|Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries (World Bank, 1994)|
This discussion paper has been prepared for the urban environment and the municipal finance and administration components of the joint UNDP/UNCHS/World BankUrban Management Programme(UMP). It analyzes the participation of the formal private sector in the delivery of municipal solid waste services in developing countries and recommends a decision-making framework. Future case study and tool papers are planned on the topics of private sector participation, including informal sector collection and recycling, and model contracts for provision of collection, cleansing, disposal, and transfer services.
The UMP represents a major approach by the UN family of organizations, together with external support agencies (ESAs), to strengthen the contribution that cities and towns in developing countries make toward economic growth, social development, and the alleviation of poverty. The program seeks to develop and promote appropriate policies and tools for municipal finance and administration, land management, infrastructure management, environmental management, and poverty alleviation. Through a capacity building component, the UMP plans to establish an effective partnership with national, regional, and global networks and ESAs in applied research, dissemination of information, and experiences of best practices and promising options.
This paper is one in a series of discussion papers that has been used, in combination with case studies and research, to develop an overall report on formulating environmental strategies for cities. Other papers in the series cover-regulatory and economic instruments for waste management and pollution control, land use considerations in urban environmental management, energy/environmental linkages in the urban sector, and rapid urban environmental assessment. Each paper provides background information on key urban development and environment linkages and/or suggest elements of an environmental management strategy for cities in the developing world. In addition, research reports have been prepared on the following topics: health impacts of urban environmental problems, economic spillover effects of urban environmental problems, the application of remote sensing and geographic information systems to urban environmental planning, privatization of municipal solid waste services, and local management of wastes from small-scale and cottage industries. Finally, case studies on priority urban environmental problems have been prepared for Accra, Curitiba, Jakarta, Katowice, Sao Paulo, the Singrauli region of India, Tianjin, and Tunis.
This paper is also part of the municipal finance and administration component which is intended to address three questions: 1) how to mobilize resources to finance the delivery of urban services; 2) how to improve the financial management of those resources; and 3) how to organize municipal institutions to promote greaterefficiency and responsiveness in urban service delivery. Work during the initial phase of the Urban Management Programme has focused on the first of these questionsfocusing specifically on local tax reform, intergovernmental transfers, and local access to long-term credit. Case studies and background papers on the latter questionsdocumenting issues in local financial management and the organization of municipal governmenthave also been prepared.
Phase 2 of the UMP (1992-96) is concerned with capacity building et both the country and regional levels and with facilitating national and municipal dialogues on policy and program options. It emphasizes a participatory structure that draws on the strengths of developing country experts and expedites the dissemination of that expertise at the local, national, regional, and global levels.
Through its regional offices in Africa, the Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean, the UMP seeks to strengthen urban management by harnessing the skills and strategies of regional experts, communities, and organizations in the private sector.
Regional coordinators use these networks to address the five program themes in two ways:
City and country consultations. The UMP brings together national and local authorities, private-sector networks, community representatives, and other actors to discuss specific problems within the UMP's subject areas and to propose reasoned solutions. Consultations are held at the request of a country or city, and often provide a forum for discussion of a cross-section of issues.
Technical cooperation. To sustain follow-up to the consultations, the UMP uses its regional networks of expertise to provide technical advice and cooperation.
Through its nucleus team in Nairobi and Washington, D.C., the UMP supports its regional programs and networks by synthesizing lessons learned, conducting state-of-the-art research, and supporting dissemination of program related materials.
Louis Y. Pouliquen
Technical Cooperation Division
Transportation, Water, and United Nations Centre for Urban Development Department Human Settlements (HABITAT)