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close this bookClimate Protection and the National Interest (WRI, 1997, 56 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentACKNOWLEDGMENTS
View the documentFOREWORD
View the document1. INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contents2. THE CLIMATE CHANGE PROBLEM
View the document3. AIR POLLUTION
View the document4. OIL SECURITY
Open this folder and view contents5. LINKED PROBLEMS LINKED SOLUTIONS
View the documentNOTES
View the documentSOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR FIGURES
View the documentABOUT THE AUTHOR
View the documentBOARD OF DIRECTORS
View the documentWORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE
View the documentSPECIAL OFFER
View the documentWORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE CLIMATE PROTECTION INITIATIVE

NOTES

1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), "Climate Change 1995, Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change," Cambridge University Press, p.218.

2 Robert Repetto and Duncan Austin. 1997. The Costs of Climate Protection: A Guide for the Perplexed. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

3 Julia Uppenbrinik, "Arrhenius and Global Warming," Science, Vol. 272, May 24, 1996 ,p.1122.

4 IPCC, "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 39.

5 - . "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 8.

6 - . "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 19.

7 - . "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 22.

8 - . "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 19.

9 Thomas E. Graedel and Paul J. Crutzen, Atmosphere, Climate, and Change, Scientific American Library, 1995, p. 37; John Gribbin, Hothouse Earth, Grove Weidenfel, N.Y., 1990, pp. 140-41.

10 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1995" EPA 454/R-96-005, October 1996.

11 IPCC, "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 22.

12 Elizabeth Cook, "Lifetime Commitments: Why Climate Policy-makers Can't Afford to Overlook Fully Fluorinated Compounds," World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. February 1995.

13 IPCC, "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 24.

14 Thomas R. Karl, et al. "Trends in U.S. Climate during the Twentieth Century," Consequences, Spring, 1995, pp. 3-12; Bette Hileman, "Climate Observations Substantiate Global Warming Models," Chemical and. Engineering News November 27, 1995.

15 Richard A. Kerr, "U.S. Climate Tilts Toward the Greenhouse," Science, April 21, 1995, p. 363.

16 Thomas R. Karl, et al., "The Coming Climate," Scientific American, May 1997.

17 Richard A. Kerr, "Studies Say - Tentatively - That Greenhouse Warming is Here," Science, Vol. 268, June 16, 1995, pp. 1567-68.

18 IPCC, "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 35.

19 - . "Climate Change 1995, Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses," Cambridge University Press.

20 Debora MacKenzie, "Polar Meltdown Fulfils Worst Predictions," New Scientist, August 12, 1995, p.4.

21 Debora MacKenzie, "Polar Meltdown Fulfils Worst Predictions," New Scientist, August 12, 1995, p. 4.

22 Better Hileman, "Climate Observations Substantiate Global Warming Models," Chemical and Engineering News, Nov. 27, 1995, p. 20.

23 Debora MacKenzie, "Polar Meltdown Fulfils Worst Predictions," New Scientist, August 12, 1995, p.4.

24 Mark F. Meier, Personal communication, May 1997.

25 IPCC, "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers," 1996, p. 3.

26 - . "Climate Change 1995, Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses," Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 11.

27 Jonathan A. Patz, et al. "Global Climate Change and Emerging Infectious Diseases" JAMA January 17, 1996, Vol. 275, No 3. Pp 217-23; William A. Sprigg, "Doctors Watch the Forecasts," Nature, Vol. 379, Feb. 15, 1996.

28 Laurence S. Kalkstein and J. Scott Greene, "An Evaluation of Climate/Mortality Relationships in Large U.S. Cities and the Possible Impacts of a Climate Change," Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 105, Number 1, January 1997.

29 IPCC, "Climate Change 1995, Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses," Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 11.

30 Laurence S. Kalkstein and J. Scott Greene, "An Evaluation of Climate/Mortality Relationships in Large U.S. Cities and the Possible Impacts of a Climate Change," Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 105, Number 1, January 1997.

