for sustainable use of forest resources?
· Is the logging volume based on approved management or operational plans?
· Are there existing management plans or guidelines that can be used as a basis for utilization of non-timber products?
· Has a control system been established to check whether orders and guidelines given in operational plans and/or management plans are adhered to?
· Will clear-cuts be replaced by new forest through planting or natural regeneration?
2. Lead to marked encroachments on vulnerable
· Will project planning ensure that possible occurrences of rare or endemic plant and animal species, and areas of special biological diversity, are surveyed with the objective of preventing damage to such occurrences during the implementation of the project?
· Will precautions be taken with regard to utilization of mangrove forests to prevent damage to fish and shellfish, saltwater from entering into populated areas, and erosion and pollution of coral reefs?
· Will precautions be taken with regard to forestry in modified natural forests to prevent depletion of gene resources through systematic harvesting of phenotypical plus trees of the most valuable species?
· Will precautions be taken with regard to forest operations in modified natural forests to ensure that the remaining forest has the potential of producing high future yields of high-quality wood?
· Will precautions be taken during logging operations in modified natural forests to minimize the damage of remaining flora and fauna?
· Will care be taken during planning and construction of roads to ensure that as little forest as possible will have to be cut for the new road?
· Will the project involve construction of roads that will open up new forested areas for uncontrolled exploitation?
3. Lead to erosion and other forms of damage to the soil?
Will clear-cuts (size, form and terrain location) be adapted to the topography, soil type, water courses, etc. to minimize the risk of soil erosion?
· Will the risk of soil erosion be taken into account in the planning and construction of access and feeder roads?
· Will the forestry planing take into account that heavy machines used for removal of timber may cause deep ruts that will create erosion and ravines?
· Will the risk of soil erosion be taken into account with regard to localization and construction of nurseries?
· Will possible soil erosion and increased runoff lead to degradation of surface-water sources and/or reduction of the rate of replenishment of ground-water sources? Will erosion possibly be so extensive as to cause silting of dams?
4. Use of unfamiliar tree species?
· Will tree species be used that have been approved by national authorities and accepted by the target group(s)?
· Will tree species, hybrids and/or clones be used that are adapted to the local ecosystem?
· Will tree species be used that do not represent any risk of uncontrolled spreading to surrounding areas, and/or being established as weeds, that do not spread disease to surrounding vegetation, or serve as hosts to insects/diseases that infect agricultural plants?
· Will tree species be wed that do not have any adverse ecological impacts on other vegetation and agricultural plants within agroforestry systems?
· Will establishment of plantations involve the use of tree species, hybrids and/or clones with the objective of reducing the effect of possible outbreaks of diseases?
5. Affect areas with; conservation-worthy historical relics and/or natural and cultural landscapes?
· Will projects involve surveys of any historical relics, holy sites and trees, burial grounds and archaeologically valuable areas within the project area, with the objective of protecting them against encroachments, and/or preventing them from being damaged through }vestry-related activities?
· Will visual impacts on landscapes be taken into consideration in relation to establishment of large plantations or clear-cutting of forest?
6. Lead to pollution?
· Will project-related activities cause pollution of surface and ground water through leakage from oil, fuel and waste deposits?
· Will project-related activities cause problems with dust, smoke and noise for the local population?
· Will the project draw up guidelines and establish routines that will prevent pollution from the use of chemicals, oil and fuel?
· Will the project ensure sufficient training of project personnel as to the handling of chemical substances and the risk of pollution of water, soil and air?
7. Create health problems?
· Will adequate initiatives be taken to prevent health injuries and logging-related accidents?
· Will establishment of lumber camps involve the provision of acceptable housing, food, sanitary conveniences and waste disposal?
· Will pesticides be used in accordance with regulations?
8. Lead to considerable changes in the local populations's way of living?
· Will the project cause an influx of settlers, which will increase the pressure on natural resources, increase the need for health services and other types of services, and possibly cause social problems?
· Will establishment of plantations, forest operations in modified natural forests, and conservation of land force people (e.g. indigenous population groups) to leave the area?
· Will the project, in cooperation with people concerned and the authorities (local, regional, central), provide satisfactory compensation to those who have to move, as well as relevant services in their new place of settlement?
· Will the use of water for projects, such as nurseries, lead to conflicts with the local population as regards water resources?
· Will the project apply technologies which will create employment in the local community, and also contribute to a sustainable development in general?
· Will the project provide opportunities of employment for women, and invite them to take part in the planning of activities that can draw on women's special qualifications and knowledge?
· Will the project include activities focussing women as a
· Will project activities (primarily major plantations and large adjoining clear-cuts) cause climatic changes for the local population (temperature, air humidity, wind pattern)?
· Will people's ability to master agroforestry technology be taken into account when such technology is introduced? Will their capacity for taking part in the planting, in addition to their own seasonal work, be given consideration?
9. Be an obstacle to, or lead to significant changes for the local population's utilization of natural resources other than those directly affected by the project?
· Will the project lead to increased pressure on surrounding areas, e.g. through increased grazing, construction of access roads, transmission cables for electricity and telephone, increase in transport, competition for water, pollution of water courses, etc.?
· Will the project, e.g. through the establishment of protected zones, secure the local population's right to harvest traditional products in a so-called buffer zone?
· Will initiatives be taken, in the planning of multiple use projects, to delegate responsibility for management to the local population, and also give them disposition of incomes?
· Will the project contribute to the drawing up of plans for land use, if such plans should prove necessary, in order to mitigate unfortunate project-related impacts on the local population?
· Will establishment of plantations block migration routes and access to water for game animals and livestock?
· Will establishment of plantations lead to reduced runoff
to surrounding areas and a lowering of the water