|Case for Solar Energy Investments (World Bank, 1996)|
1 The potential of the solar resource has of course been known to generations of scientists, and none of the estimates just made are original. For an earlier review of the literature in the technologies and the potential of solar energy, see James R. Bolton and David O. Hall, "Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy. "Annual Review of Energy 4 (1979): 353-406.
2 See T. B. Johansson and others, eds., Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuel and Electricity (Washington, D.C., 1993) and Kulsum Ahmed, Renewable Energy Technologies: A Review of the Status and Costs of Selected Technologies, World Bank Technical Paper 240, Energy Series (Washington, D.C., 1993). Impressive cost reductions have made wind technologies commercial. Wind and biomass are here included in the definition of solar energy.
3 Robert van der Plas, "Solar Energy Answer to Rural Power in Africa," FPD Note 6, World Bank Vice Presidency for Finance and Private Sector Development, Washington, D.C., April 1993.
4 R. H. Annan, "Photovoltaic Energy, Economics and the Environment," in B. Abeles and others, eds., Energy and the Environment (Singapore: World Scientific, 1992). 5 Johansson and others; and Ahmed, cited above.
6 Proposal by researchers in New Zealand (nitrogenfixing crops).
7 Annan, "Photovoltaic Energy."
8 See also Dennis Anderson and Catherine D. Bird, "Carbon Accumulations and Technical Progress: A Simulation Study of Costs," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 54 (February 1992).
9 See Philip Elliott and Roger Booth, Brazilian Biomass Power Demonstration Project, Special Project Brief, Shell Group of Companies (London: Shell Centre, 1993), for additional information.
10 By Professors Goldernberg, Socolow, and Williams.
11 Jose Goldernberg drew the importance of such facilities to our attention, and Ken Prewitt and Phil LaRocco informed us on the nontrivial problems of their administration.
12 Richard H. Acker and Daniel M. Kammen, "The Quiet Energy Revolution: Analyzing the Dissemination of Photovoltaic Systems in Kenya," Energy Policy, forthcoming.
13 Correspondence from Christine Ervin and Allan Hoffman, U.S. Department of Energy, November 1994.
14 The World Bank's Role in the Electric Power Sector: Policies for Effective Institutional, Regulatory, and Financial Reform, A World Bank Policy Paper (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1993).
15 Andres Liebenthal and others, Solar Energy: Lessons from the Pacific Island Experience. World Bank Technical Paper 244, Energy Series (Washington, D.C.,1994).
16 Acker and Kamrnen, "The Quiet Energy Revolution."
17 "Report of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India for Year Ending March 1993" (typescript).
18 See James H. Cook and others, "Potential impacts of Biomass Production in the United States on Biological Diversity," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 16 (1991):401-31,forafullerdiscussion. The paper includes several positive proposals for addressing environmental problems associated with biomass energy projects.
19 Keith Kozloff and Roger Dower, A New Power Base: Renewable Energy Technologies for the Nineties and Beyond (Washington, D. C. :World Resources Institute, December 1993).
20 By Professor Socolow.
21 Correspondence and discussions with Carl Weinberg, Bob Williams, José Goldemberg, and Pascal De Laquil, who arrived at the same conclusions independently.
22 See the Quarterly Operational Reports of the GEF. In its pilot
phase, the GEF financed renewable energy projects in eight countries including
PVs (India); wind (India and Costa Rica); biomass (Mauritius, Brazil, and Côte
d'Ivoire); solar water heaters (Tunisia); urban wasteto-energy (Pakistan); and a
"nonsolar" renewable energy project (the Philippines geothermal