|Agroforestry In-service Training: A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Peace Corps, 1984)|
|Comments and recommendations|
|Training program goals and objectives|
|Agenda for agroforestry workshop|
|Evaluation of training workshop|
|Appendix A: List of workshop participants|
|Appendix B: Workshop technical staff|
|Appendix C: List of international organizations for resource assistance|
|Appendix D: New directions in agroforestry: The potential of tropical legume trees|
|1. Selection of legume trees for agroforestry|
|Agroforestry working group|
|The ecological role of trees in sustainable agroforestry: A review|
|The special role of legume trees in sustainable agroforestry|
|Bases for selection of legume trees for agroforestry|
|Characteristics of some nitrogen-fixing legume trees|
|Appendix: Simple field methods to determine or assess soil acidity or alkalinity|
|2. Initial tasks in agroforestry projects|
|Motivating local people to participate in agroforestry|
|3. Sustained outputs from legume-tree based agroforestry systems|
|Food crop production in agroforestry|
|Food production from legume trees|
|Fodder production from legume trees|
|Fuelwood production for domestic use|
|Fuelwood production for commercial use|
|Timber production in agroforestry|
|Appendix: A-frame: A simple tool for establishing contour hedges|
|4. Economic evaluation of agroforestry projects|
|The need for economic evaluation|
|Factors in economic evaluation|
|Economic evaluation techniques|
|A simplified example|
|Appendix E: Nitrogen-fixing tree resources: potentials and limitations|
|The balding of the tropics|
|Genetic resources for N2-fixing trees|
|Important genera of N2-fixing trees|
|Wood and fuelwood|
|Green manure and nurse trees|
|University of Hawaii trial network for N2-fixing trees|
|Appendix F: Production of fuelwood and shall timber in community forestry systems¹|
|Wood yields and land area requirements|
|Plantation establishment and management|
|Sustainable plantation management|
|Appendix G: Leucaena as a fallow improvement crop: A first approximation¹|
|Section I: Fallow crop improvement|
|Leucaena as a fallow improvement crop|
|Section II: A description of a Leucaena based fallow system used on the island of Mindoro, Philippines|
|Appendix H: Nitrogen fixing trees: general information|
|Appendix I: Establishment and management of NFT plantations|
|Appendix J: Evaluation|
|Appendix K: Chart on results of workshop evaluation|
The 18,000 species of legumes (Family: Leguminosae) include the vast majority of important N2-fixing trees and shrubs, many of which are in the predominantly woody subfamilies Mimosoideae (2800 spp.) and Caesalpinioideae (2800 spp.). Relatively few of the 12,000 species of Papilionoideae are arboreal, but some of these are of great economic importance. A high proportion of the tested mimosoids (92%) are able to fix N2, contrasted with the papilionoids (94%) and the caesalpinioids (34%). A few nonleguminous tree genera also fix N2, notably the temperate genus Alnus and the tropical Casuarina (Stewart, 1967; see p. 427).
Leguminous trees produce some of the outstanding luxury timber of the tropics (NAS, 1979). Notable among these are the papilionaceous genera Dalbergia (rosewood), Perocopsis (African teak), Pterocarpus (narra), and the caesalpinioid genus Intsia (ipil, Moluccan ironwood). Other important timbers include the mimosoids Acacia, Lysiloma, Parkia, and Samanea. Preferred timber species often exceed 30 m in height and are of slow-to-intermediate growth rates. With their high intrinsic value, such trees might wisely be interplanted at wide spacing (e.g., 100/ha) in plantations of fast-growing legumes, as a long-term investment.
The legume trees best known as ornamentals, offering striking displays of color when in flower, are predominantly in the Caesalpinioideae, many of which do not fix N2. The ornamental legumes include:
Caesalpinioideae: Amherstia, Barklya, Bauhinia, Brownea, Caesalpinia, Cassia, Colvillea, Delonix, Peltophorum, Saraca, and Schotia.
Mimosoideae: Calliandra, Samanea.
Papilionoideae: Butea, Erythrina, Sabinea, Sophora.
Several tree legumes provide valuable gums (Acacia spp.) and the pods of several species are excellent human foods, including:
Caesalpinioidae: Ceratonia (carob), Tamarindus (tamarind).
Mimosoideae: Inga. Parkia.
The following discussions will focus on legume trees with special significance as sources of energy or green manure. As a generalization, most fast-growing legume trees are mimosoids. Genera to be considered in the discussions of energy and green manure are listed below, together with their approximate number of species:
Caesalpinioideae: Acrocarpus (3), Cassia (600), Schizolobium (5)
Mimosoideae: Acacia (600), Albizia (100), Calliandra 9100), Desmanthus (40), Mimosa (450), Parkia (40), Pithecellobium (200), Prosopis (44), Samanea (1).
Papilionoideae: Dalbergia (250), Erythrina (100), Flemingia (35), Gliricidia (10).