|Waste Management - Initial Environmental Assessment Series No. 11 (NORAD, 1992)|
1. Lead to pollution of water, soil and air?
· Will surface water, ground water, streams or other water sources flow into the waste when establishing a landfill and produce much leachate water?
· Will leachate water from a planned landfill or compost plant pollute soil, ground water or other water sources?
· Does the waste to be deposited in a landfill contain infectious or hazardous matter which can lead to spreading of especially dangerous pollutants?
· Will waste water from plants for chemical processing of inorganic hazardous waste pollute soil and/or water sources?
· Will slags or dust from incinerators be disposed of in such a way that soil and water sources are polluted le.". used in road beds)?
· Will incinerator plants for waste and hazardous waste lead to discharges of harmful components into air?
· Is it likely that so much landfill gas (methane) is generated in the landfill that it will contribute considerably to the global discharge of greenhouse gases?
· Will smell, dust and smoke from waste plants cause discomfort in nearby housing areas?
2 Lead to health damage and spreading of diseases?
· Will pollution of water, soil and air from a waste plant take on such dimensions that it represents a health risk to people in the area?
· Have safety measures been introduced against landfill gas (methane) and other dangerous gases that are easily generated at a landfill, causing suffocation or in other ways injuring workers and any others present at the landfill?
· Is the planned landfill likely to contain refuse entailing a great risk of explosions and fires in the landfill?
· Have the workers been provided with protective equipment to be used at collection, transport and processing of waste?
· Have arrangements been made for regular medical checks of waste management workers?
· Are special diseases spread via insects in the area? Will special measures be introduced to ensure that the insect plague does not increase as a result of a waste management project, causing diseases to spread
· Is hazardous waste treatment plants sufficiently secured against gas leakage, explosions, fires etc.?
3. Affect areas with valuable or conservation-worthy flora and fauna, and vulnerable ecosystems?
· Will a landfill attract insects, birds and wild animals to such a degree that it represents a plague, and to such an extent that some valuable and useful animal species in the area are displaced?
· Will a landfill with associated roads create barriers against the feeding and breeding patterns of fauna, or in other ways occupy important habitats for fauna and flora?
· Will a landfill be localized near mangrove areas or other specially vulnerable ecosystems?
· Will noise and pollution of air, water and soil from waste management plants harm fauna and flora, or local fish resources?
4. Involve management of hazardous waste?
· Does the management of hazardous waste follow the strictest international rules and directions?
· Will transport of hazardous waste on land and at sea pass through housing areas, agricultural areas or areas containing vulnerable or conservation-worthy ecosystems, plant and animal species?
· Is there a risk that hazardous waste will be handled and processed together with ordinary municipal refuse?
· Will long-term storage of hazardous waste take place in stable and secured localities?
· Is there a risk that nuclear waste, or waste that are contaminated by radionuclides, will be a part of the hazardous waste material?
5. Affect valuable natural, cultural and urban landscapes?
· Will a landfill or other major waste disposal plant alter the visual character of a landscape so as to drastically change the local population's appreciation of it and make it less attractive for recreation and tourism?
· Will historic remains, buildings, burial sites or other landscape elements that are important to the local population be affected by the project?
· Is sufficient aesthetic attention paid to the designing and localizing of storage units, e.g. containers in towns and densely populated areas?
· Is there a risk that light waste components may blow away during operation of a landfill or during emptying of refuse, so that air-borne waste litters the surroundings?
6. Create land use conflicts or change the local population's way of living and utilization of natural resources?
· Will the project affect areas being used for transport and traffic?
· Will the project affect areas being used for agriculture, forestry or animal husbandry?
· Will the project affect population groups who have long traditions, and make a living of, waste collection and sorting?
· Will the project alter the traditional division of labour
between men and women?
e Will a landfill cause a great influx of settlers, slum settlements and potential conflicts between newcomers and population groups who already live in the area?
· Will new forms of waste management involve that less refuse is recycled than previously, or that the local population's share of recycling jobs is reduced?
· Will transport of refuse to a new landfill or waste plant create conflicts with other transport, or overtax existing roads?
· Will new waste management systems be able to service the entire population, or is there a risk of discrimination against poorer groups?
7. Affect the utilization of other natural resources and lands than those directly affected by the project?
· Will the project displace other activities into new areas so that the land and natural resources of the latter are over-exploited?
· Will the transfer of other activities into other sites, or new areas, create conflicts with other population groups?
· Will the project construction and any new activities require access to water and fuel in areas where these resources are [united?
· Will the project activities indirectly cause uncontrolled
exploitation of other natural resources which have not been utilized before, or
which have only been utilized to a slight degree?
. Will the project lead to the establishment of other activities, e.g. industry, transport etc.? To what extent will these new activities affect the environment? Cf. "Check-lists for initial screening" or the booklets for intitial assessment of these categories.