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close this bookForestry Training Manual: Inter-America Region (Peace Corps, 1986)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentTrainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contentsTraining program overview
View the documentForestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contentsGetting ready
View the documentConducting the training program
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession I - Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the documentDaily schedule for technical training I
View the documentSession II - Special projects
View the documentSession III - The forest of the world, Peace Corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the documentSession IV - Language class
View the documentSession V - Record keeping
View the documentSession VI - Journal keeping and setting
View the documentSession VII - Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the documentSession VIII - Spanish language class
View the documentSession IX - Non-verbal communication
View the documentSession X - Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the documentSession XI - Spanish lesson
View the documentSession XII - Cultural values
View the documentSession XIII - Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the documentSession XIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XV - Communication through illustration
View the documentSession XVI - Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the documentSession XVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Protection and record keeping
View the documentSession XIX - Individual interviews
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession XX - Planting trees
View the documentSession XXI - Spanish language session
View the documentSession XXII - Introduction to extension
View the documentSession XXIII - The principals of pruning and thinning learning how to make and use a diameter tape
View the documentSession XXIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXV - Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the documentSession XXVI - Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the documentSession XXVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Forestry extension
View the documentSession XXIX - Forest menstruation
View the documentSession XXX - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXI - Working with groups as an extension worker
View the documentSession XXXII - Agro-forestry
View the documentSession XXXIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIV - Lesson plan and use of visual AIDS in teaching
View the documentSession XXXV - Small research projects
View the documentSession XXXVI - Individual interviews
View the documentSession XXXVII - Soils
View the documentSession XXXVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIX - Community analysis introduction
View the documentSession XL - Soil erosion
View the documentSession XLI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLII - Problem analysis
View the documentSession XLIII - Watershed management
View the documentSession XLIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLV - Review of expectations - Mid way
View the documentSession XLVI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLVII - Species report
View the documentSession XLVIII - Forestry issues
View the documentSession XLIX - Spanish language
View the documentSession L - Field trip overview
View the documentSession LI - Ecology teams give presentations
View the documentSession LII - Individual interviews
View the documentSession LIII - Review of field trips
View the documentSession LIV - Project planning: Goal setting
View the documentSession LV - Spanish language
View the documentSession LVI - Resources
View the documentSession LVII - Compost heap. Insect collection. Light gaps
View the documentSession LVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession LIX - Cultural shock - Are we ready for it?
View the documentSession LX - Grafting and fruit trees
View the documentSession LXI - Spanish language
View the documentSession LXII - Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the documentSession LXIII - Final interviews
View the documentSession LXIV - Graduation

Session LX - Grafting and fruit trees

Total Time:

3 ½ hours

Goals:

- To acquaint foresters with fruit tree care and grafting techniques.

Overview

Foresters are often expected to be experts in all trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of fruit tree culture.

Exercise I: Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.

Materials:

Fruit trees for thinning, grafting,
sharp knife,
sharpening stone,
plastic tape (grafting tape),
bees wax.

Exercise I - Lecture on fruit trees and grafting practice.

Total Time:

3 ½ hours

Overview

In this exercise trainees learn about fruit trees and fruit tree reproduction.

Procedures

Time

Activities


1. Trainer gives the following lecture on fruit trees.

3 hours

2. Trainer now demonstrates grafting technique and trainees practice techniques.

Grafting and Fruit Trees

FRUIT TREES AND FORESTRY

Foresters are often expected to be experts in all kinds of trees including fruit trees - so it is important to be aware of some of the basics of fruit tree culture.

I. Differences between forestry for wood products and for fruit

A. Short term, usually annual production cycle.
B. Intensive cultural practices; fertilization, pruning, grafting, disease and pest control.
C. In summary, fruit trees are domesticated trees needing a series of special treatments.

II. Critical Cultural Practices in detail

A. Pruning

1. Specific systems vary according to the crop
2. Some basic rules are generally valid

a. space for every branch and a branch for every space.
b. watch the timing - generally in the lowest growth period (dormancy) of the tree.
c. prune in a way that the tree can heal over clear cuts, no projecting stumps - so that rain will not collect in the cut.

B. Grafting

1. What?

- The union of the cambium layers of a parent tree (stock) and a desired variety (scion) in such a way that the two form a solid, growing unit.

a. continued growth from the scion is true to the scion's characteristics and is not a combination of stock and scion.

b. essential to protect grafts of all types with wax and/or by wrapping to prevent drying out or mechanical damage.

2. Why?

a. to achieve desired variety of fruit with root stock adapted to local conditions.
b. to gain time - multiplying a desired variety; faster than plants from seeds.
c. to assure genetic purity.
d. to have several varieties on one tree for pollination purposes.
e. for repair purposes - renewing an old tree or repairing girdled trunks - rodents or mechanical damage.

3. When?

- Beginning of the growth period.

4. Types

a. top working - renewing of a tree

- cleft graft,
- whip graft,
- bark graft.

b. repair

- bridge graft

c. budding

- most practical and reliable,
- demonstrations and practice of cutting bud shields,

- T-cuts, inserting and wrapping.

Trainer's Note: During pilot we were able to arrange for some trainees to observe beekeeping during this same time. We gave trainees the choice between fruit tree grafting and beekeeping.