|Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems (BOSTID, 1993)|
EUGENE B. SHULTZ, JR., Chairman, is professor of engineering and applied science at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and director of the Bioresources Development Group at Washington University. He earned his B.S. degree in chemistry at Principia College and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology. For 10 years, he was involved in research and development on solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels at the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, conducting laboratory and engineering-economic studies. He spent 15 years at Principia College, serving as chairman of the department of chemistry and as Kent H. Smith Professor of Chemistry. Since joining Washington University in 1979, his principal interests have included global environmental problems, Third World issues, and unconventional bioresources, mainly the development of renewable energy and appropriate technology, and the management of technological innovation in the Third World. In 1987, as a Fulbright researcher, he studied unconventional crops for food oils, high protein, fuel alcohol, and nontoxic botanic insect-control extracts at the University of Costa Rica. He has written numerous papers on dried roots for solid fuel and for fermentation to fuel alcohol and on unconventional seeds as new sources of edible and industrial oils. Currently, he serves as associate editor of Economic Botany for processing and utilization of economic plants. In 1991, he was elected both president-elect of the Association of Arid Lands Studies and program chair for its 1992 annual meeting. He also served on the program committee for the 1991 annual meeting of the Africa Studies Association.
DEEPAK BHATNAGAR is a geneticist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service at the Southern Regional Research Center in New Orleans, Louisiana. He received his B.Sc. from the University of Udaipur in India in 1972 and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, in 1974 and 1977, respectively. From 1974 to 1977 he was a senior research fellow at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, followed by work with the Department of Biophysics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, and the Department of Biology at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. From 1981 to 1985 he was a senior research associate with the Department of Biochemistry at Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans. From 1985 on he has worked on the USDA's project on bioregulatory control of aflatoxin biosynthesis. His major interests include the control of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed through an understanding of the molecular regulation of the biosynthesis of the toxin. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Society of Plant Physiologists, and the American Society for Microbiology. He is a member of the editorial boards of Applied and Environmental Microbiology and Mycopathologia, and has edited several publications on mycotoxins and on improving food quality and safety.
MARTIN JACOBSON received his degree in chemistry from the City University of New York. From 1964 to 1972, Mr. Jacobson was an investigations leader with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Entomological Research Division at Beltsville, Maryland; chief of the Biologically Active Natural Products Laboratory from 1973 to 1985; and research leader (plant investigations) with the Insect Chemical Ecology Laboratory until his retirement from federal service in 1986. He is currently an agricultural consultant in private practice in Silver Spring, Maryland. His awards include the Hillebrand Prize of the Chemical Society of Washington in 1971; USDA Certificates of Merit and cash awards for research in 1965, 1967, and 1968; the McGregory Lecture Award in Chemistry at Colgate University (Syracuse, New York); two bronze medals for excellence in research at the 3rd International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, Helsinki, Finland, in 1974; USDA Director's Award on Natural Products Research in 1981; and an Inventor's Incentive Award for commercialization of a boll weevil deterrent in 1983. Mr. Jacobson is the author or coauthor of more than 300 scientific reports in numerous journals, the author of five books (Insect Sex Attractants, Wiley, 1965; Insect Sex Pheromones, Academic Press, 1972; Insecticides from Plants: A Review of the Literature, 1941-1953, USDA Handbook; No. 154, 1958; Insecticides from Plants: A Review of the Literature, 1954-1971, USDA Handbook No. 461, 1975; Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, 1990); and editor of the books Naturally Occurring Insecticides, Marcel Dekker, 1971; and Focus on Phytochemical Pesticides, Volume I (The Neem Tree), CRC Press, 1989. He also holds six U.S. patents on naturally occurring insecticides.
ROBERT L. METCALF, Professor Emeritus of Biology and Entomology and Research Professor of Environmental Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, is recognized internationally for his research on insect control, the chemistry and action of pesticides, and toxic substances in the environment. Among his achievements are the development of laboratory model ecosystem technology to screen pesticides for environmental acceptability and the discovery of carbamate insecticides and biodegradable substitutes for DDT. His work with the World Health Organization led to the development of insecticides for more effective control of vector-borne diseases. Professor Metcalf,s recent research includes analyzing the effects of various industrial chemicals and pesticides on human health and environmental quality and investigating the coevolutionary and behavioral relationships between insect pests and cultivars, seeking new approaches to insect pest management. He was president of the Entomological Society of America in 1958 and has received numerous awards, including the Charles F. Spencer Award and the International Award in Pesticide Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, the Founders' Award of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, the Kenneth P. Dubois Award of the Society of Toxicology, the Memorial Lecture Award of the Entomological Society of America, and the Order of Cherubini from the University of Pisa. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
RAMESH C. SAXENA, senior principal scientist, is the head of the Integrated Pest Management Section at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. He received his M.S. in tropical entomology from the University of Hawaii in 1966 and his Ph.D. in host plant resistance to insect pests from Delhi University in 1973. In 1975, he joined the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) as a post-doctoral fellow in entomology. In 1977, he joined the ICIPE-IRRI project on major rice pests as an entomologist. From 1987 to July 1991, he served as entomologist in IRRI's Genetic Evaluation and Utilization Program. His major contributions include development of methodologies for efficient insect-rearing and screening of rice germplasm, including wild rices biochemical plant-insect interactions role of rice plant biotypes, and biointensive pest management. He conceptualized the relevance of botanical pest control for resource-limited farmers and demonstrated the potential of neem(Azadirachta indica) and other nonedible oil trees for ecologically sound pest management. He pioneered the introduction and large-scale planting of neem in the Philippines and Latin American countries. He also developed a simple process for extracting "neem seed bitters" for pest control. He has been an invited speaker at more than 40 international conferences and symposia and has published more than 200 scientific and professional articles. He was president of the Philippine Association of Entomologists in 1987-1988 and won several awards in the Philippines. His research work has been featured in international press releases and TV documentaries: "Coast-to-Coast" (Philippines), "Beyond 2000" (Australia), "State of the Earth" and "Discovery" (USA), and "Krishi Darshan" (India).
DAVID W. UNANDER, a plant breeder, has worked for the past five years at the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on plants with activity against hepatitis B and other viruses. He also serves as an adjunct professor at Eastern College, St. Davids, Pennsylvania, where he teaches a course in appropriate technology through an M.B.A. program in international economic development. Previously he bred improved vegetables for the tropics as an assistant professor at the University of Puerto Rico. He received his B.S. and his M.S. in plant and soil science from Southern Illinois University in 1977 and 1979, and his Ph.D. in plant breeding from the University of Minnesota in 1983. He is a member and treasurer of the board of the Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization (ECHO), a nonprofit agency providing free extension information and experimental quantities of seeds on new crops and varieties to parties involved in international development. He has published extensively on the ethnobotany, cultivation, and biological activity of Phyllanthus species (Euphorbiaceae), as well as various articles relating to variety selection in pumpkins and squashes, vegetable peppers, soybeans, and dry beans.
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, staff officer and technical writer for this study, is a senior program officer of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. A New Zealander with a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he now works on innovations in science and technology that are important for the future of developing countries.