31 NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce, "As Global Climate Warms, More Floods are Expected," Press Release, January 14, 1997.

32 IPCC, "Climate Change 1995, The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers" 1996, p. 45.

33 - ., "Climate Change 1995, Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses," p. 33.

34 - ., "Climate Change 1995, Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses," p. 33.

35 "Warm Oceans Led to 1995 Hurricanes," Global Environmental Change Report, Vol. IX, No. 11, June 13, 1997.

36 William M. Gray et al. "Early August Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity for 1997," Colorado State University, Dept. of Atmospheric Science, August 6, 1997. (Via the Internet).

37 Franklin W. Nutter, "A Reinsurer's Perspective," Climate Change and the Financial Sector: The Emerging Threat - The Solar Solution, Gerling Akademie Verlag, 1996.

38 National Center for Atmospheric Research Press Release, "Hurricane Toll," May 22, 1997.

39 U.S. EPA, "National Air Quality and Emission Trends Report, 1995" EPA-454/R-96-005, October 1996.

40 Environmental Protection Agency, "National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900-1994," EPA-454/R-95-011, October 1995, pp. 5-1 ff.

41 Jean M. Dasch, "Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Vehicles," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. Vol. 42: 63-67, Jan. 1992.

42 US EPA, "Regulatory Impact Analysis for Proposed Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standard," Dec. 1996, Draft.

43 Jocelyn Kaiser, "Acid Rain's Dirty Business: Stealing Minerals From Soil," Science, Vol. 272, April 12, 1996, p. 198; G. E. Likens et al. "Long-Term Effects of Acid Rain: Response and Recovery of a Forest Ecosystem," Science, Vol. 272, April 12, 1996, pp. 244-46.

44 J. Graveland et al. "Poor Reproduction in Forest Passerines from Decline of Snail Abundance on Acidified Soils," Nature, Vol. 368, March 31, 1994, pp. 446-48; Catherine Dold, "Acid Rain is Cutting Birds' Reproduction In a Dutch Forest," New York Times, April 19, 1994.

45 James J. MacKenzie and Mohamed T. El-Ashry, Air Pollution's Toll on Forests and Crops. Yale University Press, 1989.

46 - ., Air Pollution's Toll on Forests and Crops, Yale University Press, 1989.

47 Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy, "Annual Energy Outlook, 1997, With Projections to 2015," DOE/EIA-0383(97), p. 3.

48 James J. MacKenzie, "Oil as a Finite Resource, When is Global Production Likely to Peak?" World Resources Institute, March 1996. (Available from WRI's website, http ://www.wri.org/wri/).

49 Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy, "Annual Energy Outlook, 1997, With Projections to 2015," DOE/EIA-0383(97), p. 122.

50 James J. MacKenzie "Oil as a Finite Resource: When is Global Production Likely to Peak?" World Resources Institute, 1996.

51 - . "Oil as a Finite Resource: When is Global Production Likely to Peak?" World Resources Institute, 1996,

52 U.S. EPA, "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1994," EPA-230-R-96-006, November 1995.

53 - . "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1994," EPA-230-R-96-006, p. 14.

54 - . "National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1995" EPA-454/R-96-005, October 1996.

55 - . "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-1994" EPA-230-R-96-006, November 1995, p. 17.

56 James J. MacKenzie, The Keys to the Car: Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles for the 21st Century, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 1994.

57 J.G. Calvert, et al. "Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions," Science, Vol. 261, July 1, 1993.

58 H.Shepouri et al. "Estimating the Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol," Agricultural Economic Report No. 721, USDA, 1995.

59 James J. MacKenzie, The Keys To The Car, Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles for the 21st Century, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., 1994.

60 Robert Repetto and Duncan Austin, "The Costs of Climate Protection: A Guide for the Perplexed," World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., 1997